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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 872286, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35720334

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcus neoformans infection in the central nervous system is a severe infectious disease with poor outcomes and high mortality. It has been estimated that there are 220,000 new cases each year. Over 90% of C. neoformans meningitis cases were diagnosed in AIDS patients with CD4+ T cell count <100 cells/µl; however, the mechanism of cryptococcal meningitis in patients with normal immune functions remains unclear. IL-17 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and plays an important role in anti-fungal immunity. Here we report that significantly high levels of IL-17 were predominantly detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with either AIDS- or non-AIDS-associated C. neoformans meningitis but not in patients with tuberculous meningitis or non-neurosyphilis. Antifungal therapy minimized the IL-17 level in the cerebrospinal fluid. An in vitro mechanistic study showed that C. neoformans stimulation of healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells prompted IL-17 production, and CD4+ T cells were the predominant IL-17-producing cells. IL-17 production by C. neoformans stimulation was STAT3 signaling dependent. Inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation attenuated the C. neoformans-mediated IL-17 expression. Our data highlighted the significance of CD4+ T cells in antifungal immunity and suggested IL-17 as a diagnostic biomarker of C. neoformans infection and STAT3 as a checkpoint for antifungal targeted therapies.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Cryptococcosis , Cryptococcus neoformans , Meningitis, Cryptococcal , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Interleukin-17 , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Phosphorylation , STAT3 Transcription Factor , T-Lymphocytes
2.
AIDS Res Ther ; 19(1): 27, 2022 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been widely noted that lifetime adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is necessary for HIV treatment outcome; however, retention on ART among people living with HIV (PLWH) remains a great challenge to achieve the Global AIDS Strategy: End inequalities, End AIDS. Nonadherence to ART is one of the HIV care problem in Liberia despite the availability of free ART. Psychosocial factors, i.e., perceived stigma and social support likely contributed to nonadherence to ART. We investigated associations among clinical factors, psychosocial factors, and nonadherence to ART. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 185 PLWH, age ≥ 18 years receiving ART in Ganta, Nimba county, Liberia at least 3 months. The structured questionnaire was used to collect data from April to May 2020. Associated factors of nonadherence to ART were identified using multivariable binary logistic regression, and the p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of 185 respondents, 62.2% showed nonadherence to ART. Females reported higher nonadherence compared with males (64.4% vs. 56.6%). Multivariable binary logistic regression revealed strong experiences of stigma (PORadj = 2.392, p-value = 0.018), poor information support (PORadj = 2.102, p-value = 0.026) increased prevalence of ART nonadherence among Liberian PLWH. CONCLUSIONS: The healthcare providers may apply interventions to reduce perceived stigma and to enhance continuous information provision in addition to support from health care providers and family members. An intensive monitoring of ART side effects is needed to be strengthened in particular among newly started ART patients.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Liberia/epidemiology , Male , Medication Adherence
3.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 864087, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35755834

ABSTRACT

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is one of the two classic thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) diseases which could be induced by infections. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient with acquired TTP induced by infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (hereafter, S. Typhimurium) isolate, S. Typhimurium_zhang, which was confirmed by serology and genetic taxonomy. The literature review identified 17 TMA-related genes encoding the candidate triggers, which were searched in the annotated genome sequence of S. Typhimurium_zhang. Anaerobic nitric oxide reductase flavorubredoxin (FlRd), encoded by norV which is related to another TMA, haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), was found in S. Typhimurium_zhang. Basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analysis revealed that norV and FlRd in S. Typhimurium_zhang, as well as eight S. Typhimurium type strains, have high identity with HUS-related Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain TW14359. Similar results were obtained from the BLAST analysis of 73 S. enterica isolates for congenital TTP which was also previously reported to be triggered by S. enterica. Phylogenetic analysis and amino acid sequence alignment revealed that FlRd was functional and highly conservative on 69 Enterobacteriaceae, including S. Typimurium_zhang and TW14359. In brief, we found norV in the genome of a S. Typhimurium clinical isolate that induced TTP in an AIDS patient. FlRd, the protein encoded by norV, probably triggered the TTP and was highly conservative, functional, and widespread in S. enterica and Enterobacteriaceae. More in vitro and in vivo studies are required to confirm our findings and determine the underlying mechanism.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , Salmonella enterica , Humans , Phylogeny , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Salmonella typhimurium/genetics , Serogroup
4.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 1210002, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35756486

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the role of gray matter (GM) volume in the identification of HIV-positive patients with HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment (HAND) using a machine learning approach from normal healthy controls. Methods: Twenty-seven HIV-infected patients and 14 healthy controls were enrolled in our study. Each set of BRAVO images was postprocessed using DPARSF3.1 to coregister all brains on the MNI template, and volume extraction of 90 brain regions was performed using custom-designed code. The machine learning method was performed using PRoNTo2.1.1 toolbox. The differences in brain volume between the HAND and non-HAND groups were analyzed. Results: GM volume effectively distinguished HIV-positive patients from healthy subjects with an AUC equals to 0.73. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the established classification were 85.19%, 42.86%, and 70.73%, respectively. GM volume value of the top ten brain regions was related to digit symbols, trail making test, digit span, vocabulary fluency, stroop C time, stroop CW time, CD4, and neuropsychological group. Conclusions: A machine learning approach facilitates early diagnosis of HAND in HIV patients by MRI-based GM volume measurement.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV Infections , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Gray Matter/diagnostic imaging , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Machine Learning , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 902537, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35757651

ABSTRACT

Objective: HIV epidemiology in South-Central China is rarely reported. This study aims to characterize epidemiological and clinical features of HIV-infected patients in Hunan Province, located in South-Central China, for better management of HIV infections. Methods: This retrospective study retrieved multi-center records of laboratory-confirmed HIV-infected patients in Hunan province. Information on HIV-associated mortality and antiretroviral therapies was also collected. Results: Among 34,297 patients diagnosed with HIV infections from 2003 to 2018, 73.9% were males, 41.3% were older adults (≥50 years), and 71.2% were infected by heterosexual transmission. Despite a slow growth of new HIV infections in the overall population, annual percentages of HIV infections increased in older males (85.3% through heterosexual transmission) and young patients <30 years (39.9% through homosexual transmission). At baseline, serum levels of CD4+ T-cell counts were lower in older adults (191.0 cells/µl) than in young patients (294.6 cells/µl, p-value < 0.0001). A large proportion (47.2%, N = 16,165) of HIV-infected patients had advanced HIV disease (CD4+ T-cell counts < 200 cells/µl) from 2003 to 2018. All-cause mortality (57.0% due to AIDS-related illnesses) was reported among 4411 HIV-infected patients, including 2619 older adults. The 10-year survival rate was significantly lower in elderly males than in other patients (59.0 vs. 78.4%, p-value < 0.05). Conclusions: Elderly males are prone to HIV infections with a high risk of HIV-associated fatality. Our findings support early prevention and critical care for elderly populations to control HIV infections.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Aged , China/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(25): e29509, 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35758393

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). AIDS is characterized by an impaired immune system and low cellular immunity. The main manifestation of AIDS is a reduction in the number of CD4+ T cells and alteration in cytokine concentration. The present work aimed to explore the expression of IL-31 in HIV infection and disease progression.Serum samples were collected from HIV-infected patients with different routes of disease transmission. The subjects included 24 patients who were infected with HIV upon blood transmission and 36 patients who had acquired the disease through sexual transmission (21 cases of homosexual transmission and 15 cases of heterosexual transmission). In addition, 20 normal healthy individuals were included to serve as the control group. The levels of IL-31 in the collected serum samples were estimated using the human IL-31 Platinum ELISA kit.The serum analysis results revealed that the concentration of IL-31 in the serum samples for the blood transmission, sexually transmission, and normal group patients was 4.07 ±â€Š1.63 pg/L, 7.43 ±â€Š1.15 pg/L, and 2.87 ±â€Š1.04 pg/L, respectively. The statistical analysis revealed that the concentration of IL-31 in HIV-1 infection was higher than that in the normal control. In addition, the expression of IL-31 was significantly higher in the sexual transmission group compared to the blood transmission group (P < .05).IL-31 could have an important role in HIV infection, although the role of IL-31 in disease progression in HIV-infected individuals requires further research.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV Infections , Disease Progression , HIV Infections/complications , Heterosexuality , Humans , Sexual Behavior
7.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 164(Suppl 2): 5, 2022 Jun.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731474
8.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 8: e2100379, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35728013

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal angioproliferative disease. In Peru, the implementation of the highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) program was in 2005, the model for treating patients with HIV-positive KS shifted to a potential cure. In this study, we aim to compare clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic factors associated with outcomes in patients with HIV-positive KS. METHODS: We developed a retrospective cohort study that includes patients with HIV/AIDS and KS seen in the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas between 1987 and 2017. Patients were divided into two groups according to the implementation of HAART in our country: the non-HAART group and those treated with HAART after 2005. Multivariate analysis for overall survival (OS) was performed with the Cox proportional hazard regression model. RESULTS: There was a greater visceral compromise and more extensive oral cavity involvement in the non-HAART group (60% 31.7%, P < .01). Regarding the immune status, there was a significant difference from the CD4 count at 1-year follow-up (73 v 335, P = .01). The CD4/CD8 rate were significant different before QT (0.23 v 0.13, P = .01) and at 1-year follow-up (0.12 v 0.32, P = .03.). The estimated 5-year OS rate was significantly lower (P = .0001) for the non-HAART group (41.7%; 95% CI, 25.9 to 56.9) compared with the HAART group (79.3%; 95% CI, 66.8 to 87.5). In the multivariate model for OS, full-HAART regimen and previous diagnosis of HIV/AIDS (P < .01) were significantly associated with longer survival. CONCLUSION: Clinical and demographic characteristics of our patients are compatible with the literature, but we report a higher rate of gastrointestinal involvement. Furthermore, our findings provide evidence for the importance of HAART and its ability to reduce KS-related mortality.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Sarcoma, Kaposi , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Humans , Peru/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Sarcoma, Kaposi/complications , Sarcoma, Kaposi/drug therapy
10.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1080, 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stigma and discrimination have fueled the transmission of the disease and dramatically increased its negative public health impact. Even though the disease has extremely ravaged human life, stigma, and discrimination attached to it are not well addressed in Ethiopia at the country level. The reduction of stigma and discrimination in a population are important indicators of the success of programs that target HIV prevention and control. This study aimed to assess the level of HIV-related stigma and its determinants among sexually active Ethiopians. METHODS: A public domain data were obtained from 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey in which two-stage cross-sectional stratified cluster sampling was applied. A total of 28,371 sexually active Ethiopians were interviewed from both rural and urban parts of Ethiopia. Descriptive Statistics and multilevel ordinal logistic regression (proportional odds model) were used to summarize data and to investigate correlates of HIV-related stigma. RESULTS: Only 5.1% (95% CI: 4.5%, 5.8%) of sexually active Ethiopians did not have a stigmatizing attitude, whereas, 59.2% (95% CI: 57.3%, 61.1%) and 35.65% (95% CI: 33.5%, 37.9%) of them had a moderate and high level of stigma respectively. Regression results show that residence (AOR = 1.82, 95% CI:1.46, 2.27), education (AOR = 0.65,95% CI: 0.50,0.84), owning mobile (AOR = 0.63,95% CI:0.55,0.72), HIV-testing (AOR = 0.77, 95% CI:0.70,0.84), age (AOR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.73, 0.91), religion (AOR = 1.53,95% CI:1.33,1.76), and marital status (AOR = 1.38, 95% CI:1.19, 1.61) were significantly associated with HIV-related stigma (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Regardless of all efforts put in a place to prevent and control HIV, a significant proportion of sexually active Ethiopians have stigmatizing attitudes. Residence, educational level, owning mobile, HIV test uptake, age, religion, and marital status were determinants of HIV-related stigma. Expanding mobile coverage, promoting HIV counseling and tests, promoting HIV education, and working with religious leaders, among other strategies could be used to minimize the stigma attached to the disease to best prevent and control it.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Demography , Ethiopia/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans
11.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 63(1): E115-E124, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35647374

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite the burden of disease and increased risk of influenza-associated morbidity and mortality among PLWHA, influenza vaccination has been understudied in this population. Methods: We built an 11-year cohort of HIV-infected adults from medical records of PLWHA seeking care within the Louisiana State University medical system from June 2002-June 2013. Influenza vaccination uptake among PLWHA was calculated overall and for each medical facility for each influenza season. Linear regression was used to assess influenza vaccination uptake over time, both overall and by facility. Data were restricted to the final influenza season (2012-13) to assess predictors of PLWHA vaccination. Individuals were nested within medical facilities in order to assess the amount of variability in influenza vaccination rates across medical facilities. Results: Influenza vaccination uptake among PLWHA increased over the study period (p < 0.01). The overall proportion of PLWHA vaccinated during the 2012-13 influenza season was 33.7%. 37.9% of the variability in the model occurred at the facility-level. Conclusions: Although there was an increase in influenza vaccination within the PLWHA cohort over the course of the study, vaccination rates remained low overall. Special efforts must be made to increase vaccination uptake among PLWHA, with particular focus on those within the population who are likely to be at highest risk. The substantial variability at the facility-level indicates that there are unmeasured facility-level factors that contribute significantly to PLWHA vaccination.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Influenza, Human , Adult , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Louisiana/epidemiology , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(6): e2215934, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35671054

ABSTRACT

Importance: Recommendations for additional doses of COVID-19 vaccines for people with HIV (PWH) are restricted to those with advanced disease or unsuppressed HIV viral load. Understanding SARS-CoV-2 infection risk after vaccination among PWH is essential for informing vaccination guidelines. Objective: To estimate the rate and risk of breakthrough infections among fully vaccinated PWH and people without HIV (PWoH) in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used the Corona-Infectious-Virus Epidemiology Team (CIVET)-II (of the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design [NA-ACCORD], which is part of the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS [IeDEA]), collaboration of 4 prospective, electronic health record-based cohorts from integrated health systems and academic health centers. Adult PWH who were fully vaccinated prior to June 30, 2021, were matched with PWoH on date of full vaccination, age, race and ethnicity, and sex and followed up through December 31, 2021. Exposures: HIV infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: COVID-19 breakthrough infections, defined as laboratory evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 diagnosis after a patient was fully vaccinated. Results: Among 113 994 patients (33 029 PWH and 80 965 PWoH), most were 55 years or older (80 017 [70%]) and male (104 967 [92%]); 47 098 (41%) were non-Hispanic Black, and 43 218 (38%) were non-Hispanic White. The rate of breakthrough infections was higher in PWH vs PWoH (55 [95% CI, 52-58] cases per 1000 person-years vs 43 [95% CI, 42-45] cases per 1000 person-years). Cumulative incidence of breakthroughs 9 months after full vaccination was low (3.8% [95% CI, 3.7%-3.9%]), albeit higher in PWH vs PWoH (4.4% vs 3.5%; log-rank P < .001; risk difference, 0.9% [95% CI, 0.6%-1.2%]) and within each vaccine type. Breakthrough infection risk was 28% higher in PWH vs PWoH (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.19-1.37]). Among PWH, younger age (<45 y vs 45-54 y), history of COVID-19, and not receiving an additional dose (aHR, 0.71 [95% CI, 0.58-0.88]) were associated with increased risk of breakthrough infections. There was no association of breakthrough with HIV viral load suppression, but high CD4 count (ie, ≥500 cells/mm3) was associated with fewer breakthroughs among PWH. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, COVID-19 vaccination, especially with an additional dose, was effective against infection with SARS-CoV-2 strains circulating through December 31, 2021. PWH had an increased risk of breakthrough infections compared with PWoH. Expansion of recommendations for additional vaccine doses to all PWH should be considered.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42: 6, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35685382

ABSTRACT

South Africa possesses the largest anti-retroviral therapy (ART) program in the world, but the path to this record was dramatic. There is scarce literature employing a comprehensive framework to explain this achievement and inform epidemic responses. This paper applies the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) to analyse the interactions among diverse actors, institutions and networks that were associated with the AIDS policy change in South Africa. Post-apartheid, HIV/AIDS and AIDS-related mortality were serious public health problems. At the time, the discernible coalitions in the HIV/AIDS policy subsystem were the pro-science coalition and AIDS dissidents. In view of the availability of compelling scientific evidence on the pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS, the clinical usefulness of ART, the availability of funding for national ART roll-out, strong global advocacy to reduce the cost of ART, all of these in an era when access to adequate HIV treatment/care was increasingly considered a human right, the environment to establish an appropriate HIV/AIDS policy for the country was conducive. However, AIDS dissidents dominated the policy agenda via their control over key institutions, the use of various dimensions of power, biasing evidence to inform policy, and promoting the activities of strong interest groups that were not in support of ART. National ART roll-out finally emerged as a political priority because of external shocks (on the AIDS policy subsystem) which disfavoured the dominant coalition. As in this important experience in the history of HIV treatment, stakeholders involved in epidemic response tend to engage in intense ideological conflicts. An adequate appraisal of the outcomes of these conflicts in terms of population health gains and adopted public health and social measures to control epidemics would require the supplementation of complex system thinking with relevant public policy concepts, notably power dimensions, governance, emergence of global health networks and evidence use in policy.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Epidemics , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Epidemics/prevention & control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Policy , Humans , Policy Making , South Africa
14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682181

ABSTRACT

To date, about 37 million people are living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and an estimated 680,000 people have died from acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) related illnesses globally. While all countries have been impacted by HIV, some have been significantly more impacted than others, particularly countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this paper was to identify progress made in HIV prevention globally, particularly in the areas of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) uptake, access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), and HIV-related stigma. With the development of ART, a cocktail of medications for the treatment of HIV, VCT uptake increased, as it became apparent that the medication would only be prescribed after an HIV diagnosis through testing. Widely considered a critical gateway to HIV prevention and treatment, VCT is being implemented in many countries, and as a result, about 38 million people living with HIV in 2018 had access to ART. Regardless of this success, major challenges still remain. We did an electronic search of 135 articles in English related to global HIV progress and challenges indexed in PubMed, ResearchGate, Google, and other search engines from 1998 to 2021. Sixty articles met the inclusion criteria for this paper. Data on trends in ART coverage were obtained from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) website. These data were used to show ART coverage globally in World Health Organization (WHO) regions. It was found that while global successes have been chalked in the areas of VCT uptake and ART coverage, HIV-related stigma has impeded greater success. This paper summarizes and discusses global successes and challenges in HIV prevention efforts in the past four decades with a focus on VCT, ART, and HIV-related stigma.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/diagnosis , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Counseling , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Social Stigma
15.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 2173339, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35734773

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed at exploring the transmission and drug resistance characteristics of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). The query expansion algorithm based on Candecomp Parafac (CP) decomposition was adopted to construct a data information retrieval system for semantic web and tensor decomposition. In the latent variable model based on tensor decomposition, the three elements in the triples generated feature vectors to calculate the training samples. The HIV patient data set was selected to evaluate the performance of the system, and then, the HIV gene resistance of 213 patients was retrospectively analyzed based on the electronic medical records. 43 cases showed failure of ribonucleic acid drug resistance, the ART virological failure rate was 24.43% (43/213), and one case was not reported. There was 1 case of RNA hemolysis that could not be detected. There were 50 resistant cases of nonnucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI), accounting for 29.94% (50/167), and there were 17 resistant cases of nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), accounting for 10.18% (17/167) of all mutation cases. Among the HIV-1 strains, 19 cases failed the detection of drug resistance sites in the integrase region, and mutations in the integrase region were significantly more than those in the protease region. There were 12 types of HIV-1 strains with drug-resistant mutations. The fusion technical scheme constructed in this study showed excellent performance in medical information retrieval. In this study, the characteristics of HIV-1 of AIDS patients were analyzed from different directions, and effective treatment was performed for patients, so as to provide reference for clinical diagnosis of AIDS patients.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Anti-HIV Agents , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Genotype , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval , Integrases/genetics , Integrases/pharmacology , Integrases/therapeutic use , Mutation , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
16.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(6)2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35735541

ABSTRACT

Biomedical images contain a huge number of sensor measurements that can provide disease characteristics. Computer-assisted analysis of such parameters aids in the early detection of disease, and as a result aids medical professionals in quickly selecting appropriate medications. Human Activity Recognition, abbreviated as 'HAR', is the prediction of common human measurements, which consist of movements such as walking, running, drinking, cooking, etc. It is extremely advantageous for services in the sphere of medical care, such as fitness trackers, senior care, and archiving patient information for future use. The two types of data that can be fed to the HAR system as input are, first, video sequences or images of human activities, and second, time-series data of physical movements during different activities recorded through sensors such as accelerometers, gyroscopes, etc., that are present in smart gadgets. In this paper, we have decided to work with time-series kind of data as the input. Here, we propose an ensemble of four deep learning-based classification models, namely, 'CNN-net', 'CNNLSTM-net', 'ConvLSTM-net', and 'StackedLSTM-net', which is termed as 'Ensem-HAR'. Each of the classification models used in the ensemble is based on a typical 1D Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) network; however, they differ in terms of their architectural variations. Prediction through the proposed Ensem-HAR is carried out by stacking predictions from each of the four mentioned classification models, then training a Blender or Meta-learner on the stacked prediction, which provides the final prediction on test data. Our proposed model was evaluated over three benchmark datasets, WISDM, PAMAP2, and UCI-HAR; the proposed Ensem-HAR model for biomedical measurement achieved 98.70%, 97.45%, and 95.05% accuracy, respectively, on the mentioned datasets. The results from the experiments reveal that the suggested model performs better than the other multiple generated measurements to which it was compared.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Deep Learning , Aged , Human Activities , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Smartphone
17.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 26(2): 187-192, maio-ago. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1372977

ABSTRACT

O vírus da imunodeficiência humana é o agente etiológico da AIDS, doença crônica que destrói o sistema imunológico e é caracterizada pela baixa contagem de células TCD4, alta contagem de partículas virais no sangue e manifestações clínicas da doença. O diagnóstico se dá com o aparecimento de infecções oportunistas, que levam a contagem de TCD4 a níveis menores que 200 céls/mm³. Os exames laboratoriais para o diagnóstico do HIV foram os principais avanços para o início do tratamento, reduzindo a transmissão. Detecção de anticorpos, detecção de antígenos e amplificação do genoma do vírus são alguns dos exames laboratoriais utilizados para diagnóstico. Os dois principais biomarcadores são os exames de contagem de células TCD4, que verifica o sistema imune, e a quantificação de carga viral, que informa a quantidade de partículas virais, mostrando a progressão da infecção. Quanto maior a carga viral, maior o dano ao sistema imune. Uma carga viral indetectável é inferior a 50 cópias/mL, mas valores menores ou iguais a 200 cópias/mL também impedem a transmissão. Uma declaração de consenso afirma que Indetectável é igual a Intransmissível. Portanto, quando indetectável, a transmissão inexiste. O presente estudo relata e discute o caso clínico de uma paciente diagnosticada com HIV/AIDS aos 28 anos, que sobreviveu, apesar do diagnóstico tardio, e sob presença de doença oportunista com um grave grau de diminuição de células TCD4 (22 cél/mm³). Por meio do diagnóstico, introdução e adesão correta da terapia antirretroviral e monitorização de exames laboratoriais, conseguiu evitar a morte e ter uma vida semelhante à de um HIV negativo. Ultrapassou a expectativa de vida que na descoberta era de 10 anos, com uma qualidade de vida considerável, não sendo transmissora do vírus, diminuindo assim o estigma e preconceito. O biomédico é peça fundamental nesse contexto, considerando que deve fornecer informações precisas e fidedignas, tão necessárias ao acompanhamento de pessoas vivendo com HIV, para que autoridades e profissionais de saúde adotem medidas adequadas, tanto na prevenção, quanto no diagnóstico e monitoramento da doença.


The human immunodeficiency virus is the etiological agent of AIDS, a chronic disease that destroys the immune system and is characterized by low TCD4 cell count, high viral particle count in blood and clinical manifestations of the disease. The diagnosis is due to the appearance of opportunistic infections, which lead to TCD4 counts below 200 cells / mm³. Laboratory tests for the diagnosis of HIV were the main advances in starting treatment, reducing transmission. Antibody detection, antigen detection and virus genome amplification are some of the laboratory tests used for diagnosis. The two main biomarkers are the TCD4 cell count tests, which checks the immune system, and viral load quantification, which reports the number of viral particles, showing the progression of infection. The higher the viral load, the greater the damage to the immune system. An undetectable viral load is less than 50 copies / mL, but values less than or equal to 200 copies / mL also prevent transmission. A consensus statement states that Undetectable equals Non-Transmissible. Therefore, when undetectable, transmission does not exist. The present study reports and discusses the clinical case of a patient diagnosed with HIV / AIDS at age 28, who survived despite late diagnosis and under the presence of opportunistic disease with a severe degree of TCD4 cell reduction (22 cells / mm³). Through the diagnosis, introduction and correct adherence of antiretroviral therapy and monitoring of laboratory tests, she was able to avoid death and have a life similar to that of an HIV negative. Exceeded the life expectancy that in the discovery was 10 years, with a considerable quality of life, not transmitting the virus, thus reducing the stigma and prejudice. The biomedical is a key player in this context, considering that he must provide accurate and reliable information, which is so necessary for the monitoring of people living with HIV, so that authorities and health professionals adopt appropriate measures, both in prevention, diagnosis and monitoring of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV , Toxoplasmosis/virology , AIDS-Associated Nephropathy/virology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections , Viral Load , Cryptococcosis/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Fever/virology , Headache/virology , Anemia/virology , Meningitis/virology
18.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 58(2): 139-145, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35722801

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To assess whether the use of multiple cause-of-death data could improve reporting of AIDS mortality in Italy. METHOD: Population-based, record-linkage study, on 3,975,431 deaths recorded in the National Registry of Causes of Death (RCoD) and 4,530 deaths recorded in the National AIDS Registry (RAIDS), during 2006-2012. RESULTS: The record-linkage identified 3,646 AIDS-related deaths present in both registries, 884 deaths in the RAIDS without mention of HIV/AIDS in the RCoD, and 3,796 deaths in the RCoD with mention of HIV/AIDS that were not present in the RAIDS. In the latter, in-depth analysis of multiple cause-of-death allowed the identification of 1,484 deaths that were AIDS-related. On these results, we estimated 6,014 deceased people with AIDS. Of them, 14.7% (884) were not present in the RCoD and 24.7% (1,484) derived from the RCoD only. CONCLUSIONS: The integration of different nationwide registries allowed a more comprehensive estimate of the impact of AIDS-associated mortality in Italy.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Registries
19.
Math Biosci Eng ; 19(7): 6743-6763, 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730281

ABSTRACT

HIV-1 is a virus that destroys CD4 + cells in the body's immune system, causing a drastic decline in immune system performance. Analysis of HIV-1 gene expression data is urgently needed. Microarray technology is used to analyze gene expression data by measuring the expression of thousands of genes in various conditions. The gene expression series data, which are formed in three dimensions, are analyzed using triclustering. Triclustering is an analysis technique for 3D data that aims to group data simultaneously into rows and columns across different times/conditions. The result of this technique is called a tricluster. A tricluster is a subspace in the form of a subset of rows, columns, and time/conditions. In this study, we used the δ-Trimax, THD Tricluster, and MOEA methods by applying different measures, namely, transposed virtual error, the New Residue Score, and the Multi Slope Measure. The gene expression data consisted of 22,283 probe gene IDs, 40 observations, and four conditions: normal, acute, chronic, and non-progressor. Tricluster evaluation was carried out based on intertemporal homogeneity. An analysis of the probe ID gene that affects AIDS was carried out through this triclustering process. Based on this analysis, a gene symbol which is biomarkers associated with AIDS due to HIV-1, HLA-C, was found in every condition for normal, acute, chronic, and non-progressive HIV-1 patients.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV-1 , Algorithms , Biomarkers/analysis , Cluster Analysis , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis/methods
20.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 Jun 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35746750

ABSTRACT

Cyclospora cayetanensis infections remain one of the most common protozoan opportunistic causes of gastrointestinal diseases and diarrhea among people living with HIV and/or AIDS (PLWHA). This study was conducted to provide a summary of the evidence on the global burden of C. cayetanensis infection and associated risk factors among PLWHA. Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, and EMBASE were searched up to February 2022. All original peer-reviewed original research articles were considered, including descriptive and cross-sectional studies describing C. cayetanensis in PLWHA. Incoherence and heterogeneity between studies were quantified by I index and Cochran's Q test. Publication and population bias were assessed with funnel plots and Egger's asymmetry regression test. All statistical analyses were performed using StatsDirect. The pooled prevalence of C. cayetanensis infection among PLWHA was 3.89% (95% CI, 2.62-5.40). The highest prevalence found in South America was 7.87% and the lowest in Asia 2.77%. In addition, the prevalence of C. cayetanensis was higher in PLWHA compared to healthy individuals. There was a relationship between a higher C. cayetanensis prevalence in PLWHA with a CD4 cell count below 200 cells/mL and people with diarrhea. The results show that PLWHA are more vulnerable to C. cayetanensis infection and emphasizes the need to implement the screening and prophylaxis tailored to the local context. Owing to the serious and significant clinical manifestations of the parasite, an early identification of seropositivity is recommended to initiate prophylaxis between PLWHA with a CD4 count ≤200 cells/mL and PLWHA who do not receive antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Cyclospora , Cyclosporiasis , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cyclosporiasis/diagnosis , Cyclosporiasis/epidemiology , Cyclosporiasis/parasitology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Humans , Risk Factors
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