Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 70.835
Filter
1.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 47(1): 100879, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34103194

ABSTRACT

Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is now an established vital sign. CRF, along with muscle function and bone and joint health is related to functional independence and a higher quality of life. Wasserman and colleagues proposed a gear model illustrating the integrated role of the respiratory, cardiovascular, and skeletal muscle systems during aerobic exercise; in 2015, a revision to the original model was proposed. Our understanding of the effects and challenges associated with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are rapidly evolving. Initial evidence indicates higher levels of CRF, and muscle function protect individuals infected with COVID-19 from a complicated medical course. Moreover, for those individuals infected with COVID-19, there are initial signs of a reduction in CRF following the initial phase of recovery. We are also gaining an understanding of long COVID syndrome, where individuals who have recovered from the acute phase of viral infection present with lasting symptoms, which include but are not limited to reduced CRF, shortness of breath, and fatigue. Clearly, these individuals will require rehabilitation to restore and/or improve CRF, muscle function, bone and joint health, functional capacity (ie, the ability to perform activities of daily living), and quality of life. The importance of assessing the synergistic function of systems essential to performing activities that require physical exertion is a health care imperative. This graphical narrative provides an update to the gear model initially proposed by Wasserman and updated to a gear and circuit in 2015. External CRF, muscle function, and bone and joint health influencers and an approach to clinical assessment are also introduced.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Muscles , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 29: e56956, jan.-dez. 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1224594

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: avaliar o desempenho das atividades de vida diárias e identificar diagnósticos de enfermagem de pessoas em situação de rua. Métodos: estudo transversal, realizado de abril a julho de 2017, com 52 pessoas. Para coleta de dados, foi utilizado instrumento fundamentado no modelo teórico de Roper-Logan e Tierney. Foram consideradas dependentes as atividades de vida com frequência igual ou superior a 40%, para inferência dos diagnósticos utilizou-se referencial de Risner. Resultados: as atividades de vida dependentes foram: trabalho e distração (92,3%), morte (88,5%), sexualidade (76,9%), sono (71,2%), manter ambiente seguro (71,2%), respirar (61,5%), eliminar (53,8%) e alimentar-se (51,9%). Os diagnósticos mais frequentes: Disposição para comunicação melhorada (96%), Desobstrução ineficaz das vias aéreas (94%), Risco de contaminação (77%) e Controle de impulsos ineficaz (73%). Conclusão: evidenciou-se que pessoas em situação de rua possuem dependência de cuidados em atividades de vida diária relacionados a aspectos fisiológicos, sociais e emocionais.


Objective: to evaluate performance of activities of daily living (ADLs) and to identify nursing diagnoses for people living on the streets. Methods: in this cross-sectional study of 52 people, data were collected between April and July 2017 using an instrument based on the Roper-Logan-Tierney theoretical model. ADLs with frequency of 40% or more were considered to be care-dependent; diagnoses were inferred using a Risner framework. Results: dependent ADLs were: working and playing (92.3%), dying (88.5%), expressing sexuality (76.9%), sleeping (71.2%), maintaining a safe environment (71.2 %), breathing (61.5%), eliminating body wastes (53.8%), and eating (51.9%). The most frequent diagnoses were: improved communication disposition (96%), ineffective airway clearance (94%), contamination risk (77%), and ineffective impulse control (73%). Conclusion: people living on the streets were found to be dependent on care in physiological, social and emotional ADLs.


Objetivo: evaluar el desempeño de las actividades de la vida diaria e identificar diagnósticos de enfermería para personas que viven en la calle. Métodos: estudio transversal, realizado entre abril y julio de 2017, con 52 personas. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó un instrumento basado en el modelo teórico de Roper-Logan y Tierney. Se consideraron como dependientes las actividades de vida con una frecuencia igual o superior al 40%. Para inferir los diagnósticos se utilizó el modelo referencial de Risner. Resultados: las actividades de la vida dependientes fueron: trabajo y distracción (92,3%), muerte (88,5%), sexualidad (76,9%), sueño (71,2%), mantener un ambiente seguro (71,2%), respirar (61,5%), eliminar (53,8%) y alimentarse (51,9%). Los diagnósticos más frecuentes: Mejora de la disposición comunicativa (96%), Limpieza ineficaz de la vía aérea (94%), Riesgo de contaminación (77%) y Control ineficaz de los impulsos (73%). Conclusión: se evidenció que las personas que viven en la calle son dependientes de cuidados en las actividades de la vida diaria relacionadas con los aspectos fisiológicos, sociales y emocionales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Nursing Diagnosis , Homeless Persons , Activities of Daily Living , Cross-Sectional Studies , Nursing Care
3.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 627, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736401

ABSTRACT

The aims of the present study were to estimate the frequency of change in self-rated health (SRH) among community-dwelling older adults, between two measures taken at a 9-year interval; and determine factors associated with a decline and an improvement in SRH, in relation to aspects of physical/emotional health and subjective wellbeing. Data were derived from a community-based study on frailty among Brazilian elderly. Associations were investigated using Pearson's chi-square test and relative risk ratios were estimated using multinomial logistic regression analysis. 39.3% of participants did not change their SRH at both assessment times, 21.7% rated it as worse and 39.0% rated it as better. The relative risk ratio of an improvement in SRH for individuals with disability in basic activities of daily living (ADLs) was lower than for individuals with independence in basic ADLs (IRR=0.22; IC95%: 0.08-0.63). Understanding the complex interactions between self-rated health and the dimensions that influence the improvement of health perception may shed light on key determinants of the wellbeing among older adults.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Frailty , Aged , Health Status , Humans , Independent Living , Longitudinal Studies
4.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 21(Suppl 10): 273, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781953

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To meet the needs of aging and dementia patients in Taiwan, this study designed a nursing system that includes communication, location tracking, and fall detection, and early warning services. The main purpose of this research is to provide timely services to the elderly and patients and hope to reduce the burden when the number of nursing staff decreases. This article is a remote disease care service platform with the Internet of Things (IoT) devices to monitor the location of the elderly and whether they have dropped warning alerts. RESULTS: The device is connected to the patient's waist and chest, monitors the patient's movement and behavior, and transmits messages to the back-end system, and informs caregivers through mobile phone applications when unexpected or shocking events occur. The system can identify whether the patient has fallen, accidentally, or long-term inactivity. The device is equipped with sensors that enable it to monitor the patient's location and behavior data through Bluetooth and GPS technology. Finally, we proposed a basic model and an integrated model that will industrialize the system and is expected to play a role in a larger patient population. CONCLUSIONS: The system developed in this research has passed the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) test and verification, and is expected to provide appropriate safety care services for nursing homes and elderly residences.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Internet of Things , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Caregivers , Humans , Nursing Homes
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833616

ABSTRACT

Existing wearable systems that use G-sensors to identify daily activities have been widely applied for medical, sports and military applications, while body temperature as an obvious physical characteristic that has rarely been considered in the system design and relative applications of HAR. In the context of the normalization of COVID-19, the prevention and control of the epidemic has become a top priority. Temperature monitoring plays an important role in the preliminary screening of the population for fever. Therefore, this paper proposes a wearable device embedded with inertial and temperature sensors that is used to apply human behavior recognition (HAR) to body surface temperature detection for body temperature monitoring and adjustment by evaluating recognition algorithms. The sensing system consists of an STM 32-based microcontroller, a 6-axis (accelerometer and gyroscope) sensor, and a temperature sensor to capture the original data from 10 individual participants under 4 different daily activity scenarios. Then, the collected raw data are pre-processed by signal standardization, data stacking and resampling. For HAR, several machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) algorithms are implemented to classify the activities. To compare the performance of different classifiers on the seven-dimensional dataset with temperature sensing signals, evaluation metrics and the algorithm running time are considered, and random forest (RF) is found to be the best-performing classifier with 88.78% recognition accuracy, which is higher than the case of the absence of temperature data (<78%). In addition, the experimental results show that participants' body surface temperature in dynamic activities was lower compared to sitting, which can be associated with the possible missing fever population due to temperature deviations in COVID-19 prevention. According to different individual activities, epidemic prevention workers are supposed to infer the corresponding standard normal body temperature of a patient by referring to the specific values of the mean expectation and variance in the normal distribution curve provided in this paper.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Activities of Daily Living , Algorithms , Body Temperature , Human Activities , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833654

ABSTRACT

Recognizing Activities of Daily Living (ADL) or detecting falls in domestic environments require monitoring the movements and positions of a person. Several approaches use wearable devices or cameras, especially for fall detection, but they are considered intrusive by many users. To support such activities in an unobtrusive way, ambient-based solutions are available (e.g., based on PIRs, contact sensors, etc.). In this paper, we focus on the problem of sitting detection exploiting only unobtrusive sensors. In fact, sitting detection can be useful to understand the position of the user in many activities of the daily routines. While identifying sitting/lying on a sofa or bed is reasonably simple with pressure sensors, detecting whether a person is sitting on a chair is an open problem due to the natural chair position volatility. This paper proposes a reliable, not invasive and energetically sustainable system that can be used on chairs already present in the home. In particular, the proposed solution fuses the data of an accelerometer and a capacitive coupling sensor to understand if a person is sitting or not, discriminating the case of objects left on the chair. The results obtained in a real environment setting show an accuracy of 98.6% and a precision of 95%.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Wearable Electronic Devices , Humans , Monitoring, Ambulatory , Movement
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(22)2021 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34833796

ABSTRACT

Mechatronic systems that allow motorized activation in robotic exoskeletons have evolved according to their specific applications and the characteristics of the actuation system, including parameters such as size, mechanical properties, efficiency, and power draw. Additionally, different control strategies and methods could be implemented in various electronic devices to improve the performance and usability of these devices, which is desirable in any application. This paper proposes the integration and testing of a high-torque, servo-driven joint and its electronic controller, exposing its use in a robotic exoskeleton prototype as a case study. Following a brief background review, the development and implementation of the proposal are presented, allowing the control of the servo-driven joint in terms of torque, rotational velocity, and position through a straightforward, closed-loop control architecture. Additionally, the stability and performance of the servo-driven joint were assessed with and without load. In conclusion and based on the obtained results, the servo-driven joint and its control system demonstrate consistent performance under the proposed test protocol (max values: angular velocity 97 °/s, torque 33 Nm, positioning RMSE 1.46°), enabling this approach for use in various applications related to robotic exoskeletons, including human performance enhancement, rehabilitation, or support for daily living activities.


Subject(s)
Exoskeleton Device , Activities of Daily Living , Biomechanical Phenomena , Electronics , Humans , Torque , Upper Extremity
8.
Appl Nurs Res ; 62: 151492, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814996

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to examine the impact of physical function, anxiety, and depression on the fear of falling associated with everyday activities in patients with stroke. This was a cross-sectional descriptive survey. Convenience sampling was used to select 127 patients with stroke who were undergoing rehabilitative therapy at a single rehabilitation hospital in South Korea. Fear of falling, anxiety, and depression were assessed using structured questionnaires. Physical parameters, including lower extremity function, functional mobility, balance ability, and lower extremity muscle strength, were measured using objective methods. A multiple regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of fear of falling. Female patients had a higher fear of falling associated with walking outdoors compared to male patients. Lower extremity strength was the only significant predictor of fear of falling when adjusting for age, sex, Mini Mental State Examination scores, and fall experience. Lower extremity strength was identified as the most important factor affecting the fear of falling associated with everyday activities in patients with stroke. Preventing muscle weakness in the lower extremities and providing education and support to improve patients' self-efficacy in outdoor activities are strategies that can be used to reduce the fear of falling in patients with stroke.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Stroke , Activities of Daily Living , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Female , Humans , Male , Self Efficacy
9.
Trials ; 22(1): 847, 2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diabetic cognitive impairment (DCI) is a serious chronic complication caused by diabetes. The pathogenesis of DCI is complex, but brain nerve injury and brain nerve cell apoptosis are important pathological changes. Multimodal brain imaging is one of the most important techniques to study the neural mechanism of the brain. For the clinical treatment of DCI, there is no effective targeted Western medicine and a lack of clear drug intervention methods. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find effective complementary and alternative methods and clarify their mechanism. This research seeks to explore the multimodal brain imaging effect of "Adjust Zang-fu and Arouse Spirit" electroacupuncture for DCI. METHODS: This clinical research will be a randomized, sham-controlled pilot trial. Eligible participants will be randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 60) and the control group (n = 30). The intervention group will be divided into the "Adjust Zang-fu and Arouse Spirit" electroacupuncture group (n = 30) and sham electroacupuncture group (n = 30). All participants will continue to receive routine hypoglycemic therapy. The treatment period is the same in both groups. The primary outcomes include functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA), and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). The secondary outcomes include blood glucose and blood lipid tests, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADL), Hachinski Ischemic Scale (HIS), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). Outcomes will be assessed at baseline and before and after treatment, and adverse events will be examined. Inter- and intragroup analyses will be performed. DISCUSSION: This randomized controlled study, combined with multimodal brain imaging techniques and a clinical evaluation scale, was designed to explore the mechanism of "Adjust Zang-fu and Arouse Spirit" electroacupuncture in improving the central nervous system in DCI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registration ChiCTR2000040268 . Registered on 26 November 2020.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Diabetes Mellitus , Electroacupuncture , Activities of Daily Living , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Neuroimaging , Pilot Projects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome
10.
Trials ; 22(1): 846, 2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823572

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gait difficulties in Parkinson's disease have been related to problems shifting the center of gravity forward. We previously showed reduced forward stepping latencies for people with Parkinson's disease after one session of adaptation to upward visual shifts, which produces downward motor after-effects and potentially shifts the center of gravity forward. Here we tested if repeated prism adaptation improved gait and postural control in Parkinson's disease through a parallel, double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial. METHODS: We recruited participants with idiopathic Parkinson's disease aged 40-85 and meeting any one of three clinical criteria: (1) Hoehn and Yahr Stage II.5-IV; (2) scoring > 0 on the gait, freezing of gait, and/or postural stability items of the Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale; or (3) Timed Up and Go > 12 s. Sealed envelope style randomization allocated participants to two weeks of twice-daily prism adaptation or sham treatment. Participants, care givers, and those assessing the outcomes were blinded to group assignment. Primary outcomes were changes in postural control measured using the Berg Balance Scale and the Limits of Stability, Sensory Organization, and Motor Control tests from the Smart EquiTest system. Secondary outcomes included other physiotherapy and questionnaire measures. Outcomes were assessed at the Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center immediately before and after the treatment period, with further long-term postal follow-up over 3 months. Outcomes were analyzed using analyses of variance with follow-up t tests. RESULTS: Eighteen participants were allocated to undergo prism adaptation, of which sixteen were analyzed. Thirteen participants were allocated to undergo sham treatment, and all were analyzed. The prism adaptation group showed increased forward stepping velocity on the Limits of Stability test (pre: M=2.33, SEM=0.24; post: M=2.88, SEM=0.26; t(15)=3.2, p=.005, d=.819). The sham group showed no such change (pre: M=2.13, SEM=0.22; 1d post: M=2.24, SEM=0.22; t(13)=.636, p=.537, d=.176). However, there were no group differences for any other outcome measures and no indications that prism adaptation produced functional improvements in posture, gait, or activities of daily living. CONCLUSIONS: Prism adaptation does not improve gait or postural control in Parkinson's disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02380859 . Registered prospectively on 5 March 2015.


Subject(s)
Gait Disorders, Neurologic , Parkinson Disease , Activities of Daily Living , Exercise Therapy , Gait , Humans , Parkinson Disease/diagnosis , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Postural Balance , Posture
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21342, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725409

ABSTRACT

Community-wide lockdowns in response to COVID-19 influenced many families, but the developmental cascade for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be especially detrimental. Our objective was to evaluate behavioral patterns of risk and resilience for children with ASD across parent-report assessments before (from November 2019 to February 2020), during (March 2020 to May 2020), and after (June 2020 to November 2020) an extended COVID-19 lockdown. In 2020, our study Mobile-based care for children with ASD using remote experience sampling method (mCARE) was inactive data collection before COVID-19 emerged as a health crisis in Bangladesh. Here we deployed "Cohort Studies", where we had in total 300 children with ASD (150 test group and 150 control group) to collect behavioral data. Our data collection continued through an extended COVID-19 lockdown and captured parent reports of 30 different behavioral parameters (e.g., self-injurious behaviors, aggression, sleep problems, daily living skills, and communication) across 150 children with ASD (test group). Based on the children's condition, 4-6 behavioral parameters were assessed through the study. A total of 56,290 behavioral data points was collected (an average of 152.19 per week) from parent cell phones using the mCARE platform. Children and their families were exposed to an extended COVID-19 lockdown. The main outcomes used for this study were generated from parent reports child behaviors within the mCARE platform. Behaviors included of child social skills, communication use, problematic behaviors, sensory sensitivities, daily living, and play. COVID-19 lockdowns for children with autism and their families are not universally negative but supports in the areas of "Problematic Behavior" could serve to mitigate future risk.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cell Phone Use , Child Behavior/psychology , Child Care/methods , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Activities of Daily Living , Aggression , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Communication , Female , Humans , Male , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Sleep , Social Skills
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27504, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-stroke fatigue seriously affects the quality of life for stroke patients. There is no effective treatment at present. transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation which may have therapeutic effect on post-stroke fatigue. This study will explore about this. METHOD: A total of 60 patients with post-stroke fatigue were randomly divided into the control group and the treatment group with 30 patients each by minimization randomization. Both groups received basic treatment and conventional rehabilitation. In the treatment group, patients were treated with active tDCS, while in the control group, sham tDCS. Both active and sham tDCS were administered 6 times a week for 4 weeks. Before and after the trial, the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Modified Barthel Index (MBI) were evaluated and analyzed. And comparisons were made among groups. And there were an 8-week follow-up after the intervention. RESULT: Before the intervention, there were no significant differences in baseline data and assessment scores between the groups (P > 0.05). After 4 weeks of intervention, FSS scores in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P = 0.012), and FMA and BMI scores were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant change in FSS scores after 8 months of follow-up (P > 0.05). DISCUSSION: TDCS is a safe treatment that can effectively reduce the degree of fatigue after stroke, improve the motor function and daily activity ability of patients after stroke, and the efficacy is better than only routine rehabilitation training. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR2000031120. Registered on March 22, 2020.


Subject(s)
Fatigue/etiology , Fatigue/therapy , Stroke/complications , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation/adverse effects , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Double-Blind Method , Fatigue/psychology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Recovery of Function , Safety , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/therapy , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation/methods , Treatment Outcome
13.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(Suppl 2): 932, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One of the most controversial aspects for maximizing outcomes after total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains the surgical approach to the hip joint. The posterior (PA) and lateral approaches (LA) are the two most commonly performed approaches used worldwide, but sparse data are available for their comparison in terms of health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to assess the role of the PA and LA in the HRQoL and hip functionality of patients who underwent primary and elective THA for osteoarthritis, after a minimum 2-year follow-up. METHODS: One hundred twenty-eight patients (140 THAs: 68 with PA and 72 with LA) were evaluated in a matched cohort study. Data gathered included the body mass index, the American Society of Anesthesiologists score, surgery time, serum creatine phosphokinase (CpK) levels, estimated intraoperative blood loss and intra- or postoperative complications. Preoperatively and at the last follow-up, the activities of daily living, and the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scales, the Western Ontario and Mac Master University (WOMAC) Questionnaire, the Harris Hip Score (HHS) and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) were used to assess HRQoL and functionality. The Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) Questionnaire was administered at the last follow-up. RESULTS: Postoperatively, CpK was higher in the LA group compared to the PA (695 ± 648 vs. 447 ± 326 UI/L, p < 0.001). At a mean follow-up of 47 ± 22 months for the LA group and 42 ± 29 months for the PA group, IADL, VAS, HHS and WOMAC scores significantly improved for both groups (all p < 0.001), but PA reported better VAS, residual pain and WOMAC scores (p = 0.002, p = 0.004 and p = 0.018, respectively). The PA group demonstrated a significant higher mental SF-36 subscale values than the LA group (49 ± 13 vs. 42 ± 19, p = 0.001). The LA group showed a higher number of Trendelenburg signs (p = 0.029). On the contrary, the PA group showed a higher number of leg lengthening (p = 0.020); however, most of these cases was less than the clinically significant value of 10 mm (p = 0.738). CONCLUSIONS: Patients who underwent THA performed with the PA reported greater improvement in HRQoL with lower residual pain, postoperative muscle damage and Trendelenburg signs than those who underwent the LA.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Quality of Life , Activities of Daily Living , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Humans , Treatment Outcome
14.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 625, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To examine the effects of a 6-month multicomponent (MT) exercise intervention in the functional capacity and ability to independently perform activities of daily living (ADL) of individuals diagnosed with neurocognitive disorder (NCD). METHODS: A quasi-experimental controlled trial with a parallel design study was conducted in multicentered community-based settings. Forty-three individuals (N Female: 30) were allocated to an exercise group (EG; N: 23; mean 75.09, SD = 5.54 years) or a control group (CG; N:20; mean 81.90, SD = 1.33 years). The EG engaged in a 6-month MT program (60-min sessions, twice a week). Exercise sessions were divided into a warm-up, specific training (e.g., coordination and balance, lower and upper body strength, and aerobics), and cool down. Lower body function, mobility, and gait speed were evaluated through Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), Timed-Up and Go test (TUG) and 6-Meter Walk test, respectively. The Barthel Index (BI) was administered to assess individuals' ADL independence. Evaluations were performed before and after the 6-month intervention. RESULTS: Linear Mixed Models revealed a statistically significant interaction (time X group) effect factor on SPPB (B = 2.33, 95% CI: 1.39-3.28, p < 0.001), TUG (B = - 11.15, 95% CI: - 17.23 - - 5.06, p = 0.001), and 6-Meter Walk test (B = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.08-0.25, p < 0.001). No differences between groups or assessment moments were found in the ability of individuals to independently perform ADL. CONCLUSIONS: The 6-month MT exercise intervention improves the functional capacity of older adults living with NCD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov - identifier number NCT04095962 ; retrospectively registered on 19 September 2019.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Exercise Therapy , Aged , Exercise , Female , Humans , Neurocognitive Disorders
15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727035

ABSTRACT

The monitoring of disease progression in certain neurodegenerative conditions can significantly be quantified with the help of objective assessments. The severity assessment of diseases like Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) are usually based on different subjective measures. The ability of a participant with FRDA to perform standard neurological tests is the most common way of assessing disease progression. In this feasibility study, an Ataxia Instrumented Measurement-Cup (AIM-C) is proposed to quantify the disease progression of 10 participants (mean age 39 years, onset of disease 16.3 years) in longitudinal timepoints. The device consists of a sensing system with the provision of extracting both kinetic and kinematic information while engaging in an activity closely associated with activities of daily living (ADL). A common functional task of simulated drinking was used to capture features that possesses disease progression information as well as certain other features which intrinsically correlate with commonly used clinical scales such as the modified Friedreich Ataxia Rating Scale (mFARS), the Functional Staging of Ataxia score and the ADL scale. Frequency and time-frequency domain features allowed the longitudinal assessment of participants with FRDA. Furthermore, both kinetic and kinematic measures captured clinically relevant features and correlated 85% with clinical assessments.


Subject(s)
Cerebellar Ataxia , Friedreich Ataxia , Activities of Daily Living , Adult , Biomechanical Phenomena , Cerebellar Ataxia/diagnosis , Disease Progression , Friedreich Ataxia/diagnosis , Humans
16.
Clin Interv Aging ; 16: 1877-1915, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737555

ABSTRACT

Up to 60% of older adults have a lifestyle characterized by low physical activity (PA) and high sedentary behavior (SB). This can amplify age-related declines in physical and cognitive functions and may therefore affect the ability to complete basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL and IADL, respectively), which are essential for independence. This systematic review aims to describe the association of objectively measured PA and SB with ADL and IADL in community-dwelling older adults. Six databases (PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane library, CINAHL, PsychINFO, SPORTDiscuss) were searched from inception to 21/06/2020 for articles meeting our eligibility criteria: 1) observational or experimental study, 2) participants' mean/median age ≥60 years, 3) community-dwelling older adults, 4) PA and SB were measured with a(n) accelerometer/pedometer, 5) PA and SB were studied in relation to ADL and/or IADL. Risk of bias was assessed in duplicate using modified versions of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Effect direction heat maps provided an overview of associations and standardized regression coefficients (ßs) were depicted in albatross plots. Thirty articles (6 longitudinal; 24 cross-sectional) were included representing 24,959 (range: 23 to 2749) community-dwelling older adults with mean/median age ranging from 60.0 to 92.3 years (54.6% female). Higher PA and lower SB were associated with better ability to complete ADL and IADL in all longitudinal studies and overall results of cross-sectional studies supported these associations, which underscores the importance of an active lifestyle. The median [interquartile range] of ßs for associations of PA/SB with ADL and IADL were, respectively, 0.145 [0.072, 0.280] and 0.135 [0.093, 0.211]. Our strategy to address confounding may have suppressed the true relationship of PA and SB with ADL or IADL because of over-adjustment in some included studies. Future research should aim for standardization in PA and SB assessment to unravel dose-response relationships and inform guidelines.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Sedentary Behavior , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Female , Humans , Independent Living , Male , Observational Studies as Topic
17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34762588

ABSTRACT

Many patients suffer from declined motor abilities after a brain injury. To provide appropriate rehabilitation programs and encourage motor-impaired patients to participate further in rehabilitation, sufficient and easy evaluation methodologies are necessary. This study is focused on the sit-to-stand motion of post-stroke patients because it is an important daily activity. Our previous study utilized muscle synergies (synchronized muscle activation) to classify the degree of motor impairment in patients and proposed appropriate rehabilitation methodologies. However, in our previous study, the patient was required to attach electromyography sensors to his/her body; thus, it was difficult to evaluate motor ability in daily circumstances. Here, we developed a handrail-type sensor that can measure the force applied to it. Using temporal features of the force data, the relationship between the degree of motor impairment and temporal features was clarified, and a classification model was developed using a random forest model to determine the degree of motor impairment in hemiplegic patients. The results show that hemiplegic patients with severe motor impairments tend to apply greater force to the handrail and use the handrail for a longer period. It was also determined that patients with severe motor impairments did not move forward while standing up, but relied more on the handrail to pull their upper body upward as compared to patients with moderate impairments. Furthermore, based on the developed classification model, patients were successfully classified as having severe or moderate impairments. The developed classification model can also detect long-term patient recovery. The handrail-type sensor does not require additional sensors on the patient's body and provides an easy evaluation methodology.


Subject(s)
Motor Disorders , Stroke Rehabilitation , Stroke , Activities of Daily Living , Electromyography , Female , Humans , Male , Stroke/complications
18.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(6)2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817592

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: People with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience motor and functional impairment that can negatively affect daily living and participation. OBJECTIVE: To examine the occupational performance and hand function outcomes of people with PD who participated in a Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT) BIG® program. DESIGN: Retrospective record review. SETTING: Outcomes were extracted from patient charts at a hospital outpatient clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-six clinic outpatients with PD who completed the LSVT BIG program. INTERVENTION: An occupational therapist and a physical therapist who were certified in LSVT BIG administration delivered the 16-session LSVT BIG program. Outcomes and Measures: The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), grip strength, and Minnesota Manual Dexterity Test (MMDT) were administered before and after participation in LSVT BIG training. RESULTS: For participant-identified COPM goals, pre-post changes were significant, ranging from 3 to 6 points for performance and satisfaction (p < .001). Grip strength in both hands showed significant gains; median scores for the right hand increased from 55.0 lb (interquartile range [IQR] 41.0, 70.0) to 64.0 lb (IQR 46.0, 80.0; p < .001) and for the left hand from 52.0 lb (IQR 39.0, 64.0) to 63.0 lb (IQR 44.5, 79.5; p < .001). MMDT median scores for right to left also significantly improved, from 124.0 s (IQR 113.0, 181.0) to 119.5 s (IQR 105.5, 163.5; p = .014). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Participation in the LSVT BIG program can improve perceived occupational performance and satisfaction and produce gains in hand strength and dexterity for people with PD. What This Article Adds: This study is the first retrospective review of data on occupational performance and hand function outcomes after participation in the LSVT BIG program. The findings of beneficial outcomes support the use of LSVT BIG in occupational therapy services to increase functional abilities among people with PD.


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease , Activities of Daily Living , Canada , Humans , Retrospective Studies
19.
Clin Ter ; 172(6): 552-558, 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821351

ABSTRACT

Background: Distal metaphyseal-diaphyseal fractures of the hume-rus can be challenging. The success lies in achieving a stable fixation that could allow early functional recovery. Our aim is to combine dif-ferent approaches already reported, to obtain an ideal surgical strategy for treating these fracture patterns. Methods: In this retrospective study, we present the clinical outco-me of a 12-patient cohort in which we used a combined paratricipital and triceps-splitting approach to the distal humerus. The mean age of the group was 50 years (range 17 - 88). Clinical and radiographic evaluation was performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery and thereafter, depending on the necessity of a further control. Patients' range of motion (ROM) of the elbow was reported, and functional outcome was assessed using the Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI).The minimum follow-up was fixed at 12 months. Results: Union was achieved in all fractures. After a median follow-up of 15.7 months (range 12-21), none of the patients complained of any limitation in daily activities. The ROM at the last follow-up was complete in eight patients. Instead, three patients had ROM limitations, but none of them mentioned limitations in the activities of daily living. We observed a single iatrogenic radial nerve palsy undergoing a full functional recovery at the final follow-up. No further complications occurred. Conclusion: We believe that the here presented modified approach could represent a solution that meets the modern demands for both ro-bust fixation and early mobilization, with minimal soft tissues damage around distal humeral fractures.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Humeral Fractures , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bone Plates , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Humans , Humeral Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Humeral Fractures/surgery , Humerus , Middle Aged , Range of Motion, Articular , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20439, 2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741048

ABSTRACT

Seismic ambient noise with frequencies > 1 Hz includes noise related to human activities. A reduction in seismic noise during the COVID-19 pandemic has been observed worldwide, as restrictions were imposed to control outbreaks of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In this context, we studied the effect of changes in anthropogenic activities during COVID-19 on the seismic noise levels in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, considering time of day, day of the week, and seasonal changes. The results showed the largest reduction in noise levels during the first state of emergency under most conditions. After the first state of emergency was lifted, the daytime noise reverted to previous levels immediately on weekdays and gradually on Sundays. This was likely because economic activities instantly resumed, while non-essential outings on Sundays were still mostly avoided. Furthermore, the daytime noise level on Sundays was strongly reduced regardless of changes on weekdays after the second state of emergency, which restricted activities mainly at night. Sunday noise levels gradually increased from the middle of the second state of emergency, suggesting a gradual reduction in public concern about COVID-19 following a decrease in the number of infections. Our findings demonstrate that seismic noise can be used to monitor social activities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Leisure Activities , Noise , Acoustics , Activities of Daily Living , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Disease Outbreaks , Emergency Service, Hospital , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tokyo/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...