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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246803, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339417

ABSTRACT

Abstract Traditional medicine is cheaper and easily available to local people, to care for most frequent diseases in the Northern parts of Pakistan. Our study aimed at inventorying medicine from local plants, documenting their uses, and assessing their market value in 2015-2018 during spring, summer, and winter seasons. A total of 15 trips were made, 5 in each season. Semi-structured interviews with 165 inhabitant's age range between 20-80 years were conducted, analyzed the data is analyzed using Relative frequency of citation(RFC), Use Value(UV), Fidelity Level(FL), Informants consensus factor(ICF), and Jaccard index(JI) to find the most frequent and well-known used species in the area. A total of 86 species belonging to 39 vascular plant families, 33 genera were documented as medicinally important. Family Asteraceae was observed as the dominant family among all the families with 10 species, the leaf was the most used parts and decoction 36% was the most preferred preparation type. Herb was the predominant life form (67%). The maximum UV (0.92) was demonstrated by J. adhatoda L. species, while A. sativum L. shows maximum RFC (0.58), the highest ICF value represented by diarrhea and dermatitis 0.92, and high FL value is recorded 100%. According to our collections, wild species were 45%, invasive species were 38% and cultivated 17% recorded, dicots species were recorded more 81%. Seven 7 medicinal species is being economically important and export to the local and international market of the world, whereas P. integrima L. species were the most exported species according to the local dealers. The investigated area is rural and the local people depend on the area's plants for their health needs, and other uses like a vegetable, fuelwood, fodder, etc. The current result of RFC, UV, ICF, FL, and JI shows that medicinal flora needs to be pharmacologically and phytochemically investigated to prove their efficacy. The documentation of medicinal knowledge is important to preserve this precious old knowledge before it is lost forever, due to technological and environmental changes in the world.


Resumo A medicina tradicional é mais barata e facilmente disponível à população local para cuidar das doenças mais frequentes nas áreas do norte do Paquistão. Nosso estudo teve como objetivo inventariar medicamentos de plantas locais, documentar seus usos e avaliar seu valor de mercado em 2015-2018 durante as temporadas de primavera, verão e inverno. Foram feitas 15 viagens, 5 em cada temporada. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com 165 moradores na faixa etária de 20 a 80 anos, com dados analisados ​​por meio de frequência relativa de citação (RFC), valor de uso (UV), nível de fidelidade (FL), fator de consenso de informantes (CIF), e o índice de Jaccard (JI) para encontrar as espécies utilizadas mais frequentes e conhecidas na área. Um total de 86 espécies pertencentes a 39 famílias de plantas vasculares, 33 gêneros foram documentados como medicamente importantes. A família Asteraceae foi observada como a família dominante entre todas as famílias com 10 espécies, a folha foi a parte mais utilizada e a decocção 36% foi o tipo de preparação mais preferido. A erva foi a forma de vida predominante (67%). O UV máximo (0,92) foi demonstrado pelas espécies de J. adhatoda L., enquanto A. sativum L. mostra RFC máximo (0,58), o maior valor de ICF representado por diarreia e dermatite 0,92, e alto valor de FL é registrado 100%. De acordo com nossas coleções, as espécies selvagens foram 45%, as espécies invasoras 38% e as cultivadas 17% registradas, as espécies dicotiledôneas foram registradas mais 81%. Sete espécies medicinais estão sendo economicamente importantes e exportadas para o mercado local e internacional do mundo, enquanto as espécies de P. integrima L. foram as espécies mais exportadas de acordo com os comerciantes locais. A área investigada é rural e a população local depende das plantas da área para suas necessidades de saúde e outros usos como vegetal, lenha, forragem etc. O resultado atual de RFC, UV, ICF, FL e JI mostra que a flora medicinal precisa ser investigada farmacológica e fitoquimicamente para comprovar sua eficácia. A documentação do conhecimento medicinal é importante para preservar esse precioso conhecimento antigo antes que se perca para sempre, devido às mudanças tecnológicas e ambientais do mundo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Plants, Medicinal , Pakistan , Surveys and Questionnaires , Plant Leaves , Ethnobotany , Phytotherapy , Medicine, Traditional
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246385, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339384

ABSTRACT

Abstract Coronary heart disease (CHD) has been associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although remain controversial, several studies have demonstrated the association of M. pneumoniae infections with atherosclerosis. We evaluated the possible association of mycoplasma infections in patients diagnosed with atherosclerosis by ELISA and PCR methods. Atherosclerotic tissue samples and blood samples were collected for the detection of mycoplasma antibodies (IgA) by ELISA from the 97 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). M. pneumoniae specific IgA, IgG and IgM were measured by using the Anti-M. pneumoniae IgA/IgG/IgM ELISA. Detection of M. pneumoniae targeting the P1 adhesion gene was performed by PCR Acute infection of M. pneumoniae was diagnosed in 43.3% (42) of patients by PCR. The M. pneumoniae specific antibodies were detected in 36.1% (35) of patients. Twenty-five (25.8%) cases had IgG antibodies, 15 (15.5%) cases had IgM antibodies, 3 (3.1%) cases had IgA antibodies, 10 (10.3%) cases had both IgM + IgG antibodies and 1 (1%) case of each had IgM + IgA and IgG + IgA antibodies. None of the cases was positive for all three antibodies. A Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed an excellent correlation between the PCR and the serological results (r=0.921, p<0.001). A majority (17, 40.5%) of the M. pneumoniae positive patients are within the 41-50 years of age group, followed by 10 (23.8%) patients in the age group of 61-70 years and 2 (4.8%) patients were >70 years of age. Our study reported an unusually higher prevalence of M. pneumoniae by serological tests (36.1%) and PCR (43.3%). Although the hypothesis of the association of M. pneumoniae and CAD is yet to be proven, the unusually high prevalence of M. pneumoniae in CAD patients indicates an association, if not, in the development of atherosclerosis.


Resumo A doença coronariana (DCC) tem sido associada a significativa morbidade e mortalidade em todo o mundo. Embora ainda sejam controversos, vários estudos têm demonstrado a associação de infecções por M. pneumoniae com aterosclerose. Avaliamos a possível associação de infecções por micoplasma em pacientes com diagnóstico de aterosclerose pelos métodos ELISA e PCR. Amostras de tecido aterosclerótico e amostras de sangue foram coletadas para a detecção de anticorpos contra micoplasma (IgA) por ELISA de 97 pacientes com doença arterial coronariana (DAC). IgA, IgG e IgM específicos para M. pneumoniae foram medidos usando o Anti-M. pneumoniae IgA / IgG / IgM ELISA. A detecção de M. pneumoniae visando o gene de adesão P1 foi realizada por PCR. A infecção aguda por M. pneumoniae foi diagnosticada em 43,3% (42) dos pacientes pela PCR. Os anticorpos específicos para M. pneumoniae foram detectados em 36,1% (35) dos pacientes. Vinte e cinco (25,8%) casos tinham anticorpos IgG, 15 (15,5%) casos tinham anticorpos IgM, 3 (3,1%) casos tinham anticorpos IgA, 10 (10,3%) casos tinham anticorpos IgM + IgG e 1 (1%) caso de cada um tinha anticorpos IgM + IgA e IgG + IgA. Nenhum dos casos foi positivo para os três anticorpos. A análise do coeficiente de correlação de Pearson revelou uma excelente correlação entre o PCR e os resultados sorológicos (r = 0,921, p < 0,001). A maioria (17, 40,5%) dos pacientes positivos para M. pneumoniae está na faixa etária de 41-50 anos, seguida por 10 (23,8%) pacientes na faixa etária de 61-70 anos e 2 (4,8%) pacientes tinham > 70 anos de idade. Nosso estudo relatou uma prevalência incomumente maior de M. pneumoniae por testes sorológicos (36,1%) e PCR (43,3%). Embora a hipótese da associação de M. pneumoniae e DAC ainda não tenha sido comprovada, a prevalência incomumente alta de M. pneumoniae em pacientes com DAC indica uma associação, se não, no desenvolvimento de aterosclerose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Mycoplasma Infections/diagnosis , Mycoplasma Infections/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin M , Prevalence , Antibodies, Bacterial , Mycoplasma pneumoniae
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244435, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285619

ABSTRACT

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Resumo A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia hemorrágica em crianças. Essas infecções podem ser fatais para crianças pequenas e idosos. Há um incentivo para encontrar medidas de controle alternativas, como extratos de plantas e ervas, especialmente em países menos desenvolvidos, onde os antibióticos tradicionais podem não estar prontamente disponíveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Aged , Pomegranate , Staphylococcus aureus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Escherichia coli , Anti-Infective Agents
4.
Anticancer Res ; 42(4): 2095-2104, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347033

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: The standard of treatment for esophageal cancer with adjacent organ invasion (T4) has not been established. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcomes of radiotherapy (RT) in elderly and younger patients with T4 esophageal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-nine patients with T4 esophageal cancer who underwent RT at the Kanagawa Cancer Center between January 2014 and November 2020 were included in this study. Patients aged ≥70 years were defined as the elderly group and those aged <70 years were defined as the younger group. The total dose of RT was set at 60 Gy in 30 fractions. Chemotherapy combined with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin was administered concurrently with RT in general. The overall survival (OS) rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Adverse events were assessed using CTCAE v4.0. RESULTS: The median survival time (MST) of the elderly group (n=35) was 21.5 months, and the OS rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 63.7%, 31.3%, and 15.6%, respectively. The MST of the younger group (n=34) was 12.5 months, and the OS rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 52.2%, 29.4%, and 29.4%, respectively. No significant difference in OS was observed between the two groups (p=0.767). Toxicities were not significantly different between the two groups except for thrombocytopenia and esophageal fistula (p=0.012 and p=0.022, respectively). CONCLUSION: The clinical outcomes of RT for T4 esophageal cancer in elderly patients were generally similar to those in the younger group.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Esophageal Neoplasms , Aged , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/radiotherapy , Chemoradiotherapy/adverse effects , Chemoradiotherapy/methods , Cisplatin/adverse effects , Esophageal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Esophageal Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies
5.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 24(4): 684-692, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34957654

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate whether upper gastrointestinal (GI) disease has any effect on the exposure of oral semaglutide, an important consideration given that its absorption occurs primarily in the stomach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an open-label, parallel-group trial (NCT02877355), subjects aged 18-80 years with type 2 diabetes with mild-to-moderate upper GI disease (N = 36; chronic gastritis [n = 5], gastroesophageal reflux disease [n = 8], and both [n = 23]) or without upper GI disease (N = 19) received oral semaglutide 3 mg once daily for 5 days, followed by 7 mg for 5 days. The primary and key supportive endpoints were the area under the semaglutide plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0 to 24 hours after last trial product administration on day 10 (AUC0-24h,day10 ) and the maximum semaglutide plasma concentration (Cmax,day10 ), respectively. RESULTS: Semaglutide exposure was not statistically significantly different between subjects with and without upper GI disease. Estimated group ratios (subjects with/without upper GI disease) were 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80, 1.75) for AUC0-24h,day10 and 1.16 (95% CI, 0.77, 1.76) for Cmax . Time to Cmax and semaglutide half-life were similar in subjects with and without upper GI disease. Oral semaglutide was well tolerated; all adverse events were mild-to-moderate, with no withdrawals because of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in exposure to oral semaglutide in subjects with or without upper GI disease, hence no dose adjustment is required.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Administration, Oral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/chemically induced , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Diseases/chemically induced , Gastrointestinal Diseases/drug therapy , Glucagon-Like Peptides , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Middle Aged , Young Adult
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 424, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The "4 + 7" volume-based procurement is a "large group purchase" led by the Chinese government, with the aim of reducing the price of medicines by trading volume for price. Although the "4 + 7" drugs had passed the national consistency evaluation, the adverse drug reactions need to be further evaluated to ensure the safety of the "4 + 7" drugs with low prices. We aimed to analyze the occurrence characteristics and related influencing factors of adverse reactions of psychiatric drugs under the chinese drug volume-based procurement policy(4 + 7 policy), and provide references for clinical medication. METHODS: 137 cases of adverse drug reactions of four psychotropic drugs reported under the "4 + 7" policy in Wuxi Mental Health Center in 2020 were collected. The gender and age of patients, related "4 + 7" drugs, involving organs / systems, clinical manifestations, distribution of new / serious adverse reactions, clinic outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 137 cases of adverse drug reactions, the incidence of adverse drug reactions was the highest in patients aged 61-70 (25.38%). Mainly involved 4 "4 + 7" psychiatric drugs, of which olanzapine tablets caused the most adverse reactions (54, 39.24%). The adverse reactions mainly involved the digestive system, nervous system, cardiovascular system, blood and lymphatic system, among which the digestive system was the most common (61, 44.53%). A total of 8 cases (6.16%) of new and 26 cases of serious adverse reactions were reported, all of which led to the prolongation of disease course. Except for the transient side effects, most of that were improved or cured with no death, disability or teratogenicity after stopping or reducing the dose with symptomatic treatment. CONCLUSION: Since more and more drugs will be included in "4 + 7" for clinic, clinical pharmacists should strengthen the publicity and training of the knowledge of "4 + 7" drugs, strengthen the monitoring of adverse drug reactions, and provide timely feedback to the clinic, in order to achieve early prevention, early identification, timely diagnosis and reasonable intervention of the adverse drug reactions under the context of "4 + 7" policy.


Subject(s)
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Aged , China/epidemiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Psychotropic Drugs/adverse effects , Public Policy
7.
Mol Hum Reprod ; 28(1)2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34954800

ABSTRACT

Sperm DNA damage is considered a predictive factor for the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing ART. Laboratory evidence suggests that zygotes and developing embryos have adopted specific response and repair mechanisms to repair DNA damage of paternal origin. We have conducted a systematic review in accordance with guidelines from Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) to identify and review the maternal mechanisms used to respond and repair sperm DNA damage during early embryonic development, how these mechanisms operate and their potential clinical implications. The literature search was conducted in Ovid MEDLINE and Embase databases until May 2021. Out of 6297 articles initially identified, 36 studies were found to be relevant through cross referencing and were fully extracted. The collective evidence in human and animal models indicate that the early embryo has the capacity to repair DNA damage within sperm by activating maternally driven mechanisms throughout embryonic development. However, this capacity is limited and likely declines with age. The link between age and decreased DNA repair capacity could explain decreased oocyte quality in older women, poor reproductive outcomes in idiopathic cases and patients who present high sperm DNA damage. Ultimately, further understanding mechanisms underlying the maternal repair of sperm DNA damage could lead to the development of targeted therapies to decrease sperm DNA damage, improved oocyte quality to combat incoming DNA insults or lead to development of methodologies to identify individual spermatozoa without DNA damage.


Subject(s)
DNA Damage , DNA Repair , Aged , Animals , DNA Damage/genetics , DNA Repair/genetics , Embryonic Development/genetics , Female , Humans , Male , Oocytes/physiology , Pregnancy , Spermatozoa/physiology
8.
J Biomech ; 134: 111002, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202964

ABSTRACT

Whether muscle properties gradually change with age and how muscle properties are affected by sex remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the influence of age and sex on the biomechanical and viscoelastic properties of arm muscles in middle-aged and older adults. In this cross-sectional study, 80 healthy participants were divided by sex (male and female), and each sex group, by 10-year age ranges (40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 years). Muscle properties, including tone, stiffness, elasticity, and mechanical stress relaxation time, were measured with the MyotonPRO. Our results showed that the muscle tone and elasticity of the deltoid and flexor carpi radialis, and the muscle tone of the flexor carpi ulnaris, were significantly greater in men than in women, whereas the stress relaxation time of the triceps was significantly greater in women than in men. Significantly greater muscle stiffness in the biceps brachii was found in the participants over 50 years old. Less muscle elasticity was found in the deltoid, triceps, and flexor carpi ulnaris in those over 70 years old. In conclusion, age and sex have considerable impacts on upper-limb muscle properties in middle-aged and older adults, which should be taken into consideration when planning health promotion projects.


Subject(s)
Sex Characteristics , Upper Extremity , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Pilot Projects
9.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(2): 219-227, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130073

ABSTRACT

Theoretical research suggests that racialized felony disenfranchisement-a form of structural racism-is likely to undermine the health of Black people, yet empirical studies on the topic are scant. We used administrative data on disproportionate felony disenfranchisement of Black residents across US states, linked to geocoded individual-level health data from the 2016 Health and Retirement Study, to estimate race-specific regression models describing the relationship between racialized disenfranchisement and health among middle-aged and older adults, adjusting for other individual- and state-level factors. Results show that living in states with higher levels of racialized disenfranchisement is associated with more depressive symptoms, more functional limitations, more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living, and more difficulty performing activities of daily living among Black people. However, there are no statistically significant relationships between racialized disenfranchisement and health among White people. These findings suggest that policies aiming to mitigate disproportionate Black felony disenfranchisement not only are essential for political inclusion but also may be valuable tools for improving population health equity.


Subject(s)
Health Equity , Population Health , Racism , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , United States
10.
Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther ; 54(1): 1-2, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193330

ABSTRACT

I have attentively read the article "Minute Zero: an essential assessment in peri-operative ultrasound for anaesthesia" by Elena Segura-Grau et al. [1]. The authors have suggested using point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) as part of a comprehensive anaesthetic assessment in the perioperative period. Such an extension of the standard perioperative examination aimed at searching for pathologies that may affect the intra- and postoperative course performed by an anaes-thesiologist seems fully justified and may have a significant impact on treatment outcomes [2]. In the "Minute Zero" model, the authors have suggested that POCUS assessment of anaesthetised patients should be carried out twice - on admission to the operating theatre and before transfer to the postoperative ward. The described scheme is based on the well-known eFAST, FATE and BLUE protocols (assessment to determine the presence of free fluid in the body cavities, basic cardiac assessment, including IVC, and lung ultrasound assessment). The examination conducted in the manner specified by the authors provides a general but holistic picture of the patient, focused at detecting life-threatening pathologies. It is right to include a preoperative assessment of the filling of the stomach in the protocol, as the surface area of the pylorus found on ultrasound scans indicates the risk of aspiration during the induction of general anaesthesia [3, 4]. This may be of particular importance in patients undergoing emergency procedures, with gastrointestinal obstruction or in those with difficult contact (mainly children and the elderly). In the algorithm described, the assessment of bladder filling in the postoperative period has been emphasised. This is a huge asset, which is often overlooked and, as the authors rightly point out, can cause postoperative delirium, especially in the elderly. The authors have developed an examination card that enables to document the examination in a simple and transparent manner based on markings of the appropriate blanks, which makes the protocol very friendly. The additional pros of the publication are the attached sample ultrasound images, which perfectly illustrate the ease of diagnosis of basic pathologies.


Subject(s)
Anesthesiology , Anesthetics , Aged , Anesthesia, General , Child , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , Ultrasonography/methods
11.
JBJS Case Connect ; 12(1)2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35108232

ABSTRACT

CASE: A 79-year-old man 6 days status-post left total knee arthroplasty (TKA) presented to our institution from an outside hospital (OSH) after a suspected STEMI and ventricular fibrillation arrest. At the OSH, intraosseous (IO) access was placed in his right tibia. Orthopaedics was consulted for compartment syndrome at the IO access site. X-rays demonstrated this was secondary to the IO access abutting the cement mantle of a stemmed tibial component of a remote TKA, for which the patient required emergent fasciotomies. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare providers should be cognizant of potential orthopaedic hardware that can impede proper introduction of IO access.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Compartment Syndromes , Aged , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Bone Cements/adverse effects , Compartment Syndromes/etiology , Compartment Syndromes/surgery , Humans , Male , Radiography , Tibia/surgery
12.
J Visc Surg ; 159(1): 21-30, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349570

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To determine the statistical indicators aimed at identifying patients for whom ambulatory colectomy could be proposed without additional risk. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The medical charts of patients who benefited from scheduled colonic or rectal resection during conventional hospitalization stays between 2018 and 2019 were reviewed. Eligibility for ambulatory colectomy was defined by hospital stay≤4 days and absence of any postoperative complication. Patient characteristics were compared, and the results were modeled in the form of a decision-making tree. The effect of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol for each sub-group was calculated. RESULTS: One hundred and ten (110) patients were selected (41 "eligible" and 69 "non-eligible"). Median age was 73 years (27-95). Nearly 80% of the patients were operated for cancer. In multivariate analysis, age (≥65 years, OR=3.15, CI95%=1.22-8.12), diabetes (OR=3.91, CI95%=1.03-14.8) and indication (sigmoidectomy for diverticulosis, OR=0.21, CI=95%=0.05-0.9) were the only identified independent variables. Likelihood for ambulatory eligibility was 83.3% (<65 years, sigmoidectomy pour diverticulosis, +ERAS=92%-96.9%), 58.3% (<65 years, other indication, +ERAS=63.4%-89.9%), 35.7% (≥65 years without diabetes, +ERAS=40.0%-55.9%) and 8.3% (≥65 years with diabetes, +ERAS=10.0%-20.1%). CONCLUSION: Sigmoidectomy for diverticulosis in a patient under 65 years age represents the best indication for ambulatory colectomy, a procedure that must not be proposed to diabetic patients over 65 years of age. In the other cases (<65 years operated in another indication and non-diabetic≥65 years), ambulatory surgery is possible, pending satisfactory application of the ERAS protocol.


Subject(s)
Enhanced Recovery After Surgery , Laparoscopy , Proctectomy , Aged , Colectomy/methods , Colon/surgery , Humans , Laparoscopy/methods , Length of Stay , Postoperative Complications/etiology
13.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 26(1): 22-28, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a herpes virus that causes latent infections, and its reactivation due to immunosuppression can cause fatal complications. CMV reactivation is a complication frequently occurring in patients with kidney disease who require immunosuppressive therapy, and, therefore, this study retrospectively examined its risk factors. METHODS: Patients who received immunosuppressive therapy and underwent the CMV antigenemia test (CMV antigenemia: C7-HRP) for the treatment of primary nephritis (minimal change disease, membranous nephropathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, focal glomerulosclerosis, and IgA nephropathy) and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated nephritis diagnosed at Saiseikai Kurihashi Hospital from January 2014 to December 2019 were recruited as study participants. Risk factors of CMV reactivation were examined using univariable and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: Among the 64 patients (36 men and 28 women; median age, 72 years) included, 34 had primary nephritis (20 minimal disease changes, 10 membranous nephropathy, 1 membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, 1 focal glomerulosclerosis, and 2 IgA nephropathy) and 30 had ANCA-associated nephritis. Regarding glucocorticoid (GC), 43 patients received oral GC therapy, whereas 21 received GC pulse therapy. CMV reactivation participants showed significant differences in age, ANCA-associated nephritis, hemoglobin level, lymphocyte count, maximum GC dosage, and hemodialysis in univariable analysis. Multivariate analysis showed significantly lower lymphocyte counts in CMV-reactivated patients, but no significant difference in other factors. CONCLUSION: In patients with kidney disease, who require immunosuppressive therapy, CMV reactivation risk is high in patients with low lymphocyte count, and monitoring CMV during the treatment course could lead to early diagnosis and treatment of CMV disease.


Subject(s)
Cytomegalovirus , Kidney Diseases , Aged , Female , Humans , Kidney Diseases/diagnosis , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Virus Activation
14.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 120, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361191

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anti-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (anti-ARS) antibodies are myositis-specific autoantibodies that have been identified in a subset of patients with interstitial pneumonia who do not present with dermatomyositis or polymyositis. Anti-ARS antibody-positive interstitial pneumonia is commonly treated with steroids or immunosuppressive agents and is usually responsive to these therapies. Here, we present in detail a case in which respiratory failure of a patient diagnosed with anti-ARS antibody-positive interstitial pneumonia was exacerbated by treatment with steroids and immunosuppressive agents. Further examination revealed misdiagnosis of this patient and a subsequent diagnosis of autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 66-year-old man presented to the hospital with dyspnea on exertion, which resulted in the detection of interstitial pneumonia. Serum anti-ARS antibodies were detected; however, there were no other findings suggestive of myositis. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) was suspected based on the marked increase in serum KL-6 and chest computed tomography findings. The bronchoalveolar lavage revealed no milky changes in the lavage fluid. After treatment with steroids and initiation of immunosuppressive agents for anti-ARS antibody-positive interstitial pneumonia, respiratory failure and chest imaging findings showed worsening of the condition. Bronchoscopy was repeated, and milk-like alveolar lavage fluid was collected; serum anti-granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor antibody was identified. Steroids and immunosuppressive agents were gradually tapered and discontinued, and the patient's condition stabilized after repeated alveolar lavage under general anesthesia. CONCLUSION: Due to similar presentation, PAP can be misdiagnosed as interstitial pneumonia. If pulmonary lesions due to interstitial pneumonia are exacerbated by immunosuppressive treatment, physicians should reconsider the diagnosis and include PAP in the differential diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases , Autoimmune Diseases , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis , Aged , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Diagnostic Errors , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Male , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/drug therapy
15.
J Mol Neurosci ; 72(2): 187-200, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415549

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of the elderly described by progressive cognitive debility. Recent studies have displayed the significance of linear and circular long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the pathobiology of Alzheimer's disease. These studies have reported the downregulation of MALAT1, while the upregulation of NEAT1, RP11-543N12.1, SOX21-AS1, BDNF-AS, BACE1-AS, ANRIL, XIST, and some other linear lncRNAs in clinical samples are obtained from these patients or animal models of Alzheimer's disease. A number of circRNAs such as ciRS-7, ciRS-7, circNF1-419, circHDAC9, circ_0000950,and circAß-a have been shown to partake in the pathogenesis of this disorder. In the present manuscript, we provide a review of the impact of linear and circular lncRNAs in the pathobiology of Alzheimer's disease and their potential application as markers for this neurodegenerative condition.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , RNA, Long Noncoding , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases , Animals , Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases , Humans , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/metabolism
16.
MedEdPORTAL ; 18: 11234, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35497675

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Efforts to improve pain education and knowledge about prescription opioid misuse and opioid/substance use disorder in undergraduate medical education continue to be inadequate. To advance educational practices and address training needs to counter the opioid epidemic, we created a longitudinal pain and addiction curriculum that includes three patient vignettes in which the patient requests an early refill of opioid medication. The goal was to introduce students to the potential impact of personal biases on health care delivery and medical decision-making with patients who have pain and/or substance use disorders. Methods: Three clinical vignettes were presented to early matriculating medical students (MS 1s) using a progressive case disclosure approach in the format of a PowerPoint presentation with embedded audio interactions and follow-up audience response system questions. The same vignettes were converted into OSCEs for early clinical clerkship students (MS 3s). Results: A total of 180 MS 1s participated in the case presentations, and 124 MS 3s participated in the OSCE session. There was a significant difference between students' level of comfort and individual patient requests for early prescription refills in both student cohorts. MS 1s were significantly more likely to provide the early refill to the elderly female patient compared to the two middle-age male patients, whereas a majority of MS 3s wanted more information. Discussion: This module can be presented to medical students who have little clinical exposure and to health care trainees at other levels of clinical exposure.


Subject(s)
Opioid-Related Disorders , Students, Medical , Aged , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Bias , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Pain
17.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 831556, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35498439

ABSTRACT

Background: Frailty is a multidimensional condition typical of elders. Frail older adults have a high risk of functional decline, hospitalization, and mortality. Hypertension is one of the most common comorbidities in elders. Hyperglycemia (HG) is frequently observed in frail older adults, and represents an independent predictor of worst outcomes, with or without diabetes mellitus (DM). We aimed at investigating the impact of HG on physical impairment in frailty. Methods: We studied consecutive older adults with frailty and hypertension at the ASL (local health unit of the Italian Ministry of Health) of Avellino, Italy, from March 2021 to September 2021. Exclusion criteria were: age <65 years, no frailty, no hypertension, left ventricular ejection fraction <25%, previous myocardial infarction, previous primary percutaneous coronary intervention and/or coronary artery bypass grafting. Blood glucose, Hb1Ac, and creatinine were measured in all patients. Physical frailty was assessed applying the Fried Criteria; we performed a 5-meter gait speed (5mGS) test in all patients. Results: 149 frail hypertensive older adults were enrolled in the study, of which 82 had normoglycemia (NG), and 67 had HG. We observed a significantly slower 5mGS in the HG group compared to the NG group (0.52 ± 0.1 vs. 0.69 ± 0.06; p<0.001). Moreover, we found a strong and significant correlation between 5mGS and glycemia (r: 0.833; p<0.001). A multivariable linear regression analysis using 5mGS as a dependent variable revealed a significant independent association with glycemia (p<0.001) after adjusting for likely confounders. Conclusions: HG drives physical impairment in frail hypertensive older adults independently of DM.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Hyperglycemia , Hypertension , Aged , Frail Elderly , Frailty/complications , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
18.
Med Clin North Am ; 106(3): 471-482, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491067

ABSTRACT

Dementia is a common disease worldwide and is largely underdiagnosed. A timely diagnosis of dementia is beneficial for both the patient and family for many reasons, and exclusion and treatment of other mimics of dementia are crucial to avoid long-term consequences. Making a diagnosis of dementia requires attention to subtle cues from both patients and other informants, as often patients and family members will not notice early signs and symptoms. Although universal screening is not recommended by the USPSTF, screening in high-risk populations is recommended by many organizations. Screening with the Mini-Cog and AD8 combined is a highly sensitive way to identify patients with dementia, and confirmation testing can be performed with the MoCA or MMSE. Specific subtypes of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and others, sometimes can be differentiated by unique physical examination findings. Timely referral to dementia specialists is useful in the management of this group of diseases. However, as the aging population grows and access to specialists is often limited, it is important for all physicians to understand how to make a diagnosis of dementia.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Dementia , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Humans , Mass Screening , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Physical Examination
19.
Intern Med ; 61(9): 1353-1359, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491176

ABSTRACT

Objective This study assessed the risk factors of mortality from foreign bodies in the respiratory tract using the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for the Evaluation of Cancer Risk data. Methods Data of 110,585 participants 40-79 years old living in 45 areas in Japan were collected between 1988 and 2009. Mortality from foreign bodies in the respiratory tract was assessed in a multivariable-adjusted analysis using a Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results Among all participants, 202 deaths occurred from foreign bodies in the respiratory tract. In the multivariable-adjusted model, older age [50-59 (hazard ratio, 4.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.91-12.74), 60-69 (hazard ratio, 14.96, 6.01-37.25) and 70-79 (hazard ratio, 53.81; 95% confidence interval, 21.44-135.02) years old compared to 40-49 years old], male sex (hazard ratio, 2.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.54-3.54), a history of apoplexy (hazard ratio, 7.04; 95% confidence interval, 4.24-11.67) and the absence of a spouse (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.32) were associated with an increased risk of mortality from foreign bodies in the respiratory tract. Conclusions Older age, male sex, medical history of apoplexy and the absence of a spouse were potential risk factors of mortality from foreign bodies in the respiratory tract. Especially in elderly men, social connections, such as cohabitation or relationships, may be important for ensuring the early detection of asphyxia and preventing death due to foreign bodies in the respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
Foreign Bodies , Stroke , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory System , Risk Factors , Young Adult
20.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 63(4): 254-259, 2022.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491213

ABSTRACT

In about half of the cases, autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is secondary to an underlying disease, often due to paraneoplastic syndromes. Recently, the number of patients developing metachronous multiple primary malignant tumors (MPMTs) has been increasing due to the aging of the population and the longer survival times of those with malignant tumors. A 78-year-old woman was diagnosed with sigmoid colon cancer in May 2017 and with warm AIHA in October 2017. She received prednisolone for her warm AIHA treatment, which relieved her anemia symptoms. In January 2020, she had a warm AIHA relapse and received PSL again. In May 2020, she was diagnosed with peritonitis due to a small intestinal perforation and underwent laparoscopic partial resection of the small intestine. Subsequently, she was diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. It is important to consider the possibility of MPMTs and perform the appropriate examinations to determine whether malignant tumors are present in patients with a history of malignant tumors and a long history of AIHA relapse.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune , Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse , Paraneoplastic Syndromes , Aged , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/diagnosis , Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
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