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1.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 102(2): 85-89, 2022 Jan 11.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012294

ABSTRACT

The process of population aging is gradually deepening, and the problems of disability, cognitive impairment and frailty are widely prevalent among the elderly in China. The key to healthy aging is to optimize functional ability, which is not only related to healthy people; many older adults suffer from one or more diseases, which do not affect their functional ability. The health of the elderly is affected by multi-dimensional factors such as heredity, environment, lifestyle, social behavior and mental psychology. Previous studies, focusing on the outcomes of death, diseases, functional ability and intrinsic capacity decline, have revealed a series of distribution characteristics and influencing factors, and found that there are special epidemiological characteristics on health among the oldest-old and are different from that in the general elderly. Nevertheless, there are still insufficient research to identify the key factors and related mechanisms of elderly health. This issue focused on the functional ability, intrinsic capacity and disease outcomes of the elderly, carried out analysis and research by using the data of national representative cohort and key areas, and made a series of explorations on the important factors and possible mechanisms of the elderly health, so as to provide scientific evidence for coping with population aging and health in China.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , China , Cohort Studies , Humans , Life Style
2.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 102(2): 119-124, 2022 Jan 11.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012300

ABSTRACT

Objective: To construct an epigenetic clock model for assessing and calibrating human biological age. Methods: Convenience sampling was used to select 186 subjects from the longevity cohort of Guangxi Zhuang Antonornous Region from July 1 to November 30, 2019, and 124 subjects from the physical examination population of the Seventh Medical Center of the PLA General Hospital from October 1 to December 31, 2020. Self-designed questionnaire was applied to collect demographic characteristics and family history of disease. Physical examination was applied to determine heart rate and blood pressure. Fasting peripheral venous blood was drawn for determination of fasting plasma glucose, plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and telomere length. Methylation levels of EDARADD cg09809672, IPO8 cg19722847, NHLRC1 cg22736354, P2RX6 cg05442902 and SCGN cg06493994 were detected by targeted methylation site sequencing. A total of 54 subjects with unqualified quality control of DNA methylation and telomere length were excluded, and 256 subjects' data were finally analyzed. Trend test was used for the change of methylation level among different ages groups, multiple linear regression method was used to build prediction models of biological age. Kendal rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation of age gap (Gregorian calendar age minus biological age) with telomere length. Independent sample t-test was used to compare the health-related indicators between subjects with different age gap within different age groups. Results: The M(Q1, Q3)of age of subjects were 67 (51, 91) years old, including 166 females (64.84%). With increase of age, the methylation levels of gene loci were decreased (EDARADD cg09809672, IPO8 cg19722847 and P2RX6 cg05442902) and increased (NHLRC1 cg22736354 and SCGN cg06493994) (all P values<0.05). The established biological age prediction model was as follows: Y=-53.121×EDARADD cg09809672-137.564×IPO8 cg19722847+141.040×NHLRC1 cg22736354-67.893×P2RX6 cg05442902+149.547×SCGNcg06493994+4.592×sex+64.185 (R2=0.86, P<0.001), where Y was the biological age, and the items in the equation were methylation level, sex (male =1, female =2) and intercept in sequence. The Kendall rank correlation coefficient between age gap and telomere length was 0.731 (P<0.001). Compared with the subjects whose age gaP<0, the subjects with age gaP≥0 had higher systolic blood pressure in adolescence [(88.50±8.89) and (109.83±9.48) mmHg, respectively, 1 mmHg=0.133 kPa]; lower TC [(5.48±0.23) and (3.98±0.54) mmol/L, respectively, ] and TG [(3.51±0.32) and (3.41±0.20) mmol/L] in young adults; lower fasting blood glucose in middle age [(6.17±0.67) and (5.37±0.79) mmol/L, respectively, ] and higher diastolic blood pressure in nonagenarian age [(76.99±6.78) and (83.97±9.36) mmHg, respectively, ] (all P values<0.05). Conclusion: The constructed epigenetic clock model can be used to evaluate and calibrate human biological age.


Subject(s)
Healthy Aging , Adolescent , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , China , Epigenesis, Genetic , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Triglycerides , Young Adult
3.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 98: 104570, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: General health conditions in older adults, including their mental health, differ greatly based on their physical health conditions rather than age. Thus, we evaluated how lifestyle factors, which included eating and living, affected depressive symptoms in older adults based on their physical frailty status. METHODS: We included older adults aged 70-84 years from the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study (KFACS). Based on their eating and living patterns, we classified them into four groups: "lived and ate with others," "lived alone yet ate with others," "lived with others yet ate alone," and "lived and ate alone." Depressive symptoms and physical frailty were measured using the Korean version of the Geriatric Depression Scale and modified version of the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) Frailty Index, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 2,702 participants, 11.4% lived with others yet ate alone, and 19.7% lived and ate alone. For robust older adults, after adjusting for variables, the "ate alone" group was significantly related with depressive symptoms, and the "lived and ate alone" group showed a higher risk of depressive symptoms. In the prefrail to frail participants, the "lived and ate alone" group was at a higher risk of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Eating and living alone are key risk factors for depressive symptoms in community-dwelling older adults regardless of their physical frailty status. Therefore, social interventions are needed for both physically frail and healthy older adults to support their eating patterns and increase opportunities for social interaction.


Subject(s)
Depression , Frailty , Aged , Aging , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Frail Elderly , Frailty/epidemiology , Geriatric Assessment , Humans , Independent Living , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
4.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 98: 104567, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ageism is studied extensively in community-dwelling older adults, but remains poorly understood in institutionalized older adults. Here, we compared the physical, psychological, and social variables associated with self-reported age-based biases in community-dwelling older adults and in those living in nursing homes (NHs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants (n = 272) in this descriptive cross-sectional study lived in NHs (n = 126) or in their homes (n = 146), were 60 years or older, and had no cognitive or serious functional impairments. Those in NHs had been institutionalized for at least six months. The dependent variable was negative stereotypes toward aging (CENVE). We developed generalized linear models (GLMs) by place of residence and sex following the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment´s (CGA) methodology. RESULTS: There is a statistically significant relationship between negative stereotypes of aging and different multidimensional variables. These variables differ between institutionalized and non-institutionalized adults and between men and women. While some variables are non-modifiable (age and sex) others are potentially modifiable (educational level, participation in activities, length of NH stay, hand strength, autonomy, and depression). CONCLUSIONS: This study compared, for the first time, levels of ageism in older people living in two different social environments. Because most of the significant variables are modifiable in both environments, our results provide a framework to combat this type of discrimination. Promising strategies include anti-ageism policies and laws, educational interventions, and increased intergenerational contact.


Subject(s)
Ageism , Stereotyping , Aged , Aging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Social Environment
5.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 98: 104571, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794078

ABSTRACT

AIM: To clarify the frequency and correlates of using applications for monitoring and increase of health and well-being among middle-aged and older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. METHODS: Data were used from the nationally representative German Ageing Survey (n = 3,174 individuals in the analytical sample; June/July 2020). The frequency of using applications for monitoring and increasing health and well-being (from daily to never) was used as main outcome measure. RESULTS: Among individuals with access to the internet, 76% never used applications for monitoring and increase of health and well-being, whereas about 13% were rare and 11% were frequent users of such applications. Multinomial regressions showed that the likelihood of being a rare user (compared to never users of such applications) was positively associated with being male [RRR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.59-0.93], the frequency of walks [e.g., several times a week compared to never: RRR: 2.76, 95% CI: 1.15-6.59] and worse self-rated health [RRR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.11-1.59]. Furthermore, the likelihood of being a frequent user (compared to never users) was positively associated with younger age [RRR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.98] and the frequency of walks [daily compared to never: RRR: 2.61, 95% CI: 1.07-6.35]. CONCLUSIONS: Applications for monitoring and increasing health and well-being are used by about one out of four middle-aged and older individuals with access to the internet in Germany during the COVID-19 pandemic. In international comparison, the proportion of users is rather low. Determining the factors associated with such use may help to address non-users.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Aging , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Strength Cond Res ; 36(1): 106-112, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941610

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Klawitter, L, Vincent, BM, Choi, BJ, Smith, J, Hammer, KD, Jurivich, DA, Dahl, LJ, and McGrath, R. Handgrip strength asymmetry and weakness are associated with future morbidity accumulation in americans. J Strength Cond Res 36(1): 106-112, 2022-Identifying strength asymmetries in physically deconditioned populations may help in screening and treating persons at risk for morbidities linked to muscle dysfunction. Our investigation sought to examine the associations between handgrip strength (HGS) asymmetry and weakness on accumulating morbidities in aging Americans. The analytic sample included 18,506 Americans aged ≥50 years from the 2006-2016 Health and Retirement Study. Handgrip strength was measured on each hand with a handgrip dynamometer, and persons with an imbalance in strength >10% between hands had HGS asymmetry. Men with HGS <26 kg and women with HGS <16 kg were considered as weak. Subjects reported the presence of healthcare provider-diagnosed morbidities: hypertension, diabetes, cancer, chronic lung disease, cardiovascular disease, stroke, arthritis, and psychiatric problems. Covariate-adjusted ordinal generalized estimating equations analyzed the associations for each HGS asymmetry and weakness group on future accumulating morbidities. Of those included in our study, subjects at baseline were aged 65.0 ± 10.2 years, 9,570 (51.7%) had asymmetric HGS, and 996 (5.4%) were weak. Asymmetry alone and weakness alone were associated with 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.14) and 1.27 (CI: 1.11-1.45) greater odds for future accumulating morbidities, respectively. Having both HGS asymmetry and weakness was associated with 1.46 (CI: 1.29-1.65) greater odds for future accumulating morbidities. Handgrip-strength asymmetry, as another potential indicator of impaired muscle function, is associated with future morbidity status during aging. Exercise professionals and related practitioners should consider examining asymmetry and weakness with handgrip dynamometers as a simple and noninvasive screening method for helping to determine muscle dysfunction and future chronic disease risk.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Hand Strength , Aging , Female , Humans , Male , Morbidity , Retirement , United States
7.
Res Aging ; 44(1): 73-82, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550934

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Despite known benefits of productive aging, it is unclear what explains time allocation in productive activities. We investigated whether productive engagement in older people can be explained by their age, health, socioeconomic status, and perceived life expectancy in Hong Kong. METHODS: We interviewed 390 community-dwelling older persons for their health and perceived life expectancy, followed by a 7-day ecological momentary assessment to record their activities. RESULTS: A total of 366 participants who completed the study (age 75 ± 8.3 years; 79% women) reported an average perceived life expectancy of nearly 10 years. The majority (59%) engaged in productive activities. Estimates of the structural equation model (RMSEA = 0.046) showed that age and health were associated with productive engagement, mediated by perceived life expectancy. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Future efforts in promoting productive aging and related research should include interventions addressing perceived life expectancy, a potentially modifiable factor.


Subject(s)
Aging , Ecological Momentary Assessment , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Efficiency , Female , Humans , Independent Living , Life Expectancy , Male
8.
Res Aging ; 44(1): 83-95, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563107

ABSTRACT

It has not been well understood how conscientiousness and neuroticism are associated with two related but distinct dimensions of perceived control (i.e., perceived mastery and constraints) among aging adults. The present study examined these associations and their change over time, while addressing whether they differ by age or gender. For respondents aged 50+ at baseline (N = 2,768) in the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study, multilevel modeling analyses were conducted to assess how conscientiousness and neuroticism predicted perceived mastery and constraints over 2 decades. As expected, higher conscientiousness and lower neuroticism (for both between- and within-person variability) predicted higher perceived mastery and lower perceived constraints overall. Nuanced findings emerged related to age, gender and change over time for different associations of conscientiousness and neuroticism with the outcomes. These findings can inform future research suggesting directions of further investigations for these complex associations.


Subject(s)
Aging , Personality , Humans , Neuroticism , United States
9.
Res Aging ; 44(1): 34-43, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626994

ABSTRACT

The "paradox of aging" refers to the phenomenon that even though people's physical health and functions may decline when they enter later adulthood, their happiness does not necessarily. Previous studies have shown that older adults' better emotional regulation skills may contribute to the maintenance of their happiness. This study aims to examine the relationship between age, health, and happiness, and the moderating role of emotional stability. We adopted a nationally representative sample (n = 10,968) from the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) and performed weight-adjusted regression models with interaction terms. There is generally an S-shaped age-happiness relationship with significant urban-rural differences. Emotional stability buffers the negative association between health and happiness, and this moderating effect was stronger among older than younger adults, especially in rural China. This study calls for special attention paid to the oldest-old population in rural China and older adults' emotional regulation skills.


Subject(s)
Happiness , Rural Population , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans
10.
Eur Radiol ; 32(1): 331-345, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218287

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We examined the effects of aging and of gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) exposure on MRI measurements in brain nuclei of healthy women. METHODS: This prospective, IRB-approved single-center case-control study enrolled 100 healthy participants of our high-risk screening center for hereditary breast cancer, who had received at least six doses of macrocyclic GBCA (exposed group) or were newly entering the program (GBCA-naïve group). The cutoff "at least six doses" was chosen to be able to include a sufficient number of highly exposed participants. All participants underwent unenhanced 3.0-T brain MRI including quantitative T1, T2, and R2* mapping and T1- and T2-weighted imaging. The relaxation times/signal intensities were derived from region of interest measurements in the brain nuclei performed by a radiologist and a neuroradiologist, both board certified. Statistical analysis was based on descriptive evaluations and uni-/multivariable analyses. RESULTS: The participants (exposed group: 49, control group: 51) were aged 42 ± 9 years. In a multivariable model, age had a clear impact on R2* (p < 0.001-0.012), T2 (p = 0.003-0.048), and T1 relaxation times/signal intensities (p < 0.004-0.046) for the majority of deep brain nuclei, mostly affecting the substantia nigra, globus pallidus (GP), nucleus ruber, thalamus, and dentate nucleus (DN). The effect of prior GBCA administration on T1 relaxation times was statistically significant for the DN, GP, and pons (p = 0.019-0.037). CONCLUSIONS: In a homogeneous group of young to middle-aged healthy females aging had an effect on T2 and R2* relaxation times and former GBCA applications influenced the measured T1 relaxation times. KEY POINTS: The quantitative T1, T2, and R2* relaxation times measured in women at high risk of developing breast cancer showed characteristic bandwidth for all brain nuclei examined at 3.0-T MRI. The effect of participant age had a comparatively strong impact on R2*, T2, and T1 relaxation times for the majority of brain nuclei examined. The effect of prior GBCA administrations on T1 relaxation times rates was comparatively less pronounced, yielding statistically significant results for the dentate nucleus, globus pallidus, and pons. Healthy women with and without previous GBCA-enhanced breast MRI exhibited age-related T2* and T2 relaxation alterations at 3.0 T-brain MRI. T1 relaxation alterations due to prior GBCA administration were comparatively less pronounced.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Organometallic Compounds , Aging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Cerebellar Nuclei , Contrast Media , Female , Gadolinium , Gadolinium DTPA , Globus Pallidus , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meglumine , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
11.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2343: 71-91, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473316

ABSTRACT

Life expectancy in sub-Saharan African women is increasing, and by the late 2020s an estimated 76% of postmenopausal women globally will be living in developing countries. Menopause transition has been associated with cognitive decline in a wide range of studies, but data on cognition and reproductive aging are lacking in sub-Saharan African women. Approximately 72 million people in the region are expected to suffer from dementias and neurocognitive decline by 2050. Studies show that compromised cognitive health in low-income countries has significant implications for adult quality of life and socioeconomic development. There is now an urgent need to further examine risk factors for cognitive decline in these aging women and to understand the ability of public health programs to diagnose and treat cognitive dysfunction. This review examines studies assessing cognition and aging in sub-Saharan African adults, while addressing the significant research gaps. It examines data on the association of the menopause transition with cognitive function and describes how validated tools should be available to assess both menopausal stage and symptoms. Culturally appropriate and validated neurocognitive measures are required to better understand the relationship of reproductive aging with cognition. Longitudinal population-based studies are needed to assess the effect of lifestyle interventions, such as diet and exercise, on cognitive health in sub-Saharan African populations, with an emphasis on women as they transition into menopause.


Subject(s)
Aging , Cognition Disorders , Cognition , Quality of Life , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Cognition Disorders/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Menopause
12.
Maturitas ; 155: 63-69, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34876250

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental disorders (MDs) and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the main causes of disability. Yet, their comorbidity has not received the deserved attention. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extent of the comorbidity between MDs and MSDs in ageing women using national registries on prescription medications and work disability pensions (DPs). METHODS: The study included 7,809 Finnish women, born during 1932-41, from the population-based Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention Study (OSTPRE) cohort, established in 1989. Lifetime permanent DPs due to: 1) 'MDs only' (n = 359), 2) 'MSDs only' (n = 954), 3) 'MDs + MSDs' (n = 227), were recorded till 2003. The reference group was 'no DP' (n = 6,269). Data from the OSTPRE questionnaires was obtained in 1994. Use of medications was recorded in 1995 and 2003. The use of musculoskeletal or psychotropic medications by women having a DP or medication due to MD, or MSD diagnoses, respectively, was considered as an indicator of comorbidity. RESULTS: In 1995, all DP groups had used psychotropic and musculoskeletal medications more often than the referents. Use of musculoskeletal medications was associated with a higher use of psychotropic medications, and vice versa (OR=2.45; 95% CI 2.17-2.77), compared with non-use. The 'MSDs only' group was more likely to use psychotropic (OR=1.79; 95% CI 1.50-2.12), and the 'MDs only' group musculoskeletal medications (OR=1.38; 95% CI 1.09-1.74), compared with those without DPs. The proportions of medication users were similar in 1995 and 2003; however, the amounts used increased. CONCLUSIONS: There was strong evidence for comorbidity between MDs and MSDs in ageing women. Further research concerning their longitudinal relationships is warranted.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Aging , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/epidemiology , Registries , Risk Factors
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2389: 45-56, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558000

ABSTRACT

Whereas neural stem cells and their niches have been extensively studied in the brain, little is known on these cells, their environment, and their function in the adult spinal cord. Adult spinal cord neural stem cells are located in a complex niche surrounding the central canal, and these cells expressed genes which are specifically expressed in the caudal central nervous system (CNS). In-depth characterization of these cells in vivo and in vitro will provide interesting clues on the possibility to utilize this endogenous cell pool to treat spinal cord damages. We describe here a procedure to derive and culture neural spinal cord stem cells from adult mice using the neurosphere method.


Subject(s)
Neural Stem Cells , Aging , Animals , Cell Differentiation , Mice , Spinal Cord , Spinal Cord Injuries
14.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 98: 104533, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies that examined changes in frailty in older populations have been increasing. However, frailty patterns are often portrayed as having single trajectories corresponding to age, and different courses of change in frailty and related factors remain unexplored. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify distinct frailty trajectories over time and examine the relationship of frailty trajectories with the sociodemographic and lifestyle-related factors among older Koreans. METHODS: We used data of 3160 community-dwelling Korean adults aged ≥65 years from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (2006-2016). We conducted the analyses using group-based trajectory modeling, analysis of variance or chi-square tests, and multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: We identified three frailty trajectory groups among older Koreans: no frailty, increasing frailty, and high frailty based on a deficit-related frailty measure. Each frailty trajectory group showed unique sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Compared to individuals in the no frailty group, those in the increasing frailty group were more likely to be older, less educated, unemployed, current smokers, and current drinkers. Compared to those in the no frailty group, individuals in the high frailty group were more likely to be older, unemployed, current drinkers, and without regular exercise. CONCLUSIONS: Using longitudinal data over a 10-year period, we identified multiple frailty trajectories in a cohort of older Koreans, which highlights a significant heterogeneity in frailty development. Our findings suggest the importance of socioeconomic status in determining different patterns of frailty change and the role of lifestyle factors in delaying frailty.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Aged , Aging , Frailty/epidemiology , Humans , Independent Living , Longitudinal Studies , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
15.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 98: 104532, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592681

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the social activity trajectory by class and the effects on the cognitive function trajectory among older adults. METHODS: Data from six waves of the 2006-2016 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging were analyzed. This study included 3,002 participants aged ≥65 years. Latent class growth modeling was used to classify the respondents based on their engagement in social activity over 10 years. Latent growth modeling was used to examine the effect of their social activity trajectory by class to predict participants' cognitive function trajectory. RESULTS: We identified four social activity trajectory classes: high-stable (7.8%), moderate-stable (50.3%), high-decreasing (2.9%), and low-decreasing (39.0%). Older adults with an age of 75 years or older, a low education level, instrumental activities of daily living limitations, and depressive symptoms were more likely to be in the low-decreasing social activity trajectory class. The respondents in the high-stable (B = 0.680, p < 0.001) and moderate-stable (B = 0.362, p < 0.001) classes showed a slower rate of cognitive decline compared with those in the low-decreasing class. DISCUSSION: Community-based strategies need to be developed to encourage older adults to maintain their social activity engagement and ultimately prevent cognitive decline.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Cognitive Dysfunction , Aged , Aging , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies
16.
Int J Aging Hum Dev ; 94(1): 1-7, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672209

ABSTRACT

This is submission is the introduction to complement the special issue on "Forgotten Variables in Religiosity and Spirituality Inquiry".


Subject(s)
Geriatrics , Spirituality , Aging , Humans , Religion
17.
Appl Ergon ; 98: 103555, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425517

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although firefighters are required to perform various high-intensity critically essential tasks, the influence of neuromuscular function on firefighter occupational performance is unclear. The primary aim of the current study was to identify the key neuromuscular determinants of stair climb (SC) performance in firefighters. METHODS: Leg extension isometric peak torque (PT), peak power (PP), torque steadiness at 10% (Steadiness10%) and 50% (Steadiness50%) of PT, fatigability following 30 repeated isotonic concentric contractions at 40% of PT, percent body fat (%BF), and a weighted and timed SC task were examined in 41 (age: 32.3 ± 8.2 yrs; %BF: 24.1 ± 7.9%) male career firefighters. RESULTS: Faster SC times (74.7 ± 13.4 s) were associated with greater PT and PP, less fatigability, younger age, and lower %BF (r = -0.530-0.629; P ≤ 0.014), but not Steadiness10% or Steadiness50% (P ≥ 0.193). Stepwise regression analyses indicated that PP and Steadiness50% were the strongest predictors of SC time (R2 = 0.442, P < 0.001). However, when age and %BF were included in the model, these variables became the only significant predictors of SC time (R2 = 0.521, P < 0.001) due to age and %BF being collectively associated with all the neuromuscular variables (excluding Steadiness10%). CONCLUSIONS: Lower extremity neuromuscular function, specifically PP and steadiness, and %BF are important modifiable predictors of firefighter SC performance, which becomes increasingly important in aging firefighters.


Subject(s)
Firefighters , Adult , Aging , Humans , Lower Extremity , Male , Muscle Strength , Torque , Young Adult
18.
Physiol Rev ; 102(1): 339-341, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494892

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, efforts have been made worldwide to develop effective therapies to address the devastating immune-mediated effects of SARS-CoV-2. With the exception of monoclonal antibody-mediated therapeutics and preventive approaches such as mass immunization, most experimental or repurposed drugs have failed in large randomized clinical trials (https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/therapeutics-and-covid-19-living-guideline). The worldwide spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus revealed specific susceptibilities to the virus among the elderly and individuals with age-related syndromes. These populations were more likely to experience a hyperimmune response characterized by a treatment-resistant acute lung pathology accompanied by multiple organ failure. These observations underscore the interplay between the virus, the biology of aging, and outcomes observed in the most severe cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The ectoenzyme CD38 has been implicated in the process of "inflammaging" in aged tissues. In a current publication, Horenstein et al. present evidence to support the hypothesis that CD38 plays a central role in altered immunometabolism resulting from COVID-19 infection. The authors discuss a critical but underappreciated trifecta of CD38-mediated NAD+ metabolism, aging, and COVID-19 immune response and speculate that the CD38/NAD+ axis is a promising therapeutic target for this disease.


Subject(s)
ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1/genetics , Aging , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , NAD/metabolism
19.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1866(1): 130017, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Autophagy, a highly conserved homeostatic mechanism, is essential for cell survival. The decline of autophagy function has been implicated in various diseases as well as aging. Although mitochondria play a key role in the autophagy process, whether mitochondrial-derived peptides are involved in this process has not been explored. METHODS: We developed a high through put screening method to identify potential autophagy inducers among mitochondrial-derived peptides. We used three different cell lines, mice, c.elegans, and a human cohort to validate the observation. RESULTS: Humanin, a mitochondrial-derived peptide, increases autophagy and maintains autophagy flux in several cell types. Humanin administration increases the expression of autophagy-related genes and lowers accumulation of harmful misfolded proteins in mice skeletal muscle, suggesting that humanin-induced autophagy potentially contributes to the improved skeletal function. Moreover, autophagy is a critical role in humanin-induced lifespan extension in C. elegans. CONCLUSIONS: Humanin is an autophagy inducer. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: This paper presents a significant, novel discovery regarding the role of the mitochondrial derived peptide humanin in autophagy regulation and as a possible therapeutic target for autophagy in various age-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Autophagy/physiology , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Aging , Animals , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Survival , HEK293 Cells , Homeostasis , Humans , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/physiology , Longevity , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mitochondria/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Peptides/metabolism
20.
FASEB J ; 36(2): e22124, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972249

ABSTRACT

Nerve growth factor-induced gene B (Nur77) has been shown to ameliorate several biological processes in chronic diseases, including inflammatory response, cellular proliferation, and metabolism. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by tubulointerstitial fibrosis for which no targeted therapies are available as yet. In this study, we performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to demonstrate that Nur77 targets fibrosis signals and attenuates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis during the aging process. We observed that the TGF-ß/Smads signal pathway was significantly suppressed by Nur77, suggesting that Nur77 controlled the activation of key steps in TGF-ß/Smads signaling. We further showed that Nur77 interacted with Smad7, the main repressor of nuclear translocation of Smad2/3, and stabilized Smad7 protein homeostasis. Nur77 deficiency resulted in Smad7 degradation, aggravating Smad2/3 phosphorylation, and promoting transcription of its downstream target genes, ACTA2 and collagen I. Our findings demonstrate that Nur77 is a potential therapeutic target for age-related kidney diseases including CKD. Maintenance of Nur77 may be an effective strategy for blocking renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and improving renal function in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Aging/metabolism , Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Smad Proteins/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Aging/genetics , Animals , Fibrosis , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1/genetics , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/genetics , Smad Proteins/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics
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