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1.
Eat Behav ; 53: 101876, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38754222

ABSTRACT

Food and alcohol disturbance (FAD) refers to the intersection of alcohol- and eating-related motives and behaviors, such as restricting food intake before or during alcohol use to offset caloric intake or to enhance intoxication. Valid assessment is critical for advancing research on FAD. We tested the factor structure, group invariance, and concurrent validity of the College Eating and Drinking Behavior Scale (CEDBS) in a large college student sample (n = 2610; Mage = 20.95, SD = 4.65; 71.8% female; 77% White; 86% non-Hispanic). Participants completed measures assessing antecedents of alcohol use (i.e., protective behavioral strategies and drinking motives), negative alcohol-related consequences, alcohol use severity, and risk for eating disorder. The 3-factor model of the 21-item CEDBS provided an adequate fit to the data (e.g., CFI = 0.916). These factors include Alternative Methods (4 items; "Use laxative prior to drinking alcohol"), Offset Calories (7 items; "Restrict calories prior to drinking to help maintain your figure"), and Quicker Intoxication (10 items; "Not eating before drinking alcohol because it gives you the best buzz"). The CEDBS was scalar invariant across subgroups of participants based on age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and political orientation. Quicker Intoxication was most strongly related to risk factors and negative consequences for alcohol (r = 0.204-0.379, all ps < 0.01), and Offset Calories was most strongly related to risk for eating disorders (r = 0.349, p < .01). These findings further support the CEDBS to assess FAD among college students.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College , Feeding Behavior , Students , Humans , Female , Male , Students/psychology , Young Adult , Universities , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Alcohol Drinking in College/psychology , Adult , United States , Reproducibility of Results , Adolescent , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Psychometrics/instrumentation , Motivation , Factor Analysis, Statistical
2.
J Ethn Subst Abuse ; 23(2): 201-221, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768079

ABSTRACT

Familismo, ethnic pride, and ethnic shame were examined as longitudinal predictors of Latinx college student alcohol use and high-risk alcohol-related consequences. Latinx students completed measures during the fall of their first (T1), second (T2), and fourth (T4) year of college. T1 familismo was positively associated with T2 ethnic pride and negatively associated with T2 ethnic shame. T2 ethnic pride was negatively associated with T4 drinking, while T2 ethnic shame was positively associated with T4 drinking. T4 drinking was positively associated with T4 consequences. Results suggest that Latinx ethnic pride and ethnic shame during the second-year of college act as mediators between first-year familismo and fourth-year drinking and consequences.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College , Hispanic or Latino , Students , Humans , Female , Hispanic or Latino/statistics & numerical data , Hispanic or Latino/psychology , Alcohol Drinking in College/ethnology , Young Adult , Male , Students/statistics & numerical data , Students/psychology , Universities , Adolescent , Adult , Longitudinal Studies , Shame , Social Identification
3.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1328819, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38737856

ABSTRACT

Introduction: High levels of alcohol consumption among college students have been observed across countries. Heavy drinking episodes are particularly prevalent in this population, making early identification of potentially harmful drinking critical from a public health perspective. Short screening instruments such as the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) are serviceable in this regard. However, there is a need for studies investigating the criterion validity of AUDIT in the student population. The aim was to examine the criterion validity of the full AUDIT and AUDIT-C (the first three items directly gauging consumption patterns) in a sample of college and university students using 12-month prevalence of alcohol use disorder derived from an electronic, self-administered version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview, fifth version (CIDI 5.0), which serves as the 'gold standard'. Methods: The study population of the current study is derived from the SHoT study (Students' Health and Wellbeing Study), which is a large national survey of students enrolled in higher education in Norway. In a follow-up study of mental disorders among participants of the SHoT2022 study, students were invited to complete a self-administered electronic version of the CIDI. A random sample of 4,642 participants in the nested CIDI-sample was asked to fill out a set of screening instruments, including AUDIT, before starting CIDI. Based on Youden Index maximization, we estimated the sex-specific optimal cut-offs for AUDIT and AUDIT-C in relation to alcohol use disorder, as determined by CIDI. Results: For the full AUDIT, the optimal cut-offs were 9 for males and 10 for females. The corresponding cut-offs for AUDIT-C were 6 for males and 5 for females. The same optimal cut-offs for both the full AUDIT and AUDIT-C were replicated in bootstrapped analyses with 1,000 runs. Conclusion: The full AUDIT demonstrated acceptable criterion validity with a balance between sensitivity and specificity. However, for AUDIT-C, caution should be exercised when interpreting screening results among college and university students. In conclusion, the full AUDIT is a reliable screening instrument for college and university students, while further modification may be needed for AUDIT-C in this setting.


Subject(s)
Students , Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Norway , Alcoholism/diagnosis , Mass Screening , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Reproducibility of Results , Adult , Adolescent , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Prevalence , Alcohol Drinking in College
4.
Addict Behav ; 154: 108022, 2024 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564985

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Despite experiencing alcohol-related consequences, college students continue to drink at high rates. Hypothetical evaluations of alcohol-related consequences (i.e., evaluations of where potential/hypothetical consequences lie on a spectrum from extremely positive to extremely negative) may contribute to the maintenance of drinking patterns among students. The purpose of the present study was to describe hypothetical evaluations in a sample of students mandated to an alcohol intervention, examine changes over time, and investigate the influence of both baseline and time-varying experienced consequences. METHOD: This study was a secondary data analysis from a longitudinal randomized controlled trial. Participants were 474 mandated students (Mage = 18.65; 55.5 % male, 77.6 % White). Students completed an initial baseline assessment of demographics, alcohol use, consequences, and hypothetical evaluations, and 3-month and 9-month follow-up assessments that included hypothetical evaluations and experienced consequences. RESULTS: Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses revealed significant change in hypothetical evaluations over time such that they became less negative. A piecewise model demonstrated that this change happened between baseline and 3-month, with no additional change between 3-month and 9-month. The experience of consequences at baseline did not significantly moderate changes in either time interval. Time-varying consequences also had no significant effect on same-timepoint hypothetical evaluations. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to examine changes in hypothetical evaluations over time among mandated college students. Counter to expectations, hypothetical evaluations became less negative at 3-month follow-up. Though preliminary, findings add to the understanding of hypothetical evaluations of alcohol-related consequences.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College , Time Perception , Humans , Male , Adolescent , Female , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Students , Universities
5.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 59(3)2024 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38685066

ABSTRACT

AIM: Participating in a drinking game (DG) is common practice among university students and can increase students' risk for heavy drinking. Given the theoretical link between motivations to drink and alcohol use, careful consideration should be given to students' motivations to play DGs. In this study, we examined the factor structure, internal consistency, and concurrent validity of a revised version of the motives for playing drinking games (MPDG) scale, the MPDG-33. METHODS: University students (n = 3345, Mage = 19.77 years, SDage = 1.53; 68.8% = women; 59.6% = White) from 12 U.S. universities completed a confidential online self-report survey that included the MPDG-33 and questions regarding their frequency of DG participation and typical drink consumption while playing DGs. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis indicated the 7-factor model fit the data adequately, and all items had statistically significant factor loadings on their predicted factor. All subscales had adequate to excellent internal consistency and were positively correlated with the frequency of DG participation and the typical number of drinks consumed while playing DGs (though the correlations were small). CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that the MPDG-33 can be reliably used in research and clinical settings to assess U.S. university students' motives for playing DGs.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College , Motivation , Students , Humans , Female , Male , Young Adult , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Students/psychology , United States , Universities , Alcohol Drinking in College/psychology , Adolescent , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Self Report , Adult , Reproducibility of Results
6.
Child Abuse Negl ; 152: 106749, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581770

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: History of childhood trauma as a risk factor for alcohol misuse in early adulthood is very well documented. Given the associations between childhood trauma and alcohol misuse, more work is needed to understand the factors that influence this relationship. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between childhood trauma, minimization of such events and alcohol misuse in a French college student sample. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A convenience sampling method was used to recruit students from several colleges located in Western France. The data set included 1180 records with complete responses. METHODS: This study employed a cross-sectional online survey. Data collection instruments included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire Short-Form (CTQ-SF) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). RESULTS: The strength of the association between CTQ score and AUDIT total score was increased by minimization score (ß = 0.122, p = .07). This result suggests that under-reporting childhood trauma experiences tends to increase the impact of such events on alcohol misuse. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that a tendency to minimize threatening childhood events may specifically be related to increased risk of greater alcohol misuse among college students. Therefore, it may be important for clinician to assess minimization of early events in students with a history of childhood trauma.


Subject(s)
Adverse Childhood Experiences , Students , Humans , Male , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Young Adult , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , France/epidemiology , Universities , Adverse Childhood Experiences/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Surveys and Questionnaires , Alcohol Drinking in College/psychology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Adult , Child
7.
Subst Use Misuse ; 59(7): 1102-1109, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38433327

ABSTRACT

Background: Many university students pregame or drink before a social event. Pregaming carries some risk due to its link to heavy drinking. During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was limited access to many drinking venues (e.g., bars/clubs). Moreover, universities shifted to a virtual format and imposed restrictions on in-person gatherings resulting in the reliance on virtual platforms for class instruction, meetings, and social events. The pandemic facilitated changes in students' drinking behaviors, stress levels, and how they maintained social contact with others. Thus, it is conceivable that during an academic pandemic year, students may have engaged in the act of drinking before attending a virtual social event. Objectives: In the present study, we examined the factor structures/item loadings of the Pregaming Motives Measure-Virtual (PGMM-V) among students (N = 283; Mage = 21.38; women = 69.3%; White = 45.4%, Hispanic = 40.8%) from seven universities who completed an online questionnaire (Spring/Summer-2021). Items from the original Pregaming Motives Measure (Bachrach et al., 2012) were modified to reflect motives to drink before attending a virtual social event. Results: We found evidence for a 2-factor structure model of the PGMM-V which includes social/enhancement and social ease/stress. Bivariate correlations indicated that social/enhancement and social ease/stress were (a) positively associated with frequency of drinking and alcohol consumption prior to attending virtual social events, and (b) general drinking motives (social/enhancement/coping) that align with these motives. Conclusions: The PGMM-V is a promising instrument that could be used in future research designed to understand students' pregaming behaviors for virtual social events as the use of such platforms are increasingly relied upon for social engagement.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Universities , Pandemics , Alcohol Drinking , Motivation , Students , Adaptation, Psychological , Social Behavior
8.
J Drug Educ ; 53(1-2): 39-58, 2024 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38454577

ABSTRACT

Objective: While college student drinking has been studied utilizing many different theories and approaches, it is unclear how these theories may overlap in their explanation of problematic drinking. Rather than relying on one theory, examining overlap between multiple theories of alcohol use may lead to a better understanding of the motivational process underlying drinking behavior. The current study proposes that the Ambivalence Model of Craving, Behavioral Economics, and Alcohol Outcome Expectancy Theory account for the same underlying anticipatory process and sought to demonstrate this by establishing motivational profiles utilizing constructs within each theory. Methods: A total of 318 college student drinkers completed a series of surveys assessing their drinking behavior and the measures pertaining to each theory (i.e., Approach and Avoidance of Alcohol Questionnaire, Alcohol Purchase Task, Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire). A latent profile analysis was used to establish profiles of motivational tendencies. Results: Results from the latent profile analysis indicated four profiles emerged, three of which were consistent with our hypotheses: approach, avoidance, and indifferent. The fourth motivational profile appeared to represent drinkers with an emerging approach tendency but relatively newer to drinking. The lack of ambivalent profile suggests that avoidant tendencies may develop later in response to an accumulation of experience with drinking. Lastly, these profiles demonstrated expected relationships with drinking behavior. Conclusion: This study is unique in its attempt to highlight similarities between theories. Results provide a useful integration of theories to allow for a more generalized understanding of motivational tendencies that develop in response to drinking experiences.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College , Motivation , Students , Humans , Female , Male , Alcohol Drinking in College/psychology , Young Adult , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Adolescent , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Psychological Theory , Adult
9.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 140: 107488, 2024 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sexual assault is consistently associated with social contexts that support high levels of alcohol consumption such as alcohol-serving establishments (i.e., bars). The significant rates of alcohol-involved sexual assault among college students demonstrate the critical need for evidence-based efforts to reduce alcohol-involved sexual assault in this population. Although bystander approaches have demonstrated some promise for reducing alcohol-involved sexual assault, to date no published studies have examined the effectiveness of implementing bystander prevention approaches with bar staff. Given the robust evidence indicating that bars serve as hot spots for sexual aggression, interventions that improve bar staff's ability to identify and intervene in sexually aggressive situations may offer a useful approach for reducing rates of alcohol-involved sexual assault. METHODS: The Safer Bars study utilizes a cluster-randomized trial design that randomizes participants at the bar level into intervention and waitlist control arms. The sample includes bars (Nbars = 56) within a three-mile proximity to the three major public Arizona universities, with an average of 10 staff members per bar (Nstaff = 564). Assessments of individual-level and bar-level outcomes occur at baseline, training completion, and 3-months post-training, with an additional individual-level assessment at 6 months. Community-level effects are assessed using GIS data regarding police dispatches. CONCLUSION: Safer Bars represents a novel, theory-driven approach to promote effective bystander behavior among bar staff working in close proximity to university campuses to reduce rates of alcohol-involved sexual assault.


Subject(s)
Sex Offenses , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking in College/psychology , Arizona , Restaurants , Sex Offenses/prevention & control , Students/psychology , Universities
10.
Subst Use Misuse ; 59(8): 1141-1149, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555872

ABSTRACT

Background: Relations among attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), sleep, and substance-related negative consequences are largely unknown. In this cross-sectional study, we examined associations among ADHD diagnosis, sleep, and alcohol-related consequences. We also evaluated the independent and interactive effects of sleep and ADHD on alcohol-related negative consequences, above and beyond levels of alcohol use. Methods: College students who drink alcohol with (n = 51) and without (n = 50) ADHD completed an assessment that included a diagnostic interview assessing ADHD, and questionnaire measures of sleep quality, substance use, and associated consequences. Analyses utilized a series of hierarchical linear regression models and explored these aims for cannabis use in a subset of participants (n = 52 participants that used cannabis). Results: College students who drink alcohol with ADHD reported significantly worse sleep quality and more alcohol-related consequences, relative to those without ADHD. When ADHD and sleep quality were included in the model, ADHD-but not sleep quality-was independently associated with alcohol consequences, but not cannabis consequences. There were no moderating effects of ADHD on the associations between sleep and substance-related consequences. Conclusions: Students who drank alcohol with ADHD may be particularly vulnerable to experiencing poor sleep and consequences from their substance use, compared to their heavy drinking peers without ADHD. Future, larger scale studies should consider longitudinal effects as well as underlying mechanisms of risk.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Marijuana Use , Students , Humans , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Male , Female , Students/psychology , Young Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Universities , Marijuana Use/epidemiology , Marijuana Use/psychology , Sleep , Adolescent , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Adult , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking in College/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Subst Use Misuse ; 59(8): 1228-1239, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38544304

ABSTRACT

Background: Co-use of alcohol and other drugs within a certain time frame (i.e., polysubstance use) has become increasingly prevalent, particularly among college-aged individuals, but understanding motives for co-use remains limited. Polysubstance use has been associated with a higher likelihood of negative health consequences as compared to single substance use. Objectives: The current study examined associations between motivations for using alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis among college students who use multiple substances versus students using only one substance or no substances. Additionally, we examined the effect of trauma and daily stress on polysubstance use in self-report data from individuals (N=134) participating in the MAPme Study. Results: First, the observed prevalence of polysubstance use was greater than expected by chance, with most individuals co-using alcohol and cannabis. "Alcohol and Other Drug Users" were more frequently motivated to drink for social (ß=0.27, CI=[0.07, 0.44]), enhancement (ß=0.26, CI=[0.01, 0.42]) and coping (ß=0.21, CI=[0.06, 0.47]) reasons compared to individuals who consumed alcohol alone. Conclusions: Individual differences in motivations for use were partly explained by frequency of alcohol use and alcohol problem severity, but not by history of trauma or stress. Finally, while patterns of correlations among motivations for use across substances suggested a general tendency to be motivated to use substances for similar reasons, this was not supported by confirmatory factor models. Overall, shared motives may inform potential behavioral patterns for co-use of substances during college and might advise future treatment efforts.


Emerging adults tend to use multiple substances, particularly alcohol and cannabisCorrelation patterns suggest shared motives within rather than across substancesAlcohol problem severity and alcohol frequency predict motives for use.


Subject(s)
Motivation , Stress, Psychological , Students , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Male , Female , Students/psychology , Young Adult , Universities , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Individuality , Adolescent , Adult , Alcohol Drinking in College/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology
12.
J Health Commun ; 29(4): 233-243, 2024 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38380902

ABSTRACT

To design effective health messages, this study investigates the effects of gain-loss framing and relevant moderating effects in the context of college students' alcohol use. Specifically, based on an online experiment, we tested the moderation effects of message-sidedness and binge-drinking behaviors using a mediation model in which the association between gain-loss framing and behavioral intentions is mediated by attitudes toward binge-drinking. Four hundred thirty-four Korean college students participated in this study. Hayes' PROCESS Macro for SPSS was employed for the analysis. The results show that loss-framing significantly increased participants' unfavorable attitudes toward binge-drinking in the one-sided message condition. Moreover, attitudes toward binge-drinking were more significantly associated with behavioral intentions to binge-drink among heavy drinkers than among non-heavy drinkers. Our findings suggest important theoretical and practical implications for the development of message-framing strategies in health campaigns designed to prevent college students' binge-drinking in collectivistic societies where the cultural meaning of drinking extends beyond the individual realm to the larger social context.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College , Binge Drinking , Health Communication , Intention , Persuasive Communication , Students , Humans , Male , Female , Binge Drinking/psychology , Binge Drinking/prevention & control , Young Adult , Republic of Korea , Universities , Alcohol Drinking in College/psychology , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Health Communication/methods , Health Promotion/methods , Adolescent
13.
Subst Use Misuse ; 59(6): 928-936, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38384167

ABSTRACT

Background: Sexual assault and heavy alcohol use are prevalent and interrelated public health concerns on university campuses. Surprisingly, however, few alcohol harm reduction interventions address this intersection to help students reduce both personal and community risks for sexual assault in college drinking contexts. Objectives: In the current study, students (ages 18-24) shared strategies they use to protect themselves and others from sexual assault in college drinking contexts, as well as challenges to implementing these strategies. A series of six focus groups were conducted across two universities in the U.S. (N = 35). Participants responded to open-ended questions focused on drinking and sexual assault (e.g., What are some of the things students might do to avoid or address situations where they feel pressured of coerced to hook up or have sex when they do not want to?). Results: Thematic analyses demonstrated students' awareness of protective behavioral and bystander intervention strategies that could help reduce vulnerability to experience sexual assault for themselves or others in drinking contexts. Perceived barriers to using bystander intervention strategies included student's own and friends' heavy drinking (decreased inhibitions, loss of autonomy), ambiguity in deciphering risk (lack of familiarity, minimization, diffusion of responsibility), and gender (gender norms, power imbalances). Conclusions: This study informs the development of interventions that help students identify strategies and overcome barriers to reduce risks for sexual assault in college drinking contexts.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College , Sex Offenses , Humans , Sex Offenses/prevention & control , Universities , Students , Ethanol
14.
Subst Use Misuse ; 59(6): 902-909, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308201

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined how young adults' likelihood to engage in protective behavioral strategies (PBS) to reduce alcohol harms varies across physical and social contexts for drinking. METHOD: We conducted an online survey with 514 heavy drinking young adults (Mage = 22.4 years, 52% women, 30% Hispanic/Latin(x), 40% non-White). Participants were asked to rate their likelihood to engage in 26 PBS generally, and specifically in six physical contexts (e.g., bar/club), and six social contexts (e.g., in a large group). We conducted regression analyses to examine the overall effect of context on the likelihood to engage in each PBS and post-hoc Tukey tests to assess pairwise comparisons of the differences in likelihood to engage in each PBS across response options for physical and social context. Analyses were conducted using the full sample, and for men and women separately. RESULTS: There were significant differences in six strategies across physical contexts; likelihood to engage in PBS varied across public and private spaces for different strategies. We also found significant differences in five strategies across social contexts; participants were more likely to engage in PBS among larger numbers of people and those who are intoxicated. There were numerous differences in pairwise comparisons of PBS engagement across physical and social contexts for women, while men demonstrated only two differences in PBS across physical context. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that alcohol interventions for young adults that include PBS should consider tailoring strategies to the individual and the specific context of the drinking event.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College , Alcohol Drinking , Male , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Social Environment , Probability , Universities , Harm Reduction
15.
Subst Use Misuse ; 59(6): 953-961, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321769

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Pregaming is a popular but high-risk drinking behavior common among college students. Although sexual and gender minority (SGM) college students are a vulnerable population with regards to hazardous alcohol use and alcohol consequences, there is currently limited research investigating the pregaming behavior of this group. The present study aimed to (1) examine mean level differences in pregaming behaviors and motives between SGM and non-SGM college students and (2) explore how SGM status was associated with pregaming behaviors and if SGM status moderated the association between motives and pregaming behaviors. Methods: The sample consisted of 485 college student drinkers in the US, with 19% (n = 93) identifying as SGM. All participants completed measures of past 30-day pregaming frequency and quantity (yielding a total pregaming drinks outcome) and drinking consequences experienced on pregaming days. Results: SGM participants consumed significantly fewer pregaming drinks than non-SGM participants, but did not significantly differ on alcohol-related consequences or drinking motives. The pregaming motive of intimate pursuit moderated the association between SGM status and total pregaming drinks, such that non-SGM participants with high intimate pursuit motives drank the heaviest. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that SGM students consume significantly fewer pregaming drinks than their non-SGM counterparts. However, they may be at a similar risk of experiencing pregaming consequences as non-SGM students. SGM students were less susceptible to the effect of intimate pursuit motives on pregaming drink consumption. This study offers support for past research regarding the effects of certain pregaming motives on pregaming drink consumption and consequences.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Humans , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Universities , Motivation , Students , Ethanol
16.
Subst Use Misuse ; 59(5): 732-742, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38307842

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We explored associations between parental alcohol communication (PCA) and student drinking behavior and protective behavioral strategies (PBS) use. METHODS: College students in the United States, who had talked about alcohol with parents, (N = 251) completed an anonymous online survey in Fall 2021. Participants reported frequency of discussing 14 alcohol-related topics with parents, past 30-day drinking behaviors, and PBS use. RESULTS: We identified two forms of PCA: general alcohol information and alcohol risk information, with alcohol risk information being more common than general alcohol information. PCA was not significantly associated with drinking behavior but was associated with two types of PBS. Specifically, general alcohol information was associated with greater use of serious harm reduction and stopping or limiting drinking strategies. Additionally, legal drinking age status moderated the associations between both forms of PCA and the use of stopping or limiting drinking strategies. In general, underage students stopping or limiting drinking strategies benefited from general alcohol information but not alcohol risk information. Legal drinking age students stopping or limiting drinking strategies benefited from alcohol risk information. CONCLUSIONS: Among these students, PCA appears to have a greater impact on PBS use rather than drinking behavior. This may reflect a shift in students' beliefs about parental authority over alcohol and parents' acceptance of alcohol use by their children.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College , Underage Drinking , Child , Humans , United States , Alcohol Drinking , Ethanol , Communication , Parents , Students , Universities
17.
Subst Use Misuse ; 59(5): 665-672, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38204143

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Previous research suggests drinking alcohol to cope with negative affect, including stress, is a risk for increased alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Stress mindset, the individually held belief that stress can lead to either enhancing or debilitating outcomes, has yet to be studied within the context of alcohol use. Studying stress mindset among college students as it relates to alcohol consumption may provide important insight into heavy alcohol use in this population. METHOD: A sample of 320 undergraduates (Mage = 19.06 (SD = 0.06); 63.44% female; 65.49% White) who endorsed past-year alcohol use completed self-report measures of drinking motives, stress mindset, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related consequences. Zero-inflated negative binomial regressions were utilized to examine the moderating effect of stress mindset on the relationship between drinking to cope and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Stress mindset significantly moderated the relationship between drinking to cope and alcohol consumption (IRR = 0.98, se = 0.01, p < 0.05, CI = 0.96, 1.00), such that the relationship was stronger among those with a debilitating stress mindset compared to those with an enhancing stress mindset. Stress mindset did not significantly moderate the relationship between drinking to cope and alcohol-related consequences. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with high drinking to cope scores and who hold a debilitating stress mindset may be at a particular vulnerability for heavy alcohol consumption. The present study furthers our understanding of predictors of alcohol use in a college sample and suggests the importance of future research focused on stress mindset among college student drinkers.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College , Alcohol-Related Disorders , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Male , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Alcohol-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Students , Universities , Motivation
18.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 85(3): 349-360, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38206658

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Among college students, student-athletes are at increased risk for heavy alcohol consumption, participation in risky drinking practices (e.g., playing drinking games [DG]), and adverse alcohol-related consequences relative to non-student-athletes. Within the student-athlete population, level of sports participation (e.g., recreational or varsity sports) can affect alcohol use behaviors and consequences, but our understanding of the extent to which level of sports participation influences engagement in DG is limited. Thus, in the present study, we examined differences in frequency of participation in DG, typical drink consumption while playing DG, negative DG consequences, and motives for playing DG among varsity, recreational, and non-student-athletes. METHOD: College students (n = 7,901 across 12 U.S. colleges/universities) completed questionnaires on alcohol use attitudes, behaviors, and consequences. RESULTS: Student-athletes (recreational or varsity sports) were more likely to have participated in DG within the past month than non-student-athletes. Among students who reported past-month DG play, recreational athletes played more often and endorsed more enhancement/thrills motives for playing DG than non-student-athletes, and student-athletes (recreational or varsity) endorsed higher levels of competition motives for playing DG than non-student-athletes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings shed light on some risky drinking patterns and motives of recreational athletes who are often overlooked and under-resourced in health research and clinical practice. Recreational and varsity student-athletes could benefit from alcohol screening and prevention efforts, which can include provision of competitive and alcohol-free social activities and promotion of alcohol protective behavioral strategies to help reduce recreational athletes' risk for harm while playing DG.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College , Athletes , Motivation , Students , Humans , Male , Female , Athletes/psychology , Athletes/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult , Universities , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Alcohol Drinking in College/psychology , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Adolescent , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk-Taking , Sports/psychology , Games, Recreational/psychology , Adult
19.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 38(4): 409-423, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38190199

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: It is hypothesized that alcohol use is reinforcing when used as a strategy to cope with negative affect. Although the evidence for this hypothesis in observational data is weak, some experimental evidence suggests that the behavioral economic demand for alcohol increases immediately following a negative emotional event. We hypothesized that people show a higher demand for alcohol following negative (vs. neutral) mood inductions and that this effect is stronger in people who report heavier drinking compared to people who report lighter drinking as well as stronger on days characterized by higher coping motives and negative urgency. METHOD: 309 college students who reported recent alcohol consumption (MAUDIT = 6.86) completed the alcohol purchase task after being subjected to 12 mood inductions (six negative, six neutral, order randomized) on 12 separate days. RESULTS: In our preregistered analyses, we found no evidence that the behavioral economic demand for alcohol was elevated following negative mood inductions. The mood inductions in our study were not as strong as has been reported in previous research, weakening the preregistered inferences. In exploratory analyses performed on a subset of the data in which the mood inductions worked as intended, demand was higher following negative mood inductions. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study are not conclusive. In light of previous research, we consider these data to slightly increase our confidence that demand for alcohol is increased immediately following a negative emotional event. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Affect , Economics, Behavioral , Humans , Female , Male , Young Adult , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Students/psychology , Motivation , Alcohol Drinking in College/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent
20.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 38(4): 437-450, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38271078

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Behavioral economic theory suggests that alcohol risk is related to elevated alcohol reinforcing efficacy (demand) combined with diminished availability of reinforcing substance-free activities, but little research has examined these reward-related processes at the daily level in association with comorbid conditions that might influence behavioral patterns and reward. Young people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) report high levels of risky drinking, and this risk may be due in part to elevated demand for alcohol and diminished engagement in enjoyable and valued substance-free activities. METHOD: College student drinkers (N = 101; 48.5% female; 68.3% White; 18-22 years old) with (n = 51) and without (n = 50) ADHD completed 14 consecutive daily diaries (diary entry n = 1,414). We conducted a series of multilevel path models to examine (a) the associations among ADHD and average daily alcohol demand, substance-free enjoyment, and response contingent positive reinforcement (RCPR) for goal-directed behaviors; (b) the associations among concurrent daily alcohol demand, substance-free reinforcement, and RCPR for goal-directed behaviors and daily alcohol use and alcohol-related negative consequences; and (c) the moderating effect of ADHD on these within-day associations. RESULTS: ADHD was significantly associated with more daily alcohol-related negative consequences and less daily substance-free enjoyment and RCPR. Regardless of ADHD status, there were significant associations among behavioral economic risk factors and alcohol use and negative consequences, though effects differed within and between persons. There were no moderating effects of ADHD on within-person associations. CONCLUSIONS: Results expose areas of impairment specific to drinkers with ADHD and advance theory on ADHD and hazardous drinking. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Economics, Behavioral , Reinforcement, Psychology , Students , Humans , Female , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Alcohol Drinking in College/psychology , Students/psychology , Universities , Alcohol-Related Disorders , Comorbidity
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