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1.
Internet resource in English, Spanish, French, Portuguese | LIS -Health Information Locator | ID: lis-48785

ABSTRACT

À medida que os casos de COVID-19 continuam aumentando acentuadamente em toda a região das Américas – 27,2% na semana passada –, a diretora da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS), Carissa F. Etienne, pediu aos países que adotem medidas para aumentar a vigilância, as medidas de saúde pública e a vacinação para garantir que os sistemas de saúde estejam preparados para lidar com um potencial influxo de pacientes com COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Americas/epidemiology , Monitoring
2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2459, 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513376

ABSTRACT

It is well established that nighttime radiance, measured from satellites, correlates with economic prosperity across the globe. In developing countries, areas with low levels of detected radiance generally indicate limited development - with unlit areas typically being disregarded. Here we combine satellite nighttime lights and the world settlement footprint for the year 2015 to show that 19% of the total settlement footprint of the planet had no detectable artificial radiance associated with it. The majority of unlit settlement footprints are found in Africa (39%), rising to 65% if we consider only rural settlement areas, along with numerous countries in the Middle East and Asia. Significant areas of unlit settlements are also located in some developed countries. For 49 countries spread across Africa, Asia and the Americas we are able to predict and map the wealth class obtained from ~2,400,000 geo-located households based upon the percent of unlit settlements, with an overall accuracy of 87%.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Family Characteristics , Africa , Americas , Middle East , Population Dynamics
3.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-20. (PAHO/NMH/NV/22-0008).
| PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56018

ABSTRACT

This scorecard has been developed by the Pan American Health Organization to highlight the country capacity for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and showcase regional results from the global NCD Progress Monitor 2022. It provides a snapshot of key NCD indicators across all countries in the Region of the Americas. The tool, the third of a series initiated in 2017, aims to promote understanding of the response to NCDs and assist decision-making for NCD program improvement. The WHO Progress Monitor 2022 for Noncommunicable Diseases, the fourth of a series, provides information on the country capacity for NCDs, measured by 19 indicators. They include setting time-bound targets to reduce NCD deaths, developing all-of-government policies to address NCDs; implementing key tobacco and alcohol demand reduction measures, measures to reduce unhealthy diets and promote physical activity; and strengthening health systems through primary health care and universal health coverage. Noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors are the leading causes of morbidity, mortality and disability in the Americas, and they represent both a public health challenge and a serious threat to economic and social development. In the Region of the Americas, NCDs cause aproximately 5.8 million deaths per year, representing 81% of all deaths in the Region. Of the total deaths from NCDs, 36.4% are premature deaths, occurring in people under 70 years of age. For more information about the series and access to the interactive NCD Progress Monitor Scorecard, visit www.paho.org/en/topics/noncommunicable-diseases/ncds-progress-monitor.


Subject(s)
Noncommunicable Diseases , Surveillance , Risk Factors , Americas
4.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-19.
in English, Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56011

ABSTRACT

[WEEKLY SUMMARY]. North America: Overall, influenza and SARS-CoV-2 activity remained at low levels. In Canada, influenza activity increased above the average of previous seasons for this period at low intensity levels, and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased and remained at low levels. In Mexico, influenza activity increased above the epidemic threshold and was at the average of previous seasons, and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased. In the United States, influenza activity varied within regions and continued to increase in some states with influenza A(H3N2) viruses predominating. Caribbean: Influenza activity remained at low levels, with predominating influenza A(H3N2), and overall, SARS-CoV-2 activity declined in most countries. In Belize and Dominica, influenza and SARS-CoV-2 activity and percent positivity increased. Central America: Overall, influenza activity remained low and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased in most countries. In El Salvador, influenza activity remained above-average levels at low-intensity levels. In Costa Rica and Panama, SARS-CoV-2 activity and percent positivity increased compared to previous seasons. Andean: Overall, influenza activity remained low with A(H3N2) predominance. SARS-CoV-2 activity continued to decline in most countries, except in Peru, where the influenza activity with the predominance of A(H3N2) continued elevated above the average seasonal levels. In Ecuador, RSV activity continued elevated. Brazil and Southern Cone: Overall, influenza with the predominance of A(H3N2) and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased. In Brazil, SARS-CoV-2 activity increased slightly compared to the previous week. In Chile and Uruguay, influenza A(H3N2) activity and SARS-CoV-2 positivity increased slightly at low intensity levels. RSV activity continued elevated in Chile and Uruguay. Global: Influenza activity continued to decrease, following a peak in March 2022. In the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, influenza activity decreased or remained stable. Detections were mainly influenza A(H3N2) viruses and B/Victoria lineage viruses, with some detections of A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. In Central Asia, a single influenza B detection was reported in Kazakhstan. In East Asia, influenza activity with mainly influenza B/Victoria lineage. Overall, in Europe, influenza continues to decline, with influenza A(H3N2) predominant. Very little RSV activity was observed. Detections continued to decrease in China while A(H3N2) became the predominantly detected virus across the southern provinces in China. Elsewhere, influenza illness indicators and activity remained low. In Northern Africa, Tunisia continued to report few detections of mainly influenza A(H3N2) and one influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 detection, while Egypt reported increasing detections of influenza B followed by A(H3N2). In Western Asia, influenza activity was low across reporting countries, except Georgia, where detections of influenza A(H3N2) continued to be reported although decreasing. In Southern Asia, influenza virus detections were at low levels, with a few detections of A(H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses. In South-East Asia, low A(H3N2) detections were reported in Singapore and Timor-Leste. In the temperate zones of the southern hemisphere, influenza activity was low overall, as expected at this time of year. Overall, COVID positivity from sentinel surveillance increased and was just above 10% during the reporting period. Activity from non-sentinel sites was varied.


[RESUMEN SEMANAL]. América del Norte: en general, la actividad de la influenza y de SARS-CoV-2 se mantuvo en niveles bajos. En Canadá, la actividad de la influenza aumentó por encima del promedio de temporadas anteriores para esta época del año en nivel de intensidad bajo y la actividad de SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó y se mantuvo en niveles bajos. En México, la actividad de la influenza aumentó por encima del umbral epidémico y estuvo en el promedio de las temporadas anteriores y la actividad y el porcentaje de positividad del SARS-CoV-2 aumentó. En los Estados Unidos, la actividad de la influenza varía según la región y siguió aumentando en algunas zonas del país con predominio de los virus influenza A(H3N2). Caribe: la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo en niveles bajos, con predominio de influenza A(H3N2) y, en general, la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó en la mayoría de los países. En Belice y Dominica, aumentó la actividad y el porcentaje de positividad de influenza y SARS-CoV-2. América Central: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó en la mayoría de los países. En El Salvador, la actividad de influenza se mantuvo por encima del promedio en niveles de baja intensidad. En Costa Rica y Panamá, la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 y el porcentaje de positividad aumentaron en comparación con temporadas anteriores. Andina: en general, la actividad de influenza se mantuvo baja con predominio de A(H3N2). La actividad de SARS-CoV-2 continuó disminuyendo en la mayoría de los países, excepto en Perú, donde la actividad de influenza con predominio de A(H3N2) continuó elevada por encima de los niveles promedio estacionales. En Ecuador, la actividad del VRS continuó elevada. Brasil y Cono Sur: en general, disminuyó la actividad de influenza con predominio de A(H3N2) y SARS-CoV-2. En Brasil, la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 aumentó levemente con respecto a la semana anterior. En Chile y Uruguay, la actividad de influenza A(H3N2) y la positividad de SARS-CoV-2 aumentaron levemente en niveles de baja intensidad. La actividad del VRS continuó elevada en Chile y Uruguay. Global: la actividad de la influenza siguió disminuyendo, luego de un pico en marzo de 2022. En las zonas templadas del hemisferio norte, la actividad de la influenza disminuyó o se mantuvo estable. Las detecciones fueron principalmente virus de la influenza A(H3N2) e influenza B linaje Victoria, con algunas detecciones de los virus A(H1N1)pdm09. En Asia Central, se notificó una sola detección de influenza B en Kazajstán. En el este de Asia, la actividad de la influenza fue principalmente de influenza B linaje Victoria. En general, en Europa, la influenza sigue disminuyendo con predominio de influenza A(H3N2). Se observó muy poca actividad de VRS. Las detecciones continuaron disminuyendo en China, mientras que el A(H3N2) se convirtió en el virus predominantemente detectado en las provincias del sur de China. En otros lugares, los indicadores y la actividad de la enfermedad por influenza permanecieron bajos. En el norte de África, Túnez continuó informando pocas detecciones principalmente de influenza A(H3N2) y una detección de influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, mientras que Egipto reportó un aumento en las detecciones de influenza B seguida de A(H3N2). En Asia occidental, la actividad de la influenza fue baja en todos los países que notificaron, excepto en Georgia, donde continuaron las notificaciones de detecciones de influenza A(H3N2), aunque en disminución. En el sur de Asia, las detecciones del virus de la influenza estuvieron en niveles bajos, con algunas detecciones de los virus A(H3N2) y A(H1N1)pdm09. En el Sudeste Asiático, se informaron detecciones bajas de A(H3N2) en Singapur y Timor-Leste. En las zonas templadas del hemisferio sur, en general, la actividad de la influenza fue baja como se esperaba en esta época del año. En general, la positividad de la COVID de la vigilancia centinela aumentó y estuvo justo por encima del 10 % durante el período del informe. La actividad de los sitios no centinela fue variada.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , SARS-CoV-2 , Betacoronavirus , International Health Regulations , Americas , Caribbean Region , Influenza, Human , International Health Regulations , Americas , Caribbean Region
5.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2022-05-12. (OPAS/HSS/HR/22-0015).
in Portuguese | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55996

ABSTRACT

Os enfermeiros são atores-chave na promoção da saúde e na prevenção de doenças e a espinha dorsal dos sistemas de saúde em todo o mundo. Os enfermeiros trabalham na linha de frente da prevenção de doenças, promoção da saúde e gestão da saúde e, muitas vezes, são os heróis não mencionados nos serviços de saúde e na resposta a emergências. Apesar do papel crítico que desempenham no cuidado da saúde, existe uma escassez de enfermeiros em todo o mundo que afetará a prestação de cuidados de enfermagem. Esta ficha informativa destaca as principais áreas de ação para investimentos direcionados à força de trabalho de enfermagem e convida os Estados-Membros a fortalecer a enfermagem no contexto de seus esforços nacionais. São fornecidas sugestões de ação e estratégias para fortalecer a força de trabalho de enfermagem nos serviços primários de saúde por meio de investimentos em educação, empregos, liderança e prestação de serviços.


Subject(s)
Workforce , Nurses , Health Promotion , Delivery of Health Care , Disease Prevention , Americas
6.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-05-12. (OPS/HSS/HR/22-0015).
in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55983

ABSTRACT

El personal de enfermería desempeña un papel fundamental en la promoción de la salud y la prevención de enfermedades, y es uno de los grandes pilares del sistema de atención de salud. No obstante, la escasez de recursos humanos que afecta al sector en todo el mundo repercute en la calidad de los servicios. Esta hoja informativa hace hincapié en los puntos de acción clave para invertir en la fuerza de trabajo e insta a los Estados Miembros de la OPS a fortalecer el sector a través de medidas basadas en la inversión en formación, la creación de empleo e incentivos, el liderazgo de alto nivel y la regulación de la práctica de enfermería.


Subject(s)
Workforce , Nurses , Health Promotion , Delivery of Health Care , Disease Prevention , Americas
7.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-12. (PAHO/CDE/VT/21-0021).
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55980

ABSTRACT

The Intergovernmental Commission of the Amazon Countries Initiative for the Surveillance and Control of Chagas Disease (AMCHA) held its 11th Annual Meeting and First Virtual Meeting on 27-28 May 2021. This meeting report lists the recommendations, conclusions and resolutions agreed. Representatives from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Siriname and Venezuela and other partners on Chagas participated in the meeting and presented the epidemiological situation of Chagas disease in their countries. Due to the particular Amazonian situation of vectorial transmission based mostly on the wild cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi with diversity of triatomine vectors involved in effective transmission, and the variety of eco-epidemiological situations that facilitate such transmission, the countries of the Amazon agreed that the development and strengthening of preventive actions based on comprehensive surveillance and detection of effective vectorial transmission, based on mandatory notification of acute or chronic cases, was required. In addition, it was recommended that surveillance and prevention and/or vector control actions should be implemented through local governments (minimum administrative and territorial units of each country), which Colombia adopted as an approach strategy, as a tool that can be useful in complex situations of different types and entities; implementation of all necessary capacities to diagnose Chagas disease, in all clinical symptoms that are compatible with it, especially febrile syndromes without diagnostic confirmation of malaria and dengue (in urban environments); and use the detection of acute cases of Chagas disease, and even of chronic cases when possible, as an indicator for a concomitant epidemiological investigation, and eventual adoption of measures for prevention, control and clinical care of the cases in the situation studied.


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease , Communicable Diseases , Amazonian Ecosystem , Technical Cooperation , Americas
8.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2022-05-11. (OPAS/IMS/EIH/COVID-19/22-0012).
in Portuguese | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55977

ABSTRACT

Desde o início da pandemia de COVID-19, inúmeros ensaios clínicos foram planejados e realizados para avaliar a eficácia e a segurança de várias intervenções que poderiam evitar agravamento da doença e a hospitalização em pessoas infectadas pelo vírus SARS-CoV-2. Atualmente, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) e a Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) recomendam o uso de corticoides, tocilizumabe, baricitinibe e casirivimabe/ indevimabe (essa última associação em pacientes soronegativos para COVID-19) e propõem o uso de sotrovimabe, casirivimabe/indevimabe e molnupiravir em pacientes pertencentes aos grupos de risco para complicações, mas ainda na forma leve ou moderada da doença. Outras potenciais intervenções terapêuticas estão sob investigação ou avaliação da OMS e da OPAS. As intervenções atualmente recomendadas ou aquelas que serão recomendadas no futuro apresentam desafios relacionados à via de administração (por exemplo, oral ou intravenosa); à eficácia, que depende da variante do vírus; a quem deve ser considerado de alto risco (por exemplo, em relação ao status vacinal); ao seu custo; e aos recursos necessários para administrá-las, bem como a outros aspectos relacionados à sua implementação (por exemplo, distribuição, farmacovigilância, contraindicações, interações medicamentosas, etc.). A fim de apoiar a tomada de decisões para o manejo de pacientes, a OPAS apresenta neste documento recomendações sobre o uso racional de antivirais, anticorpos monoclonais e outras intervenções, considerando as evidências mais atualizadas, o status vacinal, o acesso e custos para os países da Região das Américas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Evidence-Based Medicine , Translational Medical Research , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies , Patient Care Management , Americas , Caribbean Region
9.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-11.
in English, Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55976

ABSTRACT

[WEEKLY SUMMARY]. North America: Overall, influenza and SARS-CoV-2 activity remained at low levels. In Canada, influenza activity increased above the average of previous seasons for this period at low intensity levels, and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased and remained at low levels. In Mexico, influenza activity remained stable below the average of previous seasons, and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased. In the United States, influenza activity varied within regions and continued to increase in some states with influenza A(H3N2) viruses predominating. Caribbean: Influenza activity remained at low levels, with predominating influenza A(H3N2), and overall, SARS-CoV-2 activity continued to decline. In Belize, influenza activity and percent positivity increased. In Jamaica and Saint Lucia, SARS-CoV-2 percent positivity increased at low levels compared to the previous seasons. In Puerto Rico, the percentage of visits for influenza-like illness continued to increase to high levels for this time of year. Central America: Overall, influenza activity remained low and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased in most countries. In El Salvador, influenza activity remained above-average levels at low-intensity levels. In Panama, SARS-CoV-2 activity and percent positivity increased compared to previous seasons. Andean: Overall, influenza activity remained low with A(H3N2) predominance. SARS-CoV-2 activity continued to decline in most countries. In Ecuador, influenza activity decreased to above-average baseline levels for previous years; and RSV activity was higher than in previous years, except in 2015 and 2016. In Peru, influenza activity increased but remained at low levels compared to previous weeks. Brazil and Southern Cone: Overall, influenza activity decreased with the predominance of A(H3N2). SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased. In Brazil, RSV percent positivity increased to high-intensity levels above the levels observed in 2021, but below the levels of 2016-17 and 2019; and SARS-CoV-2 activity remained above the levels observed in 2021. In Argentina, influenza activity increased at high intensity levels and SARS-CoV-2 activity slightly increased.


[RESUMEN SEMANAL]. América del Norte: en general, la actividad de la influenza y de SARS-CoV-2 se mantienen en niveles bajos. En Canadá, la actividad de la influenza aumentó por encima del promedio de temporadas anteriores para esta época del año en nivel de intensidad bajo y la actividad de SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó y se mantiene en niveles bajos. En México, la actividad de la influenza se mantiene estable por debajo del promedio de temporadas anteriores y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó. En los Estados Unidos, la actividad de la influenza varía según la región y sigue aumentando en algunas zonas del país con predominio de los virus influenza A(H3N2). Caribe: la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo en niveles bajos, con predominio de influenza A(H3N2) y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continuó en disminución. En Belice aumentó la actividad y porcentaje de positividad de influenza. En Jamaica y Santa Lucía el porcentaje de positividad del SARS-CoV-2 aumentó en nivel de intensidad bajo con respecto a los registrados previamente. En Puerto Rico, el porcentaje de visitas por enfermedad tipo influenza continúa en aumento a niveles altos para esta época del año. América Central: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó en la mayoría de los países. En El Salvador la actividad de la influenza permaneció por encima de los niveles promedio en niveles de intensidad bajos. En Panamá la actividad y porcentaje de positividad para el SARS-CoV-2 aumentaron en comparación con periodos previos. Andina: en general, la actividad de la influenza continuó baja con predominio de A(H3N2). La actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continuó disminuyendo en la mayoría de los países. En Ecuador, la actividad de la influenza disminuyó a los niveles de referencia por encima del promedio de los años anteriores. La actividad del VRS fue mayor que en años anteriores, excepto en 2015 y 2016. En Perú, la actividad de influenza aumentó en las últimas semanas, pero se mantiene en niveles de baja intensidad Brasil y Cono Sur: en general, la actividad de la influenza con predominio de A(H3N2) y SARS-CoV-2 tienden a la disminución. En Brasil el porcentaje de positividad de virus respiratorio sincitial se mantuvo en niveles altos por encima de los niveles observados a finales de 2021, pero por debajo de los niveles de las temporadas 2016-17 y 2019 y la actividad y porcentaje de positividad de SARS-CoV2 se mantuvo en niveles altos por encima de lo observado a fines de 2021. En Argentina la actividad y porcentaje de positividad para influenza aumentaron a niveles de intensidad alta y la actividad de SARS-CoV-2 aumentó levemente.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , SARS-CoV-2 , Betacoronavirus , International Health Regulations , Americas , Caribbean Region , Influenza, Human , International Health Regulations , Americas , Caribbean Region
10.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-09. (PAHO/NMH/MH/COVID-19/22-0001).
Non-conventional in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55972

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 HEalth caRe wOrkErs Study (HEROES): Regional Report from the Americas is a multicenter prospective cohort study to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of health care workers in 26 countries on four continents and how it is affected by several factors at different interrelated levels: individual, family, occupational, and social. This brief report presents the evidence generated from the baseline survey of 11 participating countries in the Region of the Americas. Using validated scales, the findings show high rates of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and psychological distress in several countries of the Region. The spirit of the project is not only to generate quality scientific evidence on the mental health of health care workers, but also to help develop interventions (both individual and institutional) and policies to address the negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Mental Health , Risk Factors , Noncommunicable Diseases , Health Workforce , Surveillance of Working Environment , Americas
11.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-05-09. (OPS/IMS/HSS/COVID-19/22-0011).
Non-conventional in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55971

ABSTRACT

La pandemia de COVID-19 ha tenido unos efectos sin precedentes en la población, las economías y los servicios de salud de todo el mundo. Pese a las medidas adoptadas para mitigar su impacto, las consecuencias para los sistemas de salud se han hecho evidentes; por ejemplo, en América Latina y el Caribe, donde la actividad de donación y trasplante se ha reducido de manera considerable y, en algunos países, se ha interrumpido por completo. Las presentes recomendaciones de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud tratan de promover el mantenimiento de los servicios de donación y trasplante aun en el curso de la pandemia de COVID-19. Además, plantean sugerencias que puedan tenerse en cuenta en otras situaciones de emergencia de salud o pandemias en las que se requieran medidas de gestión y prevención del riesgo de infecciones. Esta publicación está dirigida a ministerios de salud, organizaciones, organismos o programas nacionales de donación y trasplantes, así como a responsables de la toma de decisiones en este ámbito, profesionales de la salud y otros interesados en la donación y trasplante. Cada país puede adaptar estas recomendaciones a su contexto y ajustarlas periódicamente de acuerdo con la mejor evidencia científica disponible y la experiencia adquirida desde el inicio de la pandemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Services , Organ Transplantation , Tissue Transplantation , Gift Giving , Telemedicine , Home Nursing , Universal Health Care , Americas
12.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-09. (PAHO/IMS/EIH/COVID-19/22-0012).
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55968

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, a large number of clinical trials have been planned and developed to assess the effectiveness and safety of various interventions that could prevent hospitalizations and progression to severe disease in people infected with SARS-CoV-2. Currently, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) recommend the use of corticosteroids, tocilizumab, baricitinib, and casirivimab e imdevimab (the latter in seronegative COVID-19 patients) and propose the use of sotrovimab, casirivimab/imdevimab, and molnupiravir in patients with non-severe illness who are at high risk for complications. Other potential therapeutic interventions are currently undergoing study or evaluation by WHO and PAHO. The interventions recommended at present and those that will be recommended at a later date pose challenges in terms of route of administration (e.g., oral or intravenous); efficacy, which depends on the viral variant; establishment of high-risk status (e.g., relative to vaccination status); cost; resources required to administer them; and other implementation-related aspects (e.g., distribution, drug safety monitoring, contraindications, interactions, etc.). To support decision-making for patient management, in this document PAHO presents considerations on the rational use of antivirals, monoclonal antibodies, and other interventions in light of the most current evidence, vaccination status, access, and the costs to countries of the Region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Evidence-Based Medicine , Translational Medical Research , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies , Patient Care Management , Americas , Caribbean Region
13.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46, mayo 2022. Special Issue HEARTS
Article in Portuguese | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55966

ABSTRACT

[RESUMO]. Fundamentos. As doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) são as principais causas de morbimortalidade nas Américas, e a hipertensão arterial (HÁ) é o fator de risco modificável mais importante. Porém, as taxas de controle da HA continuam baixas, e a mortalidade por DCV está estagnada ou aumentando após décadas de redução contínua. Em 2016, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) lançou o pacote de medidas técnicas HEARTS para melhorar o controle da HA. A Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) criou a iniciativa HEARTS nas Américas para melhorar a gestão do risco cardiovascular (RCV), com ênfase no controle da HA. Até agora, essa iniciativa foi implementada em 21 países. Métodos. Para impulsionar a implementação, recrutou-se um grupo multidisciplinar de profissionais para selecionar impulsionadores-chave do controle da HA com base em evidências e elaborar um scorecard completo para monitorar sua implementação em unidades de atenção primária à saúde (APS). O grupo estudou sistemas de saúde com alto desempenho que haviam conseguido atingir um alto nível de controle da HA por meio de programas de melhoria da qualidade focados em medidas específicas de processo, com feedback regular para os profissionais das unidades de saúde. Resultados. Os oito fatores impulsionadores incluídos na seleção final foram categorizados em cinco domínios principais: (1) diagnóstico (exatidão da medição da pressão arterial e avaliação do RCV); (2) tratamento (protocolo padronizado de tratamento e intensificação do tratamento); (3) continuidade do cuidado e acompanhamento; (4) modelo de atenção (atendimento baseado em equipe, renovação da prescrição); e (5) sistema de avaliação do desempenho. Em seguida, os fatores impulsionadores e as recomendações foram transformados em medidas de processo, gerando dois scorecards inter-relacionados integrados ao sistema de monitoramento e avaliação da Iniciativa HEARTS nas Américas. Interpretação. O foco nesses impulsionadores-chave da HA e nos scorecards resultantes orientará o processo de melhoria da qualidade para atingir as metas de controle, a nível populacional, dos centros de saúde participantes nos países que estão implementando a iniciativa HEARTS.


[ABSTRACT]. Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Americas, and hypertension is the most significant modifiable risk factor. However, hypertension control rates remain low, and CVD mortality is stagnant or rising after decades of continuing reduction. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the HEARTS technical package to improve hypertension control. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) designed the HEARTS in the Americas Initiative to improve CVD risk management, emphasizing hypertension control, to date implemented in 21 countries. Methods. To advance implementation, an interdisciplinary group of practitioners was engaged to select the key evidence-based drivers of hypertension control and to design a comprehensive scorecard to monitor their implementation at primary care health facilities (PHC). The group studied high-performing health systems that achieve high hypertension control through quality improvement programs focusing on specific process measures, with regular feedback to providers at health facilities. Findings. The final selected eight drivers were categorized into five main domains: (1) diagnosis (blood pressure measurement accuracy and CVD risk evaluation); (2) treatment (standardized treatment protocol and treatment intensification); (3) continuity of care and follow-up; (4) delivery system (team-based care, medication refill), and (5) system for performance evaluation. The drivers and recommendations were then translated into process measures, resulting in two interconnected scorecards integrated into the HEARTS in the Americas monitoring and evaluation system. Interpretation. Focus on these key hypertension drivers and resulting scorecards, will guide the quality improvement process to achieve population control goals at the participating health centers in HEARTS implementing countries.


[RESUMEN]. Antecedentes. Las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) son la principal causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en la Región de las Américas y la hipertensión es el factor de riesgo modificable asociado más importante. Sin embargo, las tasas de control de la hipertensión siguen siendo bajas y la mortalidad por ECV está estancada o en aumento después de décadas de reducción continua. En el 2016, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) presentó el paquete técnico HEARTS para mejorar el control de la hipertensión. La Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) diseñó la iniciativa HEARTS en las Américas para mejorar el control del riesgo de ECV, que hace hincapié en el control de la hipertensión y que, hasta la fecha, se ha implementado en 21 países. Métodos. Para avanzar en la implementación, se creó un grupo interdisciplinario de profesionales de la salud con el objetivo de seleccionar los factores impulsores claves del control de la hipertensión basados en la evidencia y diseñar un método de puntuación integral para dar seguimiento a su implementación en los centros de atención de salud primaria (APS). El grupo estudió los sistemas de salud de alto desempeño que logran un control elevado de la hipertensión mediante programas de mejora de la calidad que se centran en medidas específicas con respecto a los procesos, con retroalimentación regular a los prestadores en los centros de salud. Resultados. Los ocho factores impulsores finales seleccionados se clasificaron en cinco dominios principales: 1) diagnóstico (exactitud de la medición de la presión arterial y evaluación del riesgo de ECV); 2) tratamiento (protocolo de tratamiento e intensificación del tratamiento estandarizados); 3) continuidad de la atención y seguimiento; 4) sistema de prestación del tratamiento (atención basada en un trabajo en equipo, reposición de la medicación) y 5) sistema para la evaluación del desempeño. Los factores impulsores y las recomendaciones se tradujeron en medidas con respecto a los procesos, lo que llevó a dos métodos de puntuación integrados e interconectados en el sistema de seguimiento y evaluación del programa HEARTS en las Américas. Conclusiones. El enfoque que se centra en estos factores impulsores clave de la hipertensión y los métodos de puntuación resultantes servirá de guía para el proceso de mejora de la calidad con objeto de alcanzar los objetivos de control a nivel poblacional en los centros de salud participantes de los países que implementan el programa HEARTS.


Subject(s)
Noncommunicable Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Quality of Health Care , Americas , Noncommunicable Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Quality of Health Care , Americas , Noncommunicable Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Quality of Health Care , Americas
14.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46, mayo 2022. Special Issue HEARTS
Article in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55965

ABSTRACT

[RESUMEN]. Antecedentes. Las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) son la principal causa de morbilidad y mortalidad en la Región de las Américas y la hipertensión es el factor de riesgo modificable asociado más importante. Sin embargo, las tasas de control de la hipertensión siguen siendo bajas y la mortalidad por ECV está estancada o en aumento después de décadas de reducción continua. En el 2016, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) presentó el paquete técnico HEARTS para mejorar el control de la hipertensión. La Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) diseñó la iniciativa HEARTS en las Américas para mejorar el control del riesgo de ECV, que hace hincapié en el control de la hipertensión y que, hasta la fecha, se ha implementado en 21 países. Métodos. Para avanzar en la implementación, se creó un grupo interdisciplinario de profesionales de la salud con el objetivo de seleccionar los factores impulsores claves del control de la hipertensión basados en la evidencia y diseñar un método de puntuación integral para dar seguimiento a su implementación en los centros de atención de salud primaria (APS). El grupo estudió los sistemas de salud de alto desempeño que logran un control elevado de la hipertensión mediante programas de mejora de la calidad que se centran en medidas específicas con respecto a los procesos, con retroalimentación regular a los prestadores en los centros de salud. Resultados. Los ocho factores impulsores finales seleccionados se clasificaron en cinco dominios principales: 1) diagnóstico (exactitud de la medición de la presión arterial y evaluación del riesgo de ECV); 2) tratamiento (protocolo de tratamiento e intensificación del tratamiento estandarizados); 3) continuidad de la atención y seguimiento; 4) sistema de prestación del tratamiento (atención basada en un trabajo en equipo, reposición de la medicación) y 5) sistema para la evaluación del desempeño. Los factores impulsores y las recomendaciones se tradujeron en medidas con respecto a los procesos, lo que llevó a dos métodos de puntuación integrados e interconectados en el sistema de seguimiento y evaluación del programa HEARTS en las Américas. Conclusiones. El enfoque que se centra en estos factores impulsores clave de la hipertensión y los métodos de puntuación resultantes servirá de guía para el proceso de mejora de la calidad con objeto de alcanzar los objetivos de control a nivel poblacional en los centros de salud participantes de los países que implementan el programa HEARTS.


[ABSTRACT]. Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Americas, and hypertension is the most significant modifiable risk factor. However, hypertension control rates remain low, and CVD mortality is stagnant or rising after decades of continuing reduction. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the HEARTS technical package to improve hypertension control. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) designed the HEARTS in the Americas Initiative to improve CVD risk management, emphasizing hypertension control, to date implemented in 21 countries. Methods. To advance implementation, an interdisciplinary group of practitioners was engaged to select the key evidence-based drivers of hypertension control and to design a comprehensive scorecard to monitor their implementation at primary care health facilities (PHC). The group studied high-performing health systems that achieve high hypertension control through quality improvement programs focusing on specific process measures, with regular feedback to providers at health facilities. Findings. The final selected eight drivers were categorized into five main domains: (1) diagnosis (blood pressure measurement accuracy and CVD risk evaluation); (2) treatment (standardized treatment protocol and treatment intensification); (3) continuity of care and follow-up; (4) delivery system (team-based care, medication refill), and (5) system for performance evaluation. The drivers and recommendations were then translated into process measures, resulting in two interconnected scorecards integrated into the HEARTS in the Americas monitoring and evaluation system. Interpretation. Focus on these key hypertension drivers and resulting scorecards, will guide the quality improvement process to achieve population control goals at the participating health centers in HEARTS implementing countries.


[RESUMO]. Fundamentos. As doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) são as principais causas de morbimortalidade nas Américas, e a hipertensão arterial (HÁ) é o fator de risco modificável mais importante. Porém, as taxas de controle da HA continuam baixas, e a mortalidade por DCV está estagnada ou aumentando após décadas de redução contínua. Em 2016, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) lançou o pacote de medidas técnicas HEARTS para melhorar o controle da HA. A Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) criou a iniciativa HEARTS nas Américas para melhorar a gestão do risco cardiovascular (RCV), com ênfase no controle da HA. Até agora, essa iniciativa foi implementada em 21 países. Métodos. Para impulsionar a implementação, recrutou-se um grupo multidisciplinar de profissionais para selecionar impulsionadores-chave do controle da HA com base em evidências e elaborar um scorecard completo para monitorar sua implementação em unidades de atenção primária à saúde (APS). O grupo estudou sistemas de saúde com alto desempenho que haviam conseguido atingir um alto nível de controle da HA por meio de programas de melhoria da qualidade focados em medidas específicas de processo, com feedback regular para os profissionais das unidades de saúde. Resultados. Os oito fatores impulsionadores incluídos na seleção final foram categorizados em cinco domínios principais: (1) diagnóstico (exatidão da medição da pressão arterial e avaliação do RCV); (2) tratamento (protocolo padronizado de tratamento e intensificação do tratamento); (3) continuidade do cuidado e acompanhamento; (4) modelo de atenção (atendimento baseado em equipe, renovação da prescrição); e (5) sistema de avaliação do desempenho. Em seguida, os impulsionadores e as recomendações foram transformados em medidas de processo, gerando dois scorecards inter-relacionados integrados ao sistema de monitoramento e avaliação da Iniciativa HEARTS nas Américas. Interpretação. O foco nesses impulsionadores-chave da HA e nos scorecards resultantes orientará o processo de melhoria da qualidade para atingir as metas de controle, em nível populacional, dos centros de saúde participantes nos países que estão implementando a iniciativa HEARTS.


Subject(s)
Noncommunicable Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Quality of Health Care , Americas , Noncommunicable Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Quality of Health Care , Americas , Noncommunicable Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Quality of Health Care
15.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46, mayo 2022. Special Issue HEARTS
Article in Portuguese | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55964

ABSTRACT

[RESUMO]. A doença cardiovascular (DCV) é a principal causa de morte nas Américas, e a pressão arterial elevada é responsável por mais de 50% dos casos de DCV. Nas Américas, mais de um quarto das mulheres adultas e quatro de cada dez homens adultos têm hipertensão arterial, sendo que diagnóstico, tratamento e controle estão abaixo do ideal. Em 2021, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) divulgou uma atualização das diretrizes para o tratamento medicamentoso da hipertensão arterial em adultos. Esta publicação ressalta o papel facilitador da iniciativa Global HEARTS da OMS e da iniciativa HEARTS nas Américas para catalisar a implementação dessas diretrizes, oferece recomendações específicas de políticas para sua implementação e enfatiza a necessidade de uma abordagem estratégica abrangente para o controle da hipertensão arterial. Os autores clamam para que tanto as pessoas que advogam pela Saúde, quanto as autoridades responsáveis, priorizem a prevenção e o controle da hipertensão arterial como forma de melhorar a saúde e o bem-estar das populações e reduzir as disparidades de saúde cardiovascular dentro das populações das Américas e entre elas.


[ABSTRACT]. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Americas and raised blood pressure accounts for over 50% of CVD. In the Americas over a quarter of adult women and four in ten adult men have hypertension and the diagnosis, treatment and control are suboptimal. In 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) released an updated guideline for the pharmacological treatment of hypertension in adults. This policy paper highlights the facilitating role of the WHO Global HEARTS initiative and the HEARTS in the Americas initiative to catalyze the implementation of this guideline, provides specific policy advice for implementation, and emphasizes that an overarching strategic approach for hypertension control is needed. The authors urge health advocates and policymakers to prioritize the prevention and control of hypertension to improve the health and wellbeing of their populations and to reduce CVD health disparities within and between populations of the Americas.


[RESUMEN]. Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la principal causa de muerte en la Región de las Américas y la hipertensión es la causa de más del 50% de ellas. En la Región, más de una cuarta parte de las mujeres adultas y cuatro de cada diez hombres adultos tienen hipertensión y su diagnóstico, tratamiento y control son deficientes. En el 2021, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) publicó directrices actualizadas sobre el tratamiento farmacológico de la hipertensión en personas adultas. En este artículo se destaca el papel facilitador de la iniciativa mundial HEARTS de la OMS y la iniciativa HEARTS en las Américas para catalizar la implementación de estas directrices, a la vez que se proporciona asesoramiento específico sobre políticas para dicha implementación y se destaca la necesidad de adoptar un enfoque estratégico general para el control de la hipertensión. Los autores instan a quienes abogan por la salud y a los responsables de las políticas a priorizar la prevención y el control de la hipertensión para mejorar la salud y el bienestar de la población, y a reducir las disparidades de salud en relación con las enfermedades cardiovasculares dentro de la población y entre las poblaciones de la Región de las Américas.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Practice Guideline , Clinical Protocols , Health Services , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Health Policy , Practice Guideline , Clinical Protocols , Health Services , Public Health , Cardiovascular Diseases , Americas , Hypertension , Health Policy , Practice Guideline , Health Services , Public Health , Cardiovascular Diseases , Americas
16.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46, mayo 2022. Special Issue HEARTS
Article in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55963

ABSTRACT

[RESUMEN ]. Las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la principal causa de muerte en la Región de las Américas y la hipertensión es la causa de más del 50% de ellas. En la Región, más de una cuarta parte de las mujeres adultas y cuatro de cada diez hombres adultos tienen hipertensión y su diagnóstico, tratamiento y control son deficientes. En el 2021, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) publicó directrices actualizadas sobre el tratamiento farmacológico de la hipertensión en personas adultas. En este artículo se destaca el papel facilitador de la iniciativa mundial HEARTS de la OMS y la iniciativa HEARTS en las Américas para catalizar la implementación de estas directrices, a la vez que se proporciona asesoramiento específico sobre políticas para dicha implementación y se destaca la necesidad de adoptar un enfoque estratégico general para el control de la hipertensión. Los autores instan a quienes abogan por la salud y a los responsables de las políticas a priorizar la prevención y el control de la hipertensión para mejorar la salud y el bienestar de la población, y a reducir las disparidades de salud en relación con las enfermedades cardiovasculares dentro de la población y entre las poblaciones de la Región de las Américas.


[ABSTRACT]. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Americas and raised blood pressure accounts for over 50% of CVD. In the Americas over a quarter of adult women and four in ten adult men have hypertension and the diagnosis, treatment and control are suboptimal. In 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) released an updated guideline for the pharmacological treatment of hypertension in adults. This policy paper highlights the facilitating role of the WHO Global HEARTS initiative and the HEARTS in the Americas initiative to catalyze the implementation of this guideline, provides specific policy advice for implementation, and emphasizes that an over-arching strategic approach for hypertension control is needed. The authors urge health advocates and policymakers to prioritize the prevention and control of hypertension to improve the health and wellbeing of their populations and to reduce CVD health disparities within and between populations of the Americas.


[RESUMO]. A doença cardiovascular (DCV) é a principal causa de morte nas Américas, e a pressão arterial elevada é responsável por mais de 50% dos casos de DCV. Nas Américas, mais de um quarto das mulheres adultas e quatro de cada dez homens adultos têm hipertensão arterial, sendo que diagnóstico, tratamento e controle estão abaixo do ideal. Em 2021, a Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) divulgou uma atualização das diretrizes para o tratamento medicamentoso da hipertensão arterial em adultos. Essa publicação ressalta o papel facilitador da iniciativa Global HEARTS da OMS e da iniciativa HEARTS nas Américas para catalisar a implementação dessas diretrizes, oferece recomendações específicas de políticas para sua implementação e enfatiza a necessidade de uma abordagem estratégica abrangente para o controle da hipertensão arterial. Os autores clamam para que tanto as pessoas que advogam pela Saúde, quanto as autoridades responsáveis, priorizem a prevenção e o controle da hipertensão arterial como forma de melhorar a saúde e o bem-estar das populações e reduzir as disparidades de saúde cardiovascular dentro das populações das Américas e entre elas.


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Health Policy , Practice Guideline , Clinical Protocols , Health Services , Public Health , Cardiovascular Diseases , Americas , Hypertension , Health Policy , Practice Guideline , Clinical Protocols , Health Services , Public Health , Cardiovascular Diseases , Americas , Hypertension , Health Policy , Practice Guideline , Health Services , Cardiovascular Diseases
17.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46, mayo 2022. Special Issue HEARTS
Article in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55962

ABSTRACT

[EXTRACTO]. Las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) son la causa principal de la carga de enfermedad en la Región de las Américas que, en el 2017, ocasionó más de dos millones de muertes, una tercera parte del total para ese año. Por sorprendente que parezca, existe la amenaza de que las ECV tengan un impacto aún mayor en los próximos años, en vista de la tendencia al aumento registrada en la última década. La presión arterial (PA) elevada es un factor de riesgo significativo para el desarrollo de las ECV, y causa más de 50% de las cardiopatías isquémicas y de los accidentes cerebrovasculares y 17% del total de muertes a nivel mundial. […] Para abordar la carga cada vez mayor de las ECV, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) puso en marcha el programa HEARTS en las Américas, una iniciativa integral de reducción de riesgos que pasará a ser el modelo institucionalizado para el manejo de la hipertensión en la atención primaria de salud para el 2025. Se trata de una iniciativa multinacional, encabezada por el ministerio de salud de cada país participante, con el apoyo de interesados locales y la cooperación técnica de la OPS. […] En este artículo se describe la labor de colaboración entre la OPS, los países ejecutores y los asociados para mejorar el entorno regulatorio relacionado con los dispositivos de medición de la presión arterial en los países que ejecutan la iniciativa HEARTS. Acceso al artículo original en inglés publicado en Journal of Human Hypertension: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41371-022-00659-z


[EXCERPT]. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of illness burden in the Americas, causing over 2 million deaths in 2017, a third of deaths overall for that year. While striking, CVD is threatening to have an even greater impact in the coming years, based on the upward trend of the last decade. Raised blood pressure (BP), a significant risk factor for the development of CVD, causes over 50% of ischemic heart disease and stroke events and 17% of total deaths globally. […] To address the growing burden of CVD, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) initiated HEARTS in the Americas, a comprehensive risk reduction initiative set to become the institutionalized model for hypertension management in primary health care by 2025. It is a multinational initiative, led by the Ministries of Health from each participating country, and with the participation of local stakeholders and the technical cooperation of PAHO. […] This perspective article outlines collaborative work between PAHO, implementing countries, and partners to improve the regulatory landscape related to BPMDs in countries implementing HEARTS. Access to the original English article published in the Journal of Human Hypertension: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41371-022-00659-z


[EXTRATO]. As doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) são a principal causa da carga de doenças nas Américas, causando mais de 2 milhões de mortes em 2017, um terço do total de mortes naquele ano. Por mais surpreendente que possa parecer, existe a ameaça de que as DCV tenham um impacto ainda maior nos próximos anos, dada a tendência de aumento registrada na última década. A pressão arterial (PA) elevada é um fator de risco significativo para o desenvolvimento de DCV, causando mais de 50% das doenças isquêmicas do coração e acidente vascular cerebral e 17% de todas as mortes em todo o mundo. [...] Para lidar com a crescente carga de DCV, a Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) lançou o programa HEARTS nas Américas, uma iniciativa abrangente de redução de risco que se tornará o modelo institucionalizado de gestão da hipertensão na atenção primária à saúde até 2025. Trata-se de uma iniciativa multinacional, liderada pelos Ministérios da Saúde de cada país participante, com a participação de atores locais e a cooperação técnica da OPAS. [...] Este artigo descreve o trabalho colaborativo entre a OPAS, países implementadores e parceiros para melhorar o ambiente regulatório relacionado aos dispositivos de medição da pressão arterial nos países que implementam a iniciativa HEARTS. Acesso ao artigo original publicado no Journal of Human Hypertension: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41371-022-00659-z


Subject(s)
Hypertension , Cardiovascular Diseases , Primary Health Care , Americas , Hypertension , Cardiovascular Diseases , Primary Health Care , Americas , Hypertension , Cardiovascular Diseases , Primary Health Care
18.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-05. (PAHO/HSS/HR/22-0015).
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55960

ABSTRACT

Nurses are key players in health promotion and disease prevention and the backbone of health care systems worldwide. Nurses work on the front lines of disease prevention, health promotion, and health management and are often the unsung heroes in health care facilities and emergency response. Despite the critical role they play in health care, there is a nursing shortage across the world that will affect the delivery of competent nursing care. This fact sheet highlights key action points for targeted investment in the nursing workforce and calls on Member States to strengthen nursing within the context of their own country efforts. Suggestions for action and strategies for strengthening the nursing workforce in primary health care services are through investment in education, jobs, leadership, and service delivery are provided.


Subject(s)
Workforce , Nurses , Health Promotion , Delivery of Health Care , Disease Prevention , Americas
19.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-05.
in English, Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55958

ABSTRACT

[WEEKLY SUMMARY]. North America: Overall, influenza activity remained at low levels, SARS-CoV-2 activity continued to decline, and percent positivity for SARS-Cov2 remained at low levels. In Canada, influenza activity and SARS-CoV-2 activity remained at low levels. In Mexico, influenza activity has increased but remained below the average of previous seasons, and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased. In the United States, influenza activity varied within regions and continued to increase in some states with influenza A(H3N2) viruses predominating. SARS-CoV-2 activity continued to decline. Caribbean: Influenza activity remained at low levels, with predominating influenza A(H3N2), and overall, SARS-CoV-2 activity continued to decline. In Dominica, SARI activity increased and remains below baseline levels. In Puerto Rico, the percentage of visits for influenza-like illness continued to increase to high levels for this time of year. Central America: Overall, influenza activity remained low and SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased in most countries. In El Salvador, influenza activity remained above-average levels at low-intensity levels. Andean: Overall, influenza activity remained low with A(H3N2) predominance. SARS-CoV-2 activity continued to decline in most countries. In Ecuador, influenza activity decreased to above-average baseline levels for previous years; and RSV activity was higher than in previous years, except in 2015 and 2016. In Peru, influenza activity increased with A(H3N2) predominance. Brazil and Southern Cone: Overall, influenza activity tends to decrease with the predominance of A(H3N2). SARS-CoV-2 activity decreased, except in Brazil, where SARS-CoV-2 percent positivity increased to high-intensity levels above the levels observed in 2021. Global: Influenza activity remained low, with a further decrease in some areas. In the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, influenza activity seems to decrease. In Europe, overall influenza activity appeared to decline, with influenza A(H3N2) predominant. In Central Asia, sporadic influenza B detections were reported in Kazakhstan. In East Asia, influenza activity with mainly influenza B/Victoria lineage detections continued to decrease in China. ILI rate and pneumonia hospitalizations remained elevated in Mongolia. Elsewhere, influenza illness indicators and activity remained low. In Northern Africa, decreased detections of influenza A(H3N2) were reported in Tunisia. In Western Asia, Georgia reported increased detections of influenza A(H3N2). In tropical Africa, influenza activity was informed mainly from Eastern Africa, with influenza A(H3N2) predominating, followed by influenza B viruses. In Southern Asia, influenza virus detections were at low levels overall. Only Malaysia reported influenza detections of influenza A(H3N2) and B viruses in South-East Asia. In the temperate zones of the southern hemisphere, influenza activity remained low overall. However, detections of influenza A viruses (with A(H3N2) predominant among the subtyped viruses) continued to be reported in South Africa. SARS-CoV-2 percent positivity from sentinel surveillance decreased below 10% in all WHO regions during this reporting period. Overall positivity from non-sentinel sites also showed a decreasing trend.


[RESUMEN SEMANAL]. América del Norte: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo en niveles bajos La actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continuó disminuyendo y el porcentaje de positividad de SARS-Cov2 se mantiene en niveles bajos. En Canadá, la actividad de la influenza y la actividad de SARS-CoV-2 se mantiene en niveles bajos En México, la actividad de la influenza ha aumentado pero se mantiene por debajo del promedio de temporadas anteriores y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó. En los Estados Unidos, la actividad de la influenza varía según la región y sigue aumentando en algunas zonas del país con predominio de los virus influenza A(H3N2). La actividad del SARS-CoV-2 siguió en disminución. Caribe: la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo en niveles bajos, con predominio de influenza A(H3N2) y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continuó en disminución. En Dominica, la actividad de las IRAG aumentó y se mantiene por debajo de los niveles de referencia. En Puerto Rico, el porcentaje de visitas por enfermedad tipo influenza continúa en aumento a niveles altos para esta época del año. América Central: en general, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja y la actividad del SARS-CoV-2 disminuyó en la mayoría de los países. En El Salvador la actividad de la influenza permaneció por encima de los niveles promedio en niveles de intensidad bajos. Andina: en general, la actividad de la influenza continuó baja con predominio de A(H3N2). La actividad del SARS-CoV-2 continuó disminuyendo en la mayoría de los países. En Ecuador, la actividad de la influenza disminuyó a los niveles de referencia por encima del promedio de los años anteriores. La actividad del VRS fue mayor que en años anteriores, excepto en 2015 y 2016. En Perú, la actividad de influenza aumentó con predominio de A(H3N2). Brasil y Cono Sur: en general, la actividad de la influenza con predominio de A(H3N2) y SARS-CoV-2 tienden a la disminución, excepto en Brasil en donde el porcentaje de positividad de SARS-CoV2 aumentó a niveles altos por encima de los niveles observados a fines de 2021. Global: la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja, con una disminución adicional en algunas áreas. En las zonas templadas del hemisferio norte, la actividad de la influenza parece disminuir. En Europa, la actividad general de la influenza pareció disminuir, predominando la influenza A(H3N2). En Asia Central, se informaron detecciones esporádicas de influenza B en Kazajstán. En el este de Asia, la actividad de la influenza principalmente con detecciones de influenza B linaje Victoria continuó disminuyendo en China. La tasa de ETI y las hospitalizaciones por neumonía permanecieron elevadas en Mongolia. En otros lugares, los indicadores y la actividad de la enfermedad por influenza permanecieron bajos. En el norte de África, se informó una disminución de las detecciones de influenza A(H3N2) en Túnez. En Asia Occidental, Georgia informó un aumento en las detecciones de influenza A(H3N2). En África tropical, se notificó la actividad de la influenza principalmente en África oriental, predominando la influenza A(H3N2), seguida por los virus de la influenza B. En el sur de Asia, las detecciones del virus de la influenza estuvieron en niveles bajos en general. Solo Malasia notificó detecciones de virus de la influenza A(H3N2) y B en el sudeste asiático. En las zonas templadas del hemisferio sur, la actividad de la influenza se mantuvo baja en general. Sin embargo, continuó la notificación de detecciones de virus influenza A(H3N2) (predominante entre los virus a los que se les determinó el subtipo) en Sudáfrica. El porcentaje de positividad de SARS-CoV-2 en la vigilancia centinela disminuyó por debajo del 10% en todas las regiones durante este período de informe. La positividad general de los sitios no centinela también mostró una tendencia a la baja.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , SARS-CoV-2 , Betacoronavirus , International Health Regulations , Americas , Caribbean Region , Influenza, Human , International Health Regulations , Americas , Caribbean Region
20.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-05. (PAHO/HSS/HR/22-0012).
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55957

ABSTRACT

Nurses are key players in health promotion and disease prevention and the backbone of health care systems worldwide. Nurses work on the front lines of disease prevention, health promotion, and health management and are often the unsung heroes in health care facilities and emergency response. Despite the critical role they play in health care, there is a nursing shortage across the world that will affect the delivery of competent nursing care. This document highlights key action points for targeted investment in the nursing workforce and calls on Member States to strengthen nursing within the context of their own country efforts. Suggestions for action and strategies for strengthening the nursing workforce in primary health care services through investment in education, jobs, leadership, and service delivery are provided. It also provides information for country stakeholders with a strategic role in addressing health access barriers and attending to the health needs of the population, especially groups living in conditions of vulnerability, in rural and remote communities, and in places with a low density of other health professionals.The objective is to facilitate the efforts of stakeholders in implementing resources required to help countries in the Region of the Americas advance universal health and achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by advancing nursing workforce capacity. This includes governments and policymakers as well as academic institutions and educators; nursing professionals; nursing unions, councils, and professional associations; and regulatory bodies. This policy brief was developed by PAHO through new analyses, expert consensus, and reference to existing PAHO and WHO guidance and literature on investments in the nursing workforce in the Region of the Americas.


Subject(s)
Workforce , Nursing , Health Promotion , Disease Prevention , Health Care Costing Systems , Health Management , Americas
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