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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1344007, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828412

ABSTRACT

Aims: We aimed to describe and compare the incidence of the first cardiovascular event and its major subtypes, coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease, heart failure (HF), or peripheral artery disease (PAD), according to age and sex in a population-based cohort of individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) from a Mediterranean region. Material and methods: We used linked primary care electronic medical reports, pharmacy-invoicing data, and hospital admission disease registry records from the SIDIAP database, which contains linked data for 74% of the Catalonian population. We selected individuals with T2D aged 30 to 89 years free of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The primary outcome was the first presentation of CVD. Results: The study cohort included 247,751 individuals (48.6% women, 66.8 ± 11.9 years). During a 6.99-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of the first cardiovascular event was 23.4%. Men were at higher risk for CVD (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.47 95%CI: 1.45-1.50), CHD (HR: 1.52 95%CI: 1.47-1.57), cerebrovascular disease (HR:1.07 95%CI: 1.03-1.10) and PAD (HR: 2.30 95%CI: 2.21-2.39) than women but at a lower risk for HF (HR:0.70 95%CI: 0.68-0.73). CHD and PAD were the most frequent CVD presentations among men (28.1% and 27.5%) and HF (40.1%) in women. CHD predominated among young participants of both sexes, while HF predominated among women older than 65 and men older than 75. Conclusions: In individuals with T2D, the overall risk and the type of first CVD manifestation largely varied by sex and age. This epidemiological evidence should be considered in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Male , Aged , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cohort Studies , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Incidence , Sex Factors , Age Factors , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Spain/epidemiology
2.
Clin Oral Investig ; 28(6): 352, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The relationship between tooth colour and individual satisfaction in oral aesthetics has long been a topic of interest. In this study, we utilized the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) to investigate the impacts of sex and age on tooth colour preference. The findings of this study should provide a scientific basis for oral aesthetic practice. METHODS: In the current study, a random selection method was employed, and a survey was completed by 120 patients. To obtain tooth colour data, standard tooth colour charts were used. Smile photos were taken as template images using a single-lens reflex camera. The FAHP was utilized to conduct a weight analysis of tooth colour preferences among patients of different sexes and age groups. RESULTS: There were significant differences in tooth colour preference based on sex and age. Men tend to prefer the B1 colour, while women may prioritize the aesthetic effects of other colours. Additionally, as patients age, their preferences for tooth colour become more diverse. These findings offer valuable insights for oral aesthetics practitioners, enabling them to better address the aesthetic needs of patients across different sexes and ages. This knowledge can aid in the development of more personalized treatment plans that align with patients' expectations. CONCLUSION: In this study, we utilized scientific analysis methods to quantify the popularity of different tooth colours among various groups of people. By doing so, we established a scientific foundation for clinical practice. The findings of this study offer valuable insights for oral aesthetic research, enhancing our understanding of tooth colour. Additionally, these findings have practical applications in the field of oral medicine, potentially improving patients' quality of life and overall oral health.


Subject(s)
Esthetics, Dental , Humans , Female , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Age Factors , Color , Surveys and Questionnaires , Smiling , Aged , Adolescent , Photography, Dental , Tooth , Patient Preference
3.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 31(2): 111-117, 2024 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38826014

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the blood pressure (BP) pattern and prevalence of hypertension amongst apparently healthy primary school pupils in Abuja. METHODOLOGY: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study carried out on apparently healthy primary school children aged 6-12 years. BP was measured using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer according to standard guidelines. Data were analysed using SPSS version 17.0. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) and analysis of variance were used to determine the relationship between BP and various variables where applicable. P = 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Out of 1011 pupils recruited for the study, 457 (42.2%) were male. The mean systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) increased significantly with age from 94.5 mmHg to 101.0 mmHg and from 61.5 mmHg to 65.3 mmHg from 6 to 12 years for SBP and DBP, respectively (P < 0.05). The prevalence of high BP was 9.1%. Age was the only predictor of SBP (ß = -0.629, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.115, -0.142), while age, height and body mass index (BMI) were the predictors of DBP (ß = -0.686, 95% CI of -1.152, -0.221; ß = 0.490, 95% CI of 0.172, 0.809; ß = 1.753, 95% CI of 0.374, 3.160) for age, height and BMI, respectively, at P < 0.05. CONCLUSION: The predictors of SBP and DBP as shown in this study support the recommendations by various reports for taking body size into consideration in developing reference values for various populations. Age and body size are important determinants of BP in children. Its measurement should be encouraged in schools.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Hypertension , Humans , Male , Child , Nigeria/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Prevalence , Hypertension/epidemiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Schools , Blood Pressure Determination/methods , Students/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors
4.
Psychol Aging ; 39(3): 262-274, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829339

ABSTRACT

The redundancy hypothesis proposes that older listeners need a larger array of acoustic cues than younger listeners for effective speech perception. This research investigated this hypothesis by examining the aging effects on the use of prosodic cues in speech segmentation in Mandarin Chinese. We examined how younger and older listeners perceived prosodic boundaries using three main prosodic cues (pause, final lengthening, and pitch change) across eight conditions involving different cue combinations. The stimuli consisted of syntactically ambiguous phrase pairs, each containing two or three objects. Participants (22 younger listeners and 22 older listeners) performed a speech recognition task to judge the number of objects they heard. Both groups primarily relied on the pause cue for identifying prosodic boundaries, using final lengthening and pitch change as secondary cues. However, older listeners showed reduced sensitivity to these cues, compensating by integrating the primary cue pause with the secondary cue pitch change for more precise segmentation. The present study reveals older listeners' integration strategy in using prosodic cues for speech segmentation, supporting the redundancy hypothesis. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Aging , Cues , Speech Perception , Humans , Speech Perception/physiology , Female , Male , Young Adult , Aged , Adult , Middle Aged , Aging/physiology , Aging/psychology , Pitch Perception/physiology , Age Factors
5.
Psychol Aging ; 39(3): 288-298, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829340

ABSTRACT

Emotional properties of words can profoundly affect their processing, depending on both the valence (pleasantness) and the degree of arousal (excitation) that the word elicits. Words that are strongly emotionally arousing (such as taboo words) can interfere with subsequent language processing (White & Abrams, 2021). However, little is known about whether or how aging affects the processing of highly arousing language. The present study provides a characterization of how adults across the lifespan evaluate highly arousing language with a simple rating task that included taboo words, which have previously been used to examine lexical interference caused by arousal, and humorous words, which are also highly arousing without being negatively valenced. While arousal ratings were strongly positively correlated with both tabooness and humor ratings for young adults, these relationships weakened with age and overall arousal ratings were lower for middle-aged and older adults compared to young adults. Age effects cannot be readily accounted for by age-related differences in psychosocial variables such as self-reported profanity avoidance or religiosity. The effect of age on arousal should be considered in the design of studies examining age-related changes in emotional language processing. Furthermore, age differences in arousal should be considered as a potential mechanism in studies exploring emotional language processing across adulthood. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Aging , Arousal , Emotions , Language , Humans , Female , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Arousal/physiology , Middle Aged , Aged , Emotions/physiology , Aging/physiology , Aging/psychology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Aged, 80 and over
6.
Psychol Aging ; 39(3): 299-312, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829341

ABSTRACT

Emotional content, specifically negative valence, can differentially influence speech production in younger and older adults' autobiographical narratives, which have been interpreted as reflecting age differences in emotion regulation. However, age differences in emotional reactivity are another possible explanation, as younger and older adults frequently differ in their affective responses to negative and positive pictures. The present experiment investigated whether a picture's valence (pleasantness) and arousal (intensity) influenced older adults' production of narratives about those pictures. Thirty younger and 30 older participants produced narratives about pictures that varied in valence (positive, negative, and neutral) and arousal (high, low). Narratives were recorded via Zoom, transcribed, and analyzed with Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count-22 to get measures of emotional word use, disfluencies, and linguistic distance. Results showed that negative valence increased age differences in speech production independent of picture arousal: Relative to younger adults, older adults used more positive words, fewer negative words, and had more silent pauses when telling narratives about negative pictures. In contrast, high arousal decreased age differences such that older adults used fewer positive words in narratives about positive pictures and more linguistically distant words evidenced by fewer present-tense verbs, relative to narratives about low-arousal pictures. Contrary to an explanation of enhanced regulation or control over emotions in older adulthood, these findings support the idea that older adults' speech production is influenced by their reactivity or affective response to emotional stimuli even when the task is not to communicate one's emotions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Arousal , Emotions , Narration , Humans , Arousal/physiology , Aged , Female , Male , Emotions/physiology , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aging/psychology , Aging/physiology , Age Factors , Aged, 80 and over , Speech , Photic Stimulation , Adolescent
7.
Psychol Aging ; 39(3): 209-214, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829338

ABSTRACT

This is an introduction to the special issue "Adult Age Differences in Language, Communication, and Learning from Text." These articles illustrate the great variety of language use through the adult lifespan, tell us a little more-and invite further inquiry. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Communication , Language , Learning , Humans , Adult , Learning/physiology , Aging/physiology , Aging/psychology , Age Factors , Aged , Young Adult , Middle Aged
8.
Psychol Aging ; 39(3): 313-323, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829342

ABSTRACT

We often seek information without any explicit incentives or goals (i.e., noninstrumental information seeking, often noted as a manifestation of curiosity). Does noninstrumental information-seeking change with age? We tried to answer the question by making a critical distinction between two information-seeking behaviors: diversive information seeking (i.e., information seeking for topics a person knows little about) and specific information seeking (i.e., information seeking to deepen a person's existing knowledge of a topic). Five hundred participants (age range: 12-79 years old) spontaneously read new facts about different topics. After reading each fact, participants were given the choice to read more facts about the current topic or return to the selection menu to learn about a new topic. We found that with increasing age, participants chose to explore more facts within a topic (i.e., increased specific information seeking) and switched less frequently to new topics (i.e., decreased diversive information seeking). These results indicate that while young people seek out a broader range of information, as people grow older, they develop a preference to deepen their existing knowledge. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Information Seeking Behavior , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Young Adult , Male , Aged , Female , Child , Age Factors , Aging/psychology , Aging/physiology
9.
Clin Oral Investig ; 28(6): 349, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38822870

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional pilot study evaluated the impact of age on masticatory performance among individuals aged 65 to 106 years, as part of the Heidelberg Dental Centenarian Study (HD-100Z) conducted in South-Western Germany. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 31 centenarians were recruited, alongside 31 individuals each from the age groups 75-99 and 65-74, matched based on sex, prosthetic status, and number of teeth. Masticatory performance was assessed using a two-colored chewing gum test and digital image processing. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of age, sex, number of teeth, type of prosthesis on the masticatory performance. RESULTS: Masticatory performance, as measured by the standard deviation of hue in the chewing gum test, decreased significantly in centenarians compared to individuals aged 75-99 years (-0.112, p = 0.037) and those aged 65-74 years (-0.274, p < 0.001). The effects of sex, number of teeth, and type of prosthesis on masticatory performance were not significant associations (p ≥ 0.135). CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that age may have a significant influence on masticatory performance in the studied age groups, challenging previous notions that aging itself has little impact on masticatory ability. The inclusion of centenarians in the study highlights the need for further investigation into masticatory function in age groups reaching up to 100 years or more. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study contributes to the understanding of how ageing affects oral function, which may guide dental treatment approaches for older individuals, and set the stage for more in-depth investigations in this field in the future.


Subject(s)
Mastication , Humans , Female , Mastication/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Aged , Pilot Projects , Germany , Age Factors , Chewing Gum
10.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 482, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824525

ABSTRACT

Human aging is a physiological, progressive, heterogeneous global process that causes a decline of all body systems, functions, and organs. Throughout this process, cognitive function suffers an incremental decline with broad interindividual variability.The first objective of this study was to examine the differences in the performance on the MoCA test (v. 7.3) per gender and the relationship between the performance and the variables age, years of schooling, and depressive symptoms .The second objective was to identify factors that may influence the global performance on the MoCA test (v. 7.3) and of the domains orientation, language, memory, attention/calculation, visuospatial and executive function, abstraction, and identification.A cross-sectional study was carried out in which five hundred seventy-three (573) cognitively healthy adults ≥ 50 years old were included in the study. A sociodemographic questionnaire, the GDS-15 questionnaire to assess depression symptoms and the Spanish version of the MoCA Test (v 7.3) were administered. The evaluations were carried out between the months of January and June 2022. Differences in the MoCA test performance per gender was assessed with Student's t-test for independent samples. The bivariate Pearson correlation was applied to examine the relationship between total scoring of the MoCA test performance and the variables age, years of schooling, and depressive symptoms. Different linear multiple regression analyses were performed to determine variables that could influence the MoCA test performance.We found gender-related MoCA Test performance differences. An association between age, years of schooling, and severity of depressive symptoms was observed. Age, years of schooling, and severity of depressive symptoms influence the MoCA Test performance, while gender does not.


Subject(s)
Depression , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Aged , Depression/psychology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Aged, 80 and over , Cognition/physiology , Sex Factors , Age Factors
11.
Neurology ; 103(2): e209574, 2024 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Relapse and MRI activity usually decline with aging but are replaced by progression independent of relapse activity (PIRA) in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). However, several older PwMS continue to experience clinical relapses, and the impact on their disease remains undetermined. We aimed to determine the impact of an index relapse on disease outcomes in patients older than 50 years and to identify risk factors of disadvantageous outcomes. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis from 3 prospective cohorts in Germany. We evaluated all PwMS 50 years and older with a relapse ≤60 days before a baseline visit and at least 18 months of follow-up compared with a control cohort of PwMS without a relapse. Patients were stratified according to age ("50-54" vs "55-59" vs "60+") or disease outcomes ("stable" vs "active" vs "progressive," according to the Lublin criteria). We analyzed relapses, MRI activity, relapse-associated worsening, and PIRA. Regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association of specific baseline risk factors and treatment regimen changes with disease outcomes at month 18. RESULTS: A total of 681 patients were included in the "relapse cohort" (50+: 361; 55+: 220; 60+: 100). The "control cohort" comprised 232 patients (50+: 117; 55+: 71; 60+: 44). Baseline epidemiologic parameters were balanced among cohorts and subgroups. We observed increased abundance of inflammatory activity and relapse-independent disability progression in the "relapse" vs "control" cohort. In the "relapse" cohort, we identified 273 patients as "stable" (59.7%), 114 patients as "active" (24.9%), and 70 patients as "progressive" (15.3%) during follow-up. Cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and older age at baseline were identified as risk factors of progressive, whereas disease-modifying treatment (DMT) administration at baseline favored stable disease. DMT during follow-up was associated with stable over active, but not over progressive disease. DISCUSSION: A relapse-suggesting underlying active disease-in PwMS older than 50 years was associated with continued disease activity and increased risk of PIRA. Presence of CVRF and absence of DMT at baseline appeared as risk factors of disadvantageous disease courses. An escalation of DMT switch was associated with stable over active but not progressive disease.


Subject(s)
Disease Progression , Recurrence , Humans , Middle Aged , Female , Male , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Risk Factors , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Aged , Germany/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/diagnostic imaging , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/epidemiology
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13645, 2024 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38871811

ABSTRACT

While general cognitive skills decline during aging, numerical skills seem to be mainly preserved. Such skills are essential for an independent life up to old age, e.g., when dealing with money or time. Operating with numbers usually requires number magnitude and place-value processing. The question is whether these processes are negatively affected by aging due to the general cognitive decline or positively affected due to lifelong experience with numbers. Therefore, we investigated age-related changes in the distance and compatibility effects in single-digit, two-digit, and four-digit number comparison. On the one hand, older adults took longer for number processing and showed a smaller distance effect, indicating altered number magnitude representations. On the other hand, older adults were better in place-value processing as indicated by a smaller compatibility effect than in younger adults. We conclude that aging differentially affects basic numerical skills.


Subject(s)
Aging , Humans , Aged , Male , Female , Aging/physiology , Adult , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Cognition/physiology , Reaction Time/physiology , Age Factors , Aged, 80 and over
13.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1584, 2024 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since physical activity is an important determinant of physical and mental health, lower levels of physical activity among mothers reported in previous research are concerning. The aim of this study was to examine whether physical activity levels differ among mothers depending on the age of the youngest child. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the German National Cohort study, comprising 3959 mothers aged 22-72 years with offspring aged 0-54 years (grouped into 0-5, 6-11, 12-17, 18-29 and > 30 years) was used. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) was used to assess physical activity among mothers in leisure time, transport and (occupational and non-occupational) work settings, quantified as MET-minutes per week. Means (with 95% confidence interval) of mothers' weekly MET-minutes were visualized in graphs, stratified by mothers' and the youngest child's age. Linear regression analyses assessed the association between the child's age and self-reported time and intensity of mothers' physical activity within each activity domain and for the total physical activity. RESULTS: Adjusted results suggested that the MET-minutes in work settings were lower among mothers with younger children. This association was clearest in mothers whose youngest child was under 12 years old, among whom lower self-reported physical activity at work compared to mothers with children at age 30 and older was found. No association was observed between the age of the youngest child and mothers' MET-minutes in leisure nor in transport settings. The self-reported physical activity of mothers whose youngest child was in the same child age group was found to be lower with increased maternal age. As expected, the work related activity dominated the self-reported physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: The results show differences in mothers' self-reported physical activity by the age of the youngest child. The strongest difference was related to physical activity in work settings, indicating the need for supportive actions.


Subject(s)
Mothers , Humans , Germany , Adult , Child, Preschool , Female , Middle Aged , Mothers/statistics & numerical data , Mothers/psychology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adolescent , Young Adult , Infant , Cohort Studies , Aged , Age Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Leisure Activities/psychology , Motor Activity , Exercise/psychology , Infant, Newborn , Male
14.
J Aging Stud ; 69: 101234, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834254

ABSTRACT

Age categories are related to perceptions and norms concerning appropriate behaviour, appearances, expectations, and so forth. In Sweden, municipal home care and residential care are commonly referred to as "elder care", primarily catering to individuals in their 80s or 90s. However, there is no set age limit reserving these services for an older age group. In intra-professional case conferences, care managers convene with colleagues to discuss care needs and eligibility for elder care services. Despite their significance, these conferences have received limited scholarly attention. The aim of this study was to analyse how care managers categorise persons based on age in intra-professional case conferences when discussing care needs and appropriate support to meet these needs. The study utilised data from 39 audio-recorded case conferences involving the discussion of 137 different cases, which were analysed using discourse analysis. Our findings showed that chronological age was frequently made relevant and applied in discussions about the appropriateness of usual elder care services. Four themes emerged, representing how the care managers implicitly and explicitly categorised clients of different chronological ages as typical/normal or atypical/deviant in these discussions: the "too young", the "not-so-old", the "old", and the "extraordinarily old". The findings contribute to research on ageing by demonstrating that, in an elder care context, being categorised as atypical/deviant (in terms of being younger) may be more beneficial than being seen as a normal or older elder care recipient. This underscores the importance of further research on the impact of informal age categorisations of clients on actual decisions about welfare services.


Subject(s)
Health Services for the Aged , Humans , Sweden , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Male , Aged , Case Managers , Middle Aged , Age Factors
15.
J Allied Health ; 53(2): 155-160, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834343

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The highest rates mTBI occurrence are seen among geriatric populations (ages ≥65), and these patients often have persistent and untreated symptoms. This study's purpose was to explore mild traumatic brain injury initial onset (mTBI-IN) and mild traumatic brain injury subsequent (mTBI-S) emergency department (ED) visit population percentages and associations with geriatric (population ages ≥65), sex, and fall mechanism of injury. METHODS: The design was a population-based cross-sectional study using data from the 2018 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS). Study sample size was 261,349. An independent t-test was used to investigate mean age differences between mTBI-IN and mTBI-S. Pearson's chi-squared correlational analyses were used to investigate associations of age, sex, and fall injury with mTBI-IN and mTBI-S. RESULTS: The mean age of those in 2018 with ED visits suggested that age was older for those patients with mTBI-S (age mean, 50.4 yrs) than those with mTBI-IN (age mean, 41.4 yrs) (95% CI 9.77, 8.30; p=0.025). The number of visits for those aged ≥65 was significantly associated with mTBI-S (p<0.001). More males than females reported mTBI-S ED visits in all ages (p=0.022). Falls injury alone was not found to be significantly associated with visits (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Those returning to the ED for continued care after mTBI were associated with those aged ≥65. Monitoring after mTBI ED visits may need to target geriatric populations for medical management.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Brain Concussion , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Male , Female , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Middle Aged , Brain Concussion/epidemiology , Adult , Sex Factors , Age Factors , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Adolescent , Emergency Room Visits
16.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 33(6): e5814, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38837561

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Methylphenidate (MPH) is a common treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Concern has been raised regarding its cardiovascular safety, partly in relation with its micromolar affinity for the 5-HT2B receptor, whose activation may result in valvular heart disease (VHD). METHODS: To explore the association between the use of MPH and VHD reporting, we performed a disproportionality analysis within the WHO global safety database (VigiBase) using data, since inception until March 6th 2024, from: (i) the full database and (ii) different age groups (children/adolescents 6-17 years; adults 18-64 years). To avoid competition bias, safety reports with amphetamine-like appetite suppressants were excluded. Disproportionality was expressed using reporting odds-ratio (ROR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Of 29 129 spontaneous reports with MPH, 23 VHD cases (7.9 per 10 000 reports) were identified, including 13 adults and 10 children. Most cases concerned injury on the mitral valve. A disproportionate reporting was observed overall (ROR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4). Analysis according to age group found that disproportionality in VHD reporting was found in adults only (ROR 2.7, 95% CI 1.6-4.7) but not in children/adolescents (ROR 1.7, 95% CI 0.9-3.2). Furthermore, amongst MPH users only, VHD reporting was higher in adults compared to children (ROR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.3). CONCLUSION: VHD reporting appears rare with MPH compared to other adverse events and is increased in adults only. Our findings support a potential safety signal of VHD in adults exposed to MPH. A risk in that population cannot be excluded and requires further assessment.


Subject(s)
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Central Nervous System Stimulants , Databases, Factual , Heart Valve Diseases , Methylphenidate , Pharmacovigilance , Humans , Adolescent , Child , Heart Valve Diseases/chemically induced , Heart Valve Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , Young Adult , Methylphenidate/adverse effects , Male , Central Nervous System Stimulants/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Female , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/drug therapy , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems/statistics & numerical data , Databases, Factual/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors
17.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 27(5): 628-634, 2024 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842712

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The hormonal and metabolic changes that occur during uncomplicated pregnancy affect the eye. The effects of maternal age and parity on the physiological eye changes in pregnancy have been scarcely documented. AIM: To determine these effects on some physiological eye changes that occur in pregnancy. METHODS: A longitudinal study involving consecutively recruited 140 pregnant women aged 18-48 years attending antenatal clinic at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu. A structured questionnaire was administered to consenting women, after which the Schirmer test, tear break-up time (tBUT), corneal sensitivity, central corneal thickness (CCT), and intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured in the second and third trimesters, and six weeks after delivery. RESULTS: The mean CCT showed a significantly greater increase among the multiparous (≥para 2) women in both the second and third trimesters compared with the primigravida/primiparous women (P = 0.032 and 0.049, respectively). There was no difference in mean CCT between the two parity groups at six weeks postpartum. Women aged 18-35 years showed a significantly greater increase in the mean CCT in the second trimester compared to those aged less than 35 years (P = 0.04). However, there was no difference in the mean CCT between the different age groups in the third trimester and at six weeks postpartum. CONCLUSION: The age and parity of women affect their level of CCT changes in pregnancy. Consideration of this effect may guide clinicians on their approaches to eye care and treatment during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Parity , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Parity/physiology , Prospective Studies , Young Adult , Longitudinal Studies , Adolescent , Nigeria , Middle Aged , Intraocular Pressure/physiology , Cornea/physiology , Age Factors , Maternal Age , Tears/physiology , Tears/metabolism
18.
Ann Med ; 56(1): 2361254, 2024 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833367

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Injury rates in competitive alpine skiing are high. With current methods, identifying people at risk is expensive and thus often not feasible at the youth level. The aims of this study were (1) to describe the jump performance and movement quality of youth competitive alpine skiers according to age and sex, (2) to compare the jump distance among skiers of different sexes and movement quality grades, and (3) to assess the inter-rater grading reliability of the qualitative visual movement quality classification of such jumps and the agreement between live and video-based post-exercise grading. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study is based on an anonymized dataset of 301 7- to 15-year-old competitive alpine skiers. The skiers performed two-legged forward triple jumps, whereby the jump distance was measured, and grades were assigned by experienced raters from the frontal and sagittal perspectives depending on the execution quality of the jumps. Furthermore, jumps were filmed and ultimately rated post-exercise. Differences in jump distance between various groups were assessed by multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs). Reliability was determined using Kendall's coefficient of concordance. RESULTS: The jump distance was significantly greater in U16 skiers than in U11 skiers of both sexes and in skiers with good execution quality than in those with reduced or poor execution quality. Overall, jump distance in U16 skiers significantly differed between female (5.37 m with 95% CI [5.21, 5.53]) and male skiers (5.90 m with 95%CI [5.69, 6.10]). Slightly better inter-rater grading reliability was observed for video-based post-exercise (strong agreement) ratings than for live ratings (moderate agreement). CONCLUSION: In competitive alpine skiers aged 7 to 15 years, jump performance increases with age, and around puberty, sex differences start to manifest. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating both jump distance and movement quality in youth skiers. To improve test-retest reliability, however, a video-based post-exercise evaluation is recommended.


In youth competitive alpine skiers, jump performance and movement quality matter, and both should be trained and tested.A qualitative assessment of movement quality while jumping by experts is a highly scalable and cost-effective approach; however, to ensure sufficient test-retest reliability, the assessment criteria need to be standardised and an additional video-based post-exercise assessment is recommended.


Subject(s)
Athletic Performance , Skiing , Humans , Skiing/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adolescent , Female , Male , Child , Athletic Performance/physiology , Athletic Performance/statistics & numerical data , Movement/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Sex Factors , Age Factors
19.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 655, 2024 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835001

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Disturbances in the oral mucosa is a major concern among patients undergoing chemotherapy. One of the most significant barriers in the implementation of oral care is the lack of knowledge. The aim of the study was to assess gingival and periodontal health status of chemotherapy patients before and after the provision of oral hygiene instructions. METHODS: A single group, pre-post test was conducted to assess oral health status of patients at the daycare chemotherapy, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Oral hygiene instructions were given with study models and leaflets. Patients were followed for 6-weeks. Oral health was assessed by using Simplified-Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Differences in indices were analyzed in STATA version-15.0 using Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) and Wilcoxon Signed-rank test. RESULTS: Out of 74, 53 (72%) patients completed study follow-up. Improvement in the OHI-S was found in 14 (26%) patients (p-value < 0.001). GEE showed that age [adjusted OR = 1.10; 95% CI: 1.03-1.11], current chemotherapy cycle [adjusted OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 0.98-1.46], highest education level [Adjusted OR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.08-12.7] and cancer therapy [Adjusted OR = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.24-0.55] were significantly associated with the change in OHI-S. Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed positive changes in the CPI (p-value < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Basic oral hygiene instructional intervention can be effective in improving the oral hygiene of chemotherapy patients. Nurses should also play a key role in providing psychological and nutritional support to patients.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Oral Health , Oral Hygiene , Humans , Female , Male , Oral Hygiene/education , Adult , Middle Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Periodontal Index , Tertiary Care Centers , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Oral Hygiene Index , Age Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Pakistan , Young Adult , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Aged
20.
Int J Public Health ; 69: 1607063, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835806

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study investigates gender and sex disparities in COVID-19 epidemiology in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland, focusing on the interplay with socioeconomic position (SEP) and age. Methods: We analyzed COVID-19 surveillance data from March 2020 to June 2021, using an intersectional approach. Negative binomial regression models assessed disparities between women and men, across SEP quintiles and age groups, in testing, positivity, hospitalizations, ICU admissions, and mortality (Incidence Rate Ratios [IRR], with 95% Confidence Intervals [CI]). Results: Women had higher testing and positivity rates than men, while men experienced more hospitalizations, ICU admissions, and deaths. The higher positivity in women under 50 was mitigated when accounting for their higher testing rates. Within SEP quintiles, gender/sex differences in testing and positivity were not significant. In the lowest quintile, women's mortality risk was 68% lower (Q1: IRR 0.32, CI 0.20-0.52), with decreasing disparities with increasing SEP quintiles (Q5: IRR 0.66, CI 0.41-1.06). Conclusion: Our findings underscore the complex epidemiological patterns of COVID-19, shaped by the interactions of gender/sex, SEP, and age, highlighting the need for intersectional perspectives in both epidemiological research and public health strategy development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Socioeconomic Factors , Humans , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/epidemiology , Switzerland/epidemiology , Female , Male , Middle Aged , Adult , Aged , Sex Factors , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Health Status Disparities , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data
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