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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Models, Statistical
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249911, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339366

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.


Resumo As neoplasias hematológicas e de células hematopoiéticas dos genes e as células hematopoiéticas estão associadas à mutação genética, geralmente em nível cromossômico. O estudo citogenético padrão é amplamente aceito como um dos principais determinantes diagnósticos e prognósticos em pacientes. Portanto, o presente estudo descritivo e transversal buscou determinar a análise citogenética de neoplasias hematológicas frequentes no Paquistão. Um total de 202 amostras de medula óssea periférica ou sangue de pacientes com malignidade hematológica benigna e maligna foi coletado usando uma técnica convencional de banda G. Entre os pacientes inscritos, a média de idade foi de 21,5 anos ± 23,4, e a distribuição por gênero mostrou uma marcada predominância da população masculina de 147 (73%) em comparação com a feminina de 55 (27%). Pacientes na faixa etária (2-10 anos) tiveram a maior frequência, 48 (24%), de neoplasias hematológicas, seguida da idade (11-20 anos) com 40 (20%). Cariótipos normais (46, XX / 46, XY) foram encontrados em 51% (n = 103) dos pacientes. Além disso, a frequência de cariótipo complexo foi de 30 (15%), enquanto normal foi observada em 171 (85%) pacientes. Leucemia linfoblástica aguda pré-B (LLA Pré-B) foi a doença maligna mais prevalente de 66 (33%), seguida por leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) de 41 (20%) e leucemia linfocítica aguda de 29 (14%). A translocação foi o 50 mais prevalente (25%), seguido por hipotriploidia 14 (7%) e monossomia 8 (4%) na análise de aberração cromossômica. Além disso, a translocação t (9:22) encontrada foi de 20 (10%) na LMC, com a maioria na faixa etária (31-40 anos). Este estudo recomenda que o cariótipo deve ser testado com frequência em condições hematológicas porque pode fornecer informações sobre as alterações cromossômicas relativas associadas a doenças malignas específicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Chromosome Aberrations , Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Karyotyping
3.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 24(4): 684-692, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34957654

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate whether upper gastrointestinal (GI) disease has any effect on the exposure of oral semaglutide, an important consideration given that its absorption occurs primarily in the stomach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an open-label, parallel-group trial (NCT02877355), subjects aged 18-80 years with type 2 diabetes with mild-to-moderate upper GI disease (N = 36; chronic gastritis [n = 5], gastroesophageal reflux disease [n = 8], and both [n = 23]) or without upper GI disease (N = 19) received oral semaglutide 3 mg once daily for 5 days, followed by 7 mg for 5 days. The primary and key supportive endpoints were the area under the semaglutide plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0 to 24 hours after last trial product administration on day 10 (AUC0-24h,day10 ) and the maximum semaglutide plasma concentration (Cmax,day10 ), respectively. RESULTS: Semaglutide exposure was not statistically significantly different between subjects with and without upper GI disease. Estimated group ratios (subjects with/without upper GI disease) were 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80, 1.75) for AUC0-24h,day10 and 1.16 (95% CI, 0.77, 1.76) for Cmax . Time to Cmax and semaglutide half-life were similar in subjects with and without upper GI disease. Oral semaglutide was well tolerated; all adverse events were mild-to-moderate, with no withdrawals because of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in exposure to oral semaglutide in subjects with or without upper GI disease, hence no dose adjustment is required.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Administration, Oral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Diseases/chemically induced , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Glucagon-Like Peptides , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Middle Aged , Young Adult
4.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 219: 105392, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248812

ABSTRACT

Previous research has suggested that moral stories depicting realistic characters may better facilitate children's prosocial behavior than those containing anthropomorphized animal characters. The current study is a conceptual replication with a different sample and an extended age range. We examined the relationships among story character realism (anthropomorphized animal or human), theme (sharing or busyness), age, and prosocial behavior (i.e., resource allocation). Four versions of an illustrated storybook were created: an Animal Sharing book, an Animal Busy book, a Human Sharing book, and a Human Busy book. A total of 179 children aged 3-7 years listened to one of the four versions of the story. Children's sticker donating behavior was measured prior to hearing the story and again following a story recall task. All groups donated more stickers post-story than pre-story. Younger children were more likely to increase their donation than older children, and children who had made higher human internal state attributions in a previous experimental session donated more stickers post-story. In contrast to previous research, we found that a sharing-themed narrative depicting human characters was no more influential for sticker donation than the other stories.


Subject(s)
Child Behavior , Morals , Adolescent , Altruism , Animals , Books , Child , Humans , Mental Recall
5.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 62(2): 206-219, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435684

ABSTRACT

Population pharmacokinetic (PK) and exposure-safety analyses of alisertib were performed in children enrolled in 2 clinical trials: NCT02444884 and NCT01154816. NCT02444884 was a dose-finding study in children with relapsed/refractory solid malignancies (phase 1) or neuroblastomas (phase 2). Patients received oral alisertib 45 to 100 mg/m2 as powder-in-capsule once daily or twice daily for 7 days in 21-day cycles. Serial blood samples were collected up to 24 hours after dosing on cycle 1, day 1. NCT01154816 was a phase 2 single-arm study evaluating efficacy in children with relapsed/refractory solid malignancies or acute leukemias. Patients received alisertib 80 mg/m2 as enteric-coated tablets once daily for 7 days in 21-day cycles. Sparse PK samples were collected up to 8 hours after dosing on cycle 1, day 1. Sources of alisertib PK variability were characterized and quantified using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling to support dosing recommendations in children and adolescents. A 2-compartment model with oral absorption described by 3 transit compartments was developed using data from 146 patients. Apparent oral clearance and central distribution volume were correlated with body surface area across the age range of 2 to 21 years, supporting the use of body surface area-based alisertib dosing in the pediatric population. The recommended dose of 80 mg/m2 once daily enteric-coated tablets provided similar alisertib exposures across pediatric age groups and comparable exposure to that in adults receiving 50 mg twice daily (recommended adult dose). Statistically significant relationships (P < .01) were observed between alisertib exposures and incidence of grade ≥2 stomatitis and febrile neutropenia, consistent with antiproliferative mechanism-related toxicities.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacokinetics , Azepines/pharmacokinetics , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Pyrimidines/pharmacokinetics , Adolescent , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Azepines/adverse effects , Body Surface Area , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Male , Maximum Tolerated Dose , Models, Biological , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasms/pathology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pyrimidines/adverse effects , Young Adult
6.
J Neurotrauma ; 39(1-2): 86-92, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626946

ABSTRACT

This case-control study using baseline data from the population cohort Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study® compared lifetime history of concussion between children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that children with ADHD would have a greater lifetime history of concussion than children without ADHD. Children were recruited from schools across the United States, sampled to provide strong generalizability to the US population. The current sample included 10,585 children (age: mean = 9.9; standard deviation = 0.6; range 9-10 years; 48.9% girls; 64.6% White), including 1085 with ADHD and 9500 without ADHD. The prevalence of prior concussion among children with ADHD was 7.2% (95% CI: 6.6-7.8%) compared with 3.2% (3.1-3.3%) among children without ADHD, meaning current ADHD status was associated with twice the odds of experiencing a prior concussion [χ2 = 44.54; p < 0.001; odds ratio = 2.34 (1.81-3.03)]. No significant differences were observed in proportion of boys and girls with ADHD who had a prior concussion history. The number of current ADHD symptoms were not meaningfully associated with prior concussion history. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with lower rates of reported concussion, but not differentially in association with ADHD. ADHD is associated with twice the lifetime prevalence of prior concussion before age 11 among children from the general U.S. population. Boys and girls with ADHD did not differ in proportions with prior concussion and concussion history was not related to the number of ADHD symptoms reported by parents.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Brain Concussion , Adolescent , Athletes/psychology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Brain Concussion/psychology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology
7.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 35(3): 333-339, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952557

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate of gynecomastia, determine mean glandular breast tissue sizes, and evaluate whether there is any difference in the prevalence rate of gynecomastia according to age using three different reference values of glandular breast tissue size (≥5, ≥10, ≥20 mm) in the pediatric age group. METHODS: Glandular breast tissue sizes were measured retrospectively from thoracic computed tomography (CT) images taken for other reasons in 961 boys aged 1-18 years. RESULTS: When each breast was evaluated separately (1,922 breasts), gynecomastia was observed in 1,001 (52.1%), 719 (37.4%), and 216 (11.2%) breasts with ≥5, ≥10, and ≥20 mm considered as reference values, respectively. A significant difference was found in terms of gynecomastia (p<0.001) and mean glandular breast tissue size (p<0.001) with respect to age. CONCLUSIONS: New studies are currently needed to determine the glandular breast tissue size and the prevalence rate of gynecomastia in boys, and thoracic CT images can be used for this purpose.


Subject(s)
Gynecomastia , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Gynecomastia/diagnostic imaging , Gynecomastia/epidemiology , Humans , Incidental Findings , Infant , Male , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
8.
Ann Biomed Eng ; 50(4): 401-412, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35201548

ABSTRACT

A recent innovation in scoliosis monitoring is the use of ultrasonography, which provides true 3D information in one scan and does not emit ionizing radiation. Measuring the severity of scoliosis on ultrasonographs requires identifying lamina pairs on the most tilted vertebrae, which is difficult and time-consuming. To expedite and automate measurement steps, this paper detailed an automatic convolutional neural network-based algorithm for identifying the laminae on 3D ultrasonographs. The predicted laminae were manually paired to measure the lateral spinal curvature on the coronal view, called the Cobb angle. In total, 130 spinal ultrasonographs of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis recruited from a scoliosis clinic were selected, with 70 for training and 60 for testing. Data augmentation increased the effective training set size to 140 ultrasonographs. Semi-automatic Cobb measurements were compared to manual measurements on the same ultrasonographs. The semi-automatic measurements demonstrated good inter-method reliability (ICC3,1 = 0.87) and performed better on thoracic (ICC3,1 = 0.91) than lumbar curves (ICC3,1 = 0.81). The mean absolute difference and standard deviation between semi-automatic and manual was 3.6° ± 3.0°. In conclusion, the semi-automatic method to measure the Cobb angle on ultrasonographs is feasible and accurate. This is the first algorithm that automates steps of Cobb angle measurement on ultrasonographs.


Subject(s)
Scoliosis , Spine , Adolescent , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Reproducibility of Results , Scoliosis/diagnostic imaging , Spine/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods
9.
J Sch Health ; 92(4): 337-344, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35067924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To determine if school engagement is a viable target for early prevention of adolescent substance use, this study investigated whether school engagement in early adolescence (ages 12-14) is a cause of alcohol and cannabis use during middle to late adolescence (ages 15-19). METHODS: To facilitate causal inference, inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTWs), which are based on estimated probabilities of treatment selection (ie, school engagement), were created based on a robust set of potential confounders. Using the IPTWs, a cumulative link mixed model was fit to examine the impact of school engagement on alcohol and cannabis use among an ethnically diverse sample of adolescents (N = 360). RESULTS: School engagement was associated with a lower level of alcohol and cannabis use from age 15 to 18. School engagement was not associated with change in alcohol and cannabis use over time, suggesting that school engagement emits its effect early in the developmental course of substance use and offers protection throughout adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports a compensatory role of early school engagement in substance use across middle and late adolescence. School engagement is a malleable factor and thus offers an avenue for prevention efforts.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Humans , Schools , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Young Adult
10.
AIDS Care ; 34(2): 227-231, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625933

ABSTRACT

HIV-associated functional impairment may cause cognitive impairment secondary to the viral infection, hence, associations between cognitive impairment and functional impairment in youth living with HIV are important to assess. We sought to determine whether cognitive impairment is associated with functional impairment and if it carries higher risk for also having functional impairment. We collected parent-rated information regarding youth functional impairment on four different measures and administered a cognitive battery to youth to determine cognitive impairment, 203 HIV-infected youth and 44 HIV-uninfected controls. Degree of cognitive impairment correlated strongly with decreased function: CBCL, r = -.17, p = .01; VABS2, r = -.28, p < .001; repeated-grades, r = .26, p < .001. Presence of cognitive impairment was associated with increased risk of functional impairment: 3.47 (CIS); 1.71 (CBCL); 2.17 (VABS2); 2.97 (repeated-grades). Repeated-grades strongly associated with cognitive impairment and functional impairment. We found strong associations between HIV-infected youth functional impairment on CBCL, VABS2 and repeated-grades with degree of cognitive impairment; and that when cognitive impairment was present youth had higher risk of experiencing functional impairment as well. Asking whether youth have repeated a grade at school could be a helpful screening question for assessing potential functional impairment and provide clinicians with an indication as to whether a further in-depth assessment is required.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , HIV Infections , Adolescent , Cognitive Dysfunction/complications , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Mass Screening
11.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 67-75, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130567

ABSTRACT

Resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome (RTHS) is defined as increased thyroxine and triiodothyronine associated with normal or increased thyrotropin. This is usually due to a pathogenic variant of the gene coding for thyroid hormone receptor B (THRB). THRB is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an altered response of target tissue to the thyroid hormone action. Retrospective cross-sectional observational study with diagnosis of RTHS evaluated in secondary and tertiary hospitals for 6 years, from 2014 to 2020, in order to describe variables including age, sex, anthropometric data, clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients, who were divided according to age, in a pediatric group from 0 to 14 years (index cases), and an adult group composed of adult relatives of index cases. A molecular analysis of the THRB gene was performed. The total retrospective cohort included 7 pediatric patients and 15 adults. We found 22 cases with a clear male predominance (14/22). Mean age is 24.8 years old (22 days-70 years). Patients were referred because of symptoms 18.2% (4/22), analysis results 22.7% (5/22), or familial study 59.1% (13/22). About 31.8% (7/22) cases show goiter, 31.8% (7/22) sympathetic symptoms and 13.6% (3/22) abnormalities in behavior. In most cases, 77.3%, (17/22) show familial background of thyroid abnormalities. It is important to remark that 18.2% (4/22) relatives received previous incorrect treatments such as thyroidectomy, because of wrong diagnosis. In conclusion, a better understanding of RTHS, its prompt molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling, could avoid unnecessary tests and inappropriate treatments.


Subject(s)
Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mutation , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta/genetics , Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome/diagnosis , Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome/genetics , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine , Young Adult
12.
Cell Biol Int ; 46(3): 336-343, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941001

ABSTRACT

Osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor that often occurs in adolescents. There is an urgent need for new treatment options for osteosarcoma due to its poor prognosis after metastasis. Cancer stem cell (CSC) theory states that CSCs represent a small proportion of cancer cells. These CSC have self-renewal ability and are closely associated with cancer growth and metastasis as well as chemotherapy resistance. Similarly, osteosarcoma stem cells (OSCs) play an important role in the growth, metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance of osteosarcoma cells. Targeting OSCs may represent a future treatment of osteosarcoma. Furthermore, some genes have been shown to regulate the growth, metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance of osteosarcoma cells by altering the stemness of OSCs. Targeting these genes may help in the treatment of osteosarcoma. This review mainly discusses recent advances in the research of OSCs and their related genes.


Subject(s)
Bone Neoplasms , Osteosarcoma , Adolescent , Bone Neoplasms/pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Humans , Neoplastic Stem Cells/pathology , Osteosarcoma/pathology
13.
Early Hum Dev ; 165: 105541, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Outcomes for infants who survive mild-moderate hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) into adolescence is relatively uncharted. AIMS: We examined neuropsychological and behavioral outcomes in adolescents with mild and moderate HIE, using both parent and self - informants, and including healthy peers and nearest age siblings as controls. PARTICIPANTS: 23 adolescents with a history of mild-moderate HIE (M age = 14.45 years, SD = 1.03; 14 boys and 9 girls) were recruited from an original cohort of 53. A group of their nearest - age siblings (n = 13), and healthy peers (n = 14) were recruited as controls. OUTCOME MEASURES: A number of neuropsychological sub-tests, taken from the WISC-V.UK, Children's Memory Scale, NEPSY, WIAT-III.UK, Rey Complex Figure Copy Test and British Picture Vocabulary Scale were administered. Behavioral adjustment was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the competence subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist. RESULTS: No differences in neuropsychological and behavioral outcomes were observed between mild and moderate HIE cohorts. Together they had significantly lower scores on tests of attention/executive functioning, verbal reasoning and sensory-motor ability compared to healthy peers, with moderate to large effect sizes. Remedial provision at school was greater in the HIE group. Parents reported elevated levels of peer problems in the HIE group compared to both siblings and healthy peers. Reduced competencies were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence that both mild and moderate survivors of HIE experience neuropsychological, school and peer relationship problems in adolescence.


Subject(s)
Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain , Adolescent , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Neuropsychological Tests , Wechsler Scales
14.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e225388, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO - Dentistry | ID: biblio-1366211

ABSTRACT

Genetic and environmental factors are essential in occlusal variations and malocclusion and have been of considerable interest to orthodontists. Studies on twin pairs are one of the most effective methods for investigating genetically determined occlusal variables. Many studies have focused on distances between first molars or between canines but malocclusions can also occur in other regions of the dental arch. Aim: To evaluate the characteristics of the dental arch between pairs of Monozygotic (MZ) and Dizygotic (DZ) twins from Southern India. Methods: A random sample of 51 twin pairs (12­18years old) participated in this study. The zygosity of twin pairs was recorded by facial appearance. The occlusion of the first permanent molars was recorded according to Angle's classification. Study models were prepared to assess dental arch characteristics (i.e., arch form, arch perimeter, arch length; intercanine, intermolar width, and teeth size discrepancy). The obtained data was statistically analyzed using SPSS software 19.0. The student's t-test (two-tailed, independent) and Chi-square test was used to determine the significance of studied parameters. Results: Angle's Class I molar relation was more commonly observed followed by the Class II molar relationship among twins. The measured dental arch dimensions did not show a statistically significant difference among twin pairs. The ovoid arch form was commonly observed among Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins. There was a similarity among MZ and DZ twins in the anterior and overall Bolton's ratio. Conclusion: There were similar occurrences of measured parameters among twins, which showed genetic predominance in the expression of measured dental arch traits


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Twins , Twins, Dizygotic , Twins, Monozygotic , Dental Arch
15.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Online) ; 43(2): 21-24, maio-ago. 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO - Dentistry | ID: biblio-1361989

ABSTRACT

Traumas na região da face são comuns devido a sua topografia e à grande exposição do local. As lesões na região maxilofacial são normalmente causadas devido a traumas por acidentes de trânsito, agressão física, acidentes cotidianos como queda da própria altura e de nível. O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar um caso clínico de trauma facial com a presença de corpo estranho impactado na face, bem como o tratamento cirúrgico empregado. Paciente do sexo feminino, 17 anos, foi regulada para o Hospital Geral Cleristón Andrade com histórico de queda de cavalo, cursando com fragmento de madeira (galho de arbusto) tranfixado em região maxilofacial. A paciente foi encaminhada ao centro cirúrgico para a remoção do galho de arbusto transfixado. O procedimento foi rápido, e sua remoção se deu por meio do movimento contrário ao mecanismo de trauma. Lesão como esta possui aspectos singulares e devem ser avaliados multidisciplinarmente na emergência. A remoção desses objetos deve ser realizada de forma a preservar as estruturas dentro do possível, levando em consideração também os fatores estéticos e funcionais envolvidos(AU)


Traumas in the face region are common due to its topography and the great exposure of the place. Injuries in the maxillofacial region are usually caused due to trauma from traffic accidents, physical aggression, everyday accidents such as falling from height and level. The aim of this paper is to report a clinical case of facial trauma with the presence of a foreign body impacted on the face, as well as the surgical treatment used. A 17-year-old female patient was treated at the Cleristón Andrade General Hospital with a history of falling from a horse, taking a wood fragment (shrub branch) transfixed in the maxillofacial region. The patient was referred to the operating room for removal of the transfixed bush branch. The procedure was quick, and its removal took place through a movement contrary to the trauma mechanism. Injuries like this have unique aspects and must be evaluated multidisciplinary in an emergency. The removal of these objects must be carried out in order to preserve the structures as much as possible, also taking into account the aesthetic and functional factors involved(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Maxillofacial Injuries/surgery , Maxillofacial Injuries/therapy , Surgery, Oral , Facial Injuries , Maxillofacial Injuries
16.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 23(1): 14-29, jan.-jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - journals | ID: biblio-1356767

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O presente estudo objetiva discutir as principais temáticas emergentes em grupos reflexivos sobre adoção desenvolvidos por meio de um projeto de pesquisa e extensão universitária. Realizamos observação participante em três ciclos grupais para pretendentes à adoção e três ciclos para mães e pais por adoção. Nos processos grupais realizados, foram encontradas cinco principais temáticas nos grupos com pretendentes e cinco com mães e pais por adoção. Foi possível perceber os receios dos pretendentes em relação ao que esperar dos(as) futuros(as) filhos(as), ao passo que as mães e pais já estavam vivenciando e enfrentando dificuldades relacionadas à convivência. O trabalho grupal pode ser uma forma profícua de trabalhar as demandas específicas dos pretendentes, mães e pais.


ABSTRACT This study aims to discuss the main emerging themes in reflective groups on adoption developed through a research project and university extension program. We carried out participant observation in three group cycles for prospective adopters and three cycles for adoptive mothers and fathers. In the groups' meetings, we found five main themes with prospective adopters and five with adoptive mothers and fathers. It was possible to perceive the fears of the prospective adopters regarding what to expect from their future children, while the mothers and fathers were already experiencing and facing difficulties related to living together. Group work can be a fruitful way of working with the specific demands of prospective adopters, mothers, and fathers.


RESUMEN Este estudio tiene como objetivo discutir los principales temas emergentes de grupos reflexivos sobre la adopción desarrollados a través de un proyecto de investigación y extensión universitaria. Realizamos observación participante en tres ciclos grupales para solicitantes de adopción y tres ciclos para madres y padres por adopción. En los procesos grupales realizados, se encontraron cinco temas principales en los grupos con pretendientes y cinco con madres y padres. Se pudo percibir los temores de los solicitantes sobre qué esperar de sus futuros hijos e hijas, mientras que las madres y padres ya estaban experimentando y enfrentando dificultades relacionadas con la convivencia. El trabajo grupal puede ser una forma fructífera de trabajar con las demandas específicas de pretendientes, madres y padres.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Self-Help Groups , Adoption , Forensic Psychology , Group Processes
17.
Neurosurg Focus ; 52(5): E7, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535821

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) dystrophic scoliosis is an early-onset, rapidly progressive multiplanar deformity. There are few studies on the surgical management of this patient population. Specifically, perioperative morbidity, instrument-related complications, and quality-of-life outcomes associated with surgical management have not been systematically evaluated. In this study, the authors aimed to perform a systematic review on the natural history, management options, and surgical outcomes in patients who underwent NF1 dystrophic scoliosis surgery. METHODS: A PubMed search for articles with "neurofibromatosis" and either "dystrophic" or "scoliosis" in the title or abstract was performed. Articles with 10 or more patients undergoing surgery for NF1 dystrophic scoliosis were included. Data regarding indications, treatment details, morbidity, and outcomes were summarized and analyzed with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: A total of 310 articles were identified, 48 of which were selected for full-text review; 30 studies describing 761 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age ranged from 7 to 22 years, and 99.7% of patients were younger than 18 years. The mean preoperative coronal Cobb angle was 75.2°, and the average correction achieved was 40.3°. The mean clinical follow-up in each study was at least 2 years (range 2.2-19 years). All patients underwent surgery with the intent of deformity correction. The scoliosis regions addressed were thoracic curves (69.6%) and thoracolumbar (11.1%) and lumbar (14.3%) regions. The authors reported on a variety of approaches: posterior-only, combined anterior-posterior, and growth-friendly surgery. For fixation techniques, 42.5% of patients were treated with hybrid constructs, 51.5% with pedicle screw-only constructs, and 6.0% with hook-based constructs. Only 0.9% of patients underwent a vertebral column resection. The nonneurological complication rate was 14.0%, primarily dural tears and wound infections. The immediate postoperative neurological deficit rate was 2.1%, and the permanent neurological deficit rate was 1.2%. Ultimately, 21.5% required revision surgery, most commonly for implant-related complications. Loss of correction in both the sagittal and coronal planes commonly occurred at follow-up. Five papers supplied validated patient-reported outcome measures, showing improvement in the mental health, self-image, and activity domains. CONCLUSIONS: Data on the surgical outcomes of dystrophic scoliosis correction are heterogeneous and sparse. The perioperative complication rate appears to be high, although reported rates of neurological deficits appear to be lower than clinically observed and may be underreported. The incidence of implant-related failures requiring revision surgery is high. There is a great need for multicenter prospective studies of this complex type of deformity.


Subject(s)
Neurofibromatosis 1 , Scoliosis , Spinal Fusion , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Neurofibromatosis 1/complications , Neurofibromatosis 1/diagnostic imaging , Neurofibromatosis 1/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Scoliosis/complications , Scoliosis/diagnostic imaging , Scoliosis/surgery , Spinal Fusion/methods , Thoracic Vertebrae/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
18.
Neurosurg Focus ; 52(5): E8, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535823

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Neurocutaneous melanocytosis (NCM), also referred to as neurocutaneous melanosis, is a rare neurocutaneous disorder characterized by excess melanocytic proliferation in the skin, leptomeninges, and cranial parenchyma. NCM most often presents in pediatric patients within the first 2 years of life and is associated with high mortality due to proliferation of melanocytes in the brain. Prognosis is poor, as patients typically die within 3 years of symptom onset. Due to the rarity of NCM, there are no specific guidelines for management. The aims of this systematic review were to investigate approaches toward diagnosis and examine modern neurosurgical management of NCM. METHODS: A systematic review was performed using the PubMed database between April and December 2021 to identify relevant articles using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Search criteria were created and checked independently among the authors. Inclusion criteria specified unique studies and case reports of NCM patients in which relevant neurosurgical management was considered and/or applied. Exclusion criteria included studies that did not report associated neurological diagnoses and neuroimaging findings, clinical reports without novel observations, and those unavailable in the English language. All articles that met the study inclusion criteria were included and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 26 extracted articles met inclusion criteria and were used for quantitative analysis, yielding a cumulative of 74 patients with NCM. These included 21 case reports, 1 case series, 2 retrospective cohort studies, 1 prospective cohort study, and 1 review. The mean patient age was 16.66 years (range 0.25-67 years), and most were male (76%). Seizures were the most frequently reported symptom (55%, 41/74 cases). Neurological diagnoses associated with NCM included epilepsy (45%, 33/74 cases), hydrocephalus (24%, 18/74 cases), Dandy-Walker malformation (24%, 18/74 cases), and primary CNS melanocytic tumors (23%, 17/74 cases). The most common surgical technique was CSF shunting (43%, 24/56 operations), with tethered cord release (4%, 2/56 operations) being the least frequently performed. CONCLUSIONS: Current management of NCM includes CSF shunting to reduce intracranial pressure, surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and palliative care. Neurosurgical intervention can aid in the diagnosis of NCM through tissue biopsy and resection of lesions with surgical decompression. Further evidence is required to establish the clinical outcomes of this rare entity and to describe the diverse spectrum of intracranial and intraspinal abnormalities present.


Subject(s)
Melanosis , Neurocutaneous Syndromes , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Melanosis/complications , Melanosis/pathology , Melanosis/surgery , Middle Aged , Neurocutaneous Syndromes/complications , Neurocutaneous Syndromes/diagnostic imaging , Neurocutaneous Syndromes/surgery , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
20.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 208, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Paediatric traumatic cataracts are an important but preventable cause of acquired blindness. Understanding the epidemiology of paediatric traumatic cataracts is a prerequisite for prevention. This study aimed to characterize the epidemiological profile of paediatric traumatic cataracts in southwest China. METHODS: The medical records of children (age range, 0-14 years old) who developed traumatic cataracts following open-globe injuries and were hospitalized at the Department of Ophthalmology at West China Hospital, between January 2011 and December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The demographic data, causes of injuries, posttraumatic complications, and visual acuity were recorded and analysed. RESULTS: A total of 716 eyes from 716 patients were analysed in this study, including 521 (72.8%) males and 195 females in a gender ratio of 2.67:1; 117 of the patients were of ethnic minorities. Paediatric traumatic cataracts occurred more frequently in winter (32.5%). Sharp metal objects (scissors/knives/needles/sheet metal/nails/darts) - induced ocular injuries accounted for the highest proportion, followed by botanical sticks (wooden sticks /bamboo sticks /bamboo skewers)-induced injuries, and then stationery items (pencils/pens/rulers/paper)-induced injuries. The majority (68.7%) of the patients were aged 2-8 years, and the peak range of age was 4 - 6 years. The injuries were a result of penetrating trauma in 64.9% of patients, and blunt force trauma in the remainder (35.1%). Additionally, 131 (18.3%) cases developed posttraumatic infectious endophthalmitis after injuries. Patients with eye injuries caused by needles (P < 0.001), wooden sticks (P = 0.016), and bamboo skewers (P = 0.002) were at a greater risk of developing infectious endophthalmitis. The most common identified foreign organism was Streptococcus, which accounted for 42% (21/50) of all culture-positive specimens and was sensitive to vancomycin. Among the children who were younger than 5 years, 44.4% (55/124) of those with traumatic cataracts presented a corrected distance visual acuity less than or equal to 0.1 after undergoing cataract surgery, but among the children who were older than 5 years, this proportion was significantly smaller, just 20.4% of children aged 6-10 years (P < 0.001) and 18.4% of children aged 11-14 years (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The main causative agents of paediatric traumatic cataracts in southwest China were sharp metal objects, botanical sticks, and stationery items. Specific preventive measures are essential to reduce the incidence of paediatric traumatic cataract.


Subject(s)
Cataract , Endophthalmitis , Eye Injuries, Penetrating , Eye Injuries , Adolescent , Cataract/complications , Cataract/etiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Endophthalmitis/complications , Eye Injuries/complications , Eye Injuries/epidemiology , Eye Injuries/surgery , Eye Injuries, Penetrating/complications , Eye Injuries, Penetrating/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Retrospective Studies
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