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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249664, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345558

ABSTRACT

Abstract The impact of antibiotics on growth, cocoon production was assessed in addition to isolation and characterization of bacteria associated with silkworm gut of infected larvae. Larval rearing was maintained at recommended conditions of temperature and humidity. Silkworm larvae showing abnormal symptoms were collected from the control group and dissected for gut collection. Bacteria were isolated from the gut content by spreading on agar plates and incubated at 37 °C for 48 hrs. Bacterial identification and phylogenetic analysis were carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolated bacteria were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test (disc diffusion methods) by using Penicillin (10 µg/mL), Tetracycline (30 µg/mL), Amoxicillin (25 µg/mL), Ampicillin (10 µg/mL), and Erythromycin (15 µg/mL). All isolated strains showed positive results for the catalase test. We isolated and identified bacterial strains (n = 06) from the gut of healthy and diseased silkworm larvae. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, isolated bacteria showed close relation with Serratia, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas spp. Notably, 83.3% of strains were resistant to Penicillin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, and Erythromycin but 16.6% showed antibiotic susceptibility to the above-mentioned commonly used antibiotics. Silkworm larvae fed on penicillin-treated leaves showed significant improvement in larval weight, larval length, and cocoon production. Significantly higher larval weight (6.88g), larval length (5.84cm), and cocoon weight (1.33g) were recorded for larvae fed on leaves treated with penicillin as compared to other antibiotics. Isolated bacterial strains showed close relation with Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp.


Resumo O impacto dos antibióticos no crescimento e na produção do casulo foi avaliado, além do isolamento e caracterização das bactérias associadas ao intestino de larvas infectadas do bicho-da-seda. A criação das larvas foi mantida nas condições recomendadas de temperatura e umidade. As larvas do bicho-da-seda com sintomas anormais foram coletadas do grupo controle e dissecadas para coleta do intestino. As bactérias foram isoladas do conteúdo intestinal por espalhamento em placas de ágar e incubadas a 37° C durante 48 horas. A identificação bacteriana e a análise filogenética foram realizadas pelo sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA. As bactérias isoladas foram submetidas a teste de sensibilidade antimicrobiana (métodos de difusão em disco) com penicilina (10 µg / mL), tetraciclina (30 µg / mL), amoxicilina (25 µg / mL), ampicilina (10 µg / mL) e eritromicina (15 µg / mL). Todas as cepas isoladas apresentaram resultados positivos para o teste da catalase. Isolamos e identificamos cepas bacterianas (n = 06) do intestino de larvas de bicho-da-seda saudáveis e doentes. Com base na sequência do gene 16S rRNA, as bactérias isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia, Bacillus e Pseudomonas spp. Notavelmente, 83,3% das cepas eram resistentes a penicilina, tetraciclina, amoxicilina, ampicilina e eritromicina, mas 16,6% mostraram suscetibilidade aos antibióticos comumente usados mencionados acima. As larvas do bicho-da-seda alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina apresentaram melhora significativa no peso larval, comprimento larval e produção de casulo. Peso larval significativamente maior (6,88g), comprimento larval (5,84cm) e peso do casulo (1,33g) foram registrados para larvas alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina, em comparação com outros antibióticos. Cepas bacterianas isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. e Pseudomonas spp.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Bacteria/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Larva
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243332, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345537

ABSTRACT

Abstract The present study was aimed to manifest the antibacterial and antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of Salix alba L. against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and three fungal isolates from the air such as Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Two different serotypes of S. aureus and E. coli were used. The agar well-diffusion method results showed the dose-dependent response of plant extracts against bacterial and fungal strains while some organisms were found resistant e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus and R. stolonifer. The highest antibacterial activity was recorded at 17.000±1.732 mm from 100 mg/mL of leaves methanolic extracts against S. pyogenes while the activity of most of the pathogens decreased after 24 h of incubation. The highest antifungal activity was reported at 11.833±1.0 mm against A. ornatus at 50 mg/mL after 48 h of the incubation period. These experimental findings endorse the use of S. alba in ethnopharmacological formulations and suggest the use of methanolic extracts of the said plant to develop drugs to control the proliferation of resistant disease causing pathogenic microbes.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo manifestar a atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica de extratos metanólicos de Salix alba L. contra sete patógenos bacterianos Gram-positivos e Gram-negativos. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), S. aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), E. coli (2) e Neisseria gonorrhoeae e três isolados de fungos do ar, como Aspergillus terreus, A. ornatus, e Rhizopus stolonifer. Dois sorotipos diferentes de S. aureus e E. coli foram usados. Os resultados do método de difusão em ágar mostraram a resposta dependente da dose de extratos de plantas contra cepas de bactérias e fungos, enquanto alguns organismos foram considerados resistentes, e.g. E. coli (1), S. sonnei, A. terreus e R. stolonifer. A maior atividade antibacteriana foi registrada em 17.000 ± 1.732 de 100 mg/mL de extratos metanólicos de folhas contra S. pyogenes, enquanto a atividade da maioria dos patógenos diminuiu após 24 h de incubação. A maior atividade antifúngica foi relatada em 11,833 ± 1,0 contra A. ornatus a 50 mg/mL após 48 h do período de incubação. Esses achados experimentais endossam o uso de S. alba em formulações etnofarmacológicas e sugerem o uso de extratos metanólicos da referida planta para o desenvolvimento de fármacos que controlem a proliferação de doenças resistentes que causam micróbios patogênicos.


Subject(s)
Salix , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus , Rhizopus , Staphylococcus aureus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Methanol , Escherichia coli , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249536, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345531

ABSTRACT

Abstract Seaweeds are a major marine resource that can be explored to develop novel pharmaceutical molecules. The present study showed the presence of unique bioactive components in the petroleum ether extract (PEE) and methanolic extract (ME) of Sargassum tenerrimum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis suggested that the PEE of S. tenerrimum contained antibacterial biomolecules: hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester, 17-pentatriacontene, dasycarpidan-1-methanol, and acetate (ester). However, the ME of S. tenerrimum exhibited better antibacterial effect than the PEE due to the presence of the bioactive compounds 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester, tetratetracontane, 1-docosene, 1,2-benzenediol, and benzoic acid. Thus, promising antibacterial molecules can be isolated from S. tenerrimum for better therapeutic use.


Resumo As algas marinhas são um importante recurso marinho que pode ser explorado para desenvolver novas moléculas farmacêuticas. O presente estudo mostrou a presença de componentes bioativos únicos no extrato etéreo de petróleo (PEE) e no extrato metanólico (ME) de Sargassum tenerrimum. A análise por cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massa sugeriu que o PEE de S. tenerrimum continha biomoléculas antibacterianas: ácido hexadecanoico, éster metílico, 17-pentatriaconteno, dasycarpidan-1-metanol e acetato (éster). Entretanto, o ME de S. tenerrimum exibiu melhor efeito antibacteriano do que o PEE devido à presença dos compostos bioativos ácido 1,2-benzenodicarboxílico, éster diisooctil, tetratetracontano, 1-docosene, 1,2-benzoenodiol e ácido benzoico. Assim, moléculas antibacterianas promissoras podem ser isoladas de S. tenerrimum para melhor uso terapêutico.


Subject(s)
Sargassum , Saudi Arabia , Plant Extracts , Indian Ocean , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247016, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339416

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), a native earthworm of Pakistan and Southeast Asia, has wide utilization in vermicomposting and bioremediation process. In this study, P. posthuma coelomic fluid (PCF) and body paste (PBP) was evaluated as antibacterial agent against ampicillin (AMP) resistant five Gram positive and four Gram negative clinical isolates. The antibacterial effect of different doses (i.e. 25-100 µg/ml) of PCF and PBP along with AMP and azithromycin (AZM) (negative and positive controls, respectively) were observed through disc diffusion and micro-dilution methods. All nine clinical isolates were noticed as AMP resistant and AZM sensitive. Antibacterial effects of PCF and PBP were dose dependent and zone of inhibitions (ZI) against all clinical isolates were between 23.4 ± 0.92 to 0 ± 00 mm. The sensitivity profile of PCF and PBP against clinical isolates was noticed as 44.44 and 55.56%, respectively. Both PCF and PBP showed bacteriostatic (BTS) action against S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Moreover, the cumulative BTS potential of PCF and PBP against all isolates was 66.67 and 55.56%, respectively. The MICs of PCF and PBP were ranged from 50-200 µg/ml against selected isolates. The bacterial growth curves indicated that PCF and PBP inhibited the growth of all isolates at their specific MIC concentrations. However, PBP has better antibacterial potential compared to PCF against selected isolates. Therefore, it is concluded that both PCF and PBP of P. posthuma possess antibacterial and BTS potential against ampicillin resistant clinical isolates. This organism might be considered as a second choice of antibacterial agents and can further be utilized in pharmaceutical industries for novel drug manufacturing by prospecting bioactive potential agents.


Resumo Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), uma minhoca nativa do Paquistão e sudeste da Ásia, tem ampla utilização em processos de vermicompostagem e biorremediação. Neste estudo, o fluido celômico de P. posthuma (PCF) e a pasta corporal (PBP) foram avaliados como agente antibacteriano contra cinco isolados clínicos Gram-positivos e quatro Gram-negativos resistentes à ampicilina (AMP). O efeito antibacteriano de diferentes doses (ou seja, 25-100 µg / ml) de PCF e PBP juntamente com AMP e azitromicina (AZM) (controles negativo e positivo, respectivamente) foi observado por meio de métodos de difusão em disco e microdiluição. Todos os nove isolados clínicos foram notados como resistentes a AMP e sensíveis a AZM. Os efeitos antibacterianos de PCF e PBP foram dependentes da dose e a zona de inibição (ZI) contra todos os isolados clínicos foi entre 23,4 ± 0,92 a 0 ± 00 mm. O perfil de sensibilidade do PCF e PBP contra isolados clínicos foi observado como 44,44% e 55,56%, respectivamente. Tanto o PCF quanto o PBP mostraram ação bacteriostática (BTS) contra S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Além disso, o potencial BTS cumulativo de PCF e PBP contra todos os isolados foi de 66,67% e 55,56%, respectivamente. Os MICs de PCF e PBP variaram de 50-200 µg / ml contra isolados selecionados. As curvas de crescimento bacteriano indicaram que o PCF e o PBP inibiram o crescimento de todos os isolados em suas concentrações específicas de MIC. No entanto, PBP tem melhor potencial antibacteriano em comparação com PCF contra isolados selecionados. Portanto, conclui-se que tanto o PCF quanto o PBP de P. posthuma possuem potencial antibacteriano e BTS contra isolados clínicos resistentes à ampicilina. Esse organismo pode ser considerado como uma segunda escolha de agentes antibacterianos e pode ainda ser utilizado nas indústrias farmacêuticas para a fabricação de novos medicamentos por meio da prospecção de agentes com potencial bioativo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oligochaeta , Staphylococcus aureus , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Ampicillin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245585, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339413

ABSTRACT

Abstract Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.


Resumo Muitos microrganismos do solo, ou seja, bactérias e fungos produzem metabólitos secundários chamados antibióticos. Eles são usados ​​para tratamento de algumas doenças bacterianas, fúngicas e protozoárias em humanos. Há necessidade de isolamento de um amplo espectro de antibióticos de microrganismos devido ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos. No presente estudo, duas bactérias produtoras de antibióticos, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Bacillus cereus, foram isoladas da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola de Hattar, Haripur, Paquistão. Um total de 10 amostras de resíduos foi coletado de diferentes indústrias (mármore, ghee, sabão, mineral, aço, ração para aves, farmacêutica, Qarshi, cosmética e vidro). Trinta e três cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de resíduos industriais dessas dez diferentes indústrias. Quatorze das 33 cepas bacterianas exibiram atividades antimicrobianas contra pelo menos um dos micróbios de teste considerados neste estudo, incluindo Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella typhi. As bactérias foram isoladas pela técnica de placa de diluição em série padrão. A caracterização morfológica dos isolados foi feita por coloração de gram. Nove isolados bacterianos de 14 foram inicialmente identificados como B. cereus e cinco como K. pneumoniae por meio de caracterização bioquímica. As atividades antibacterianas foram testadas pelo método de difusão em poço. O número máximo de bactérias produtoras de antibióticos foi isolado da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola com base nos resultados da triagem primária, os isolados mais potenciais S9, S19, S20, S22 e S23 foram selecionados para a triagem secundária. A atividade máxima contra E. coli e S. aureus foi registrada pelo isolado bacteriano S19, ou seja, zonas de inibição de 6,5 mm e 9 mm, enquanto S20 mostrou zonas de 7,5 mm e 6 mm, respectivamente. A identificação molecular foi realizada com base na análise da sequência 16S rRNA. Finalmente, os isolados foram identificados como B. cereus número de acesso LC538271 e K. pneumoniae número de acesso MT078679. A análise do extrato bacteriano S20 por meio de GC-MS indicou a presença de oito compostos de natureza e estrutura diversas. O presente estudo sugere que resíduos da indústria farmacêutica e de ração para aves podem conter bactérias produtoras de antibióticos. Essas bactérias podem ser utilizadas para a produção de antibióticos B. cereus e K. pneumoniae isolados de resíduos de rações de aves e indústrias farmacêuticas têm potencial para produzir antibióticos e podem ser usados ​​para controlar o crescimento microbiano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Staphylococcus aureus , Industrial Waste , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Plant Extracts , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Escherichia coli , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e236649, 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339379

ABSTRACT

Abstract Croton argyrophylloides Muell. Arg., from the Euphorbiaceae family, popularly known as marmeleiro prateado or sacatinga, is a plant from the Caatinga biome commonly found in Brazil's northeastern region. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the species. The phytochemical study was performed through qualitative analysis of chemical constituents and quantitative determination of the total phenol content through the Folin-Ciocalteu test. The qualitative and quantitative antioxidant tests were performed using the DPPH method (2.2 diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazil) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by microdilution in 96-well plates. The ethanolic extract of the leaves of C. argyrophylloides manifested antioxidant action in the quantitative DPPH test with a significant bioactivity of 84.70 AAO% in 500 µg/mL, with an EC50 of 236.79. The content of total phenolic compounds was 946.06 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of sample, and total flavonoids was 58.11 mg of quercetin equivalents/g of sample, the result obtained for FRAP was 15294.44 µM Trolox/g of sample and ABTS was 718 μM Trolox of sample. The prospecting of the chemical constituents of the leaves of C. argyrophylloides revealed the presence of the main compounds that manifests the antioxidant activity and it was proven by the DPPH method that there is antioxidant activity in the analyzed sample, in addition to demonstrating a significant content of phenolic compounds and total flavonoid content in the species, which corroborates the antioxidant activity of the plant sample. The leaf extracts presented growth inhibition halos of 10 and 12 mm upon Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923.


Resumo Croton argyrophylloides Muell. Arg., pertencente à família Euphorbiaceae, conhecida popularmente como marmeleiro prateado e sacatinga, é um vegetal do bioma caatinga comumente encontrado no Nordeste do Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antioxidante da espécie. O estudo fitoquímico foi realizado por meio de análise qualitativa dos constituintes químicos e determinação quantitativa do teor de fenóis totais pelo teste de Folin-Ciocalteu. Os testes antioxidantes qualitativos e quantitativos foram realizados pelo método do DPPH (2,2 difenil-1- picril-hidrazila) e redução do ferro (FRAP). A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) foi determinada por microdiluição em placas de 96 poços. O extrato etanólico das folhas de C. argyrophylloides apresentou ação antioxidante no teste DPPH quantitativo com uma significativa bioatividade de 84.70 AAO% em 500 µg/mL, apresentando um CE50 de 236.79. O teor de compostos fenólicos totais, foi de 946,06 mg equivalentes de ácido gálico/g de amostra, e de flavonoides totais de 58,11 mg equivalentes de quercetina/g da amostra, o valor encontrado para FRAP foi de 15294,44 µM Trolox/g da amostra e de ABTS foi 718 μM Trolox da amostra. A prospecção dos constituintes químicos das folhas de C. argyrophylloides revelou a presença dos principais compostos que caracterizam a atividade antioxidante e foi possível comprovar pelo método de DPPH que há atividade antioxidante na amostra analisada, além de demonstrar um resultado significativo de teor de compostos fenólicos e teor de flavonoides totais na espécie e o que corrobora com a atividade antioxidante da amostra vegetal. Os extratos das folhas apresentaram halos de inibição de crescimento de 10 e 12mm frente a Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923.


Subject(s)
Euphorbiaceae , Croton , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Phytochemicals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e239323, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339341

ABSTRACT

Abstract The β-lactam/lactamase inhibitors (BLBLIs) combination drugs are considered an effective alternative to carbapenems. However, there is a growing concern that the increased use of BLBLIs may lead to increased resistance. This study determined the temporal association between the consumption of BLBLI and the antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. In this retrospective study, electronic data on the Gram-negative bacterial isolates, including A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae from in-patients and susceptibility testing results were retrieved from the medical records of the clinical laboratory. A linear regression and cross-correlation analysis were performed on the acquired data. Increasing trends (p<0.05) in the consumption of BIBLI and carbapenem with a median use of 27.68 and 34.46 DDD/1000 PD per quarter were observed, respectively. A decreased trend (p=0.023) in the consumption of fluoroquinolones with a median use of 29.13 DDD/1000 PD per quarter was observed. The resistance rate of K. pneumoniae was synchronized with the BIBLI and carbapenem consumptions with a correlation coefficient of 0.893 (p=0.012) and 0.951 (p=0.016), respectively. The cross-correlation analysis against the consumption of BIBLI and meropenem resistant K. pneumoniae was peaked at 0-quarter lag (r=951, p=0.016). There was an increasing trend in the consumption of BLBLI and carbapenems. The increasing trend in the rates of resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam, in line with the increasing consumption of BLBLI, suggests that BLBLI has to be used with caution and cannot be directly considered as a long-term alternative to carbapenems.


Resumo Os medicamentos combinados de β-lactâmicos / inibidores da lactamase (BLBLIs) são considerados uma alternativa eficaz aos carbapenêmicos. No entanto, existe uma preocupação crescente de que o aumento do uso de BLBLIs pode levar ao aumento da resistência. Este estudo determinou a associação temporal entre o consumo de BLBLI e a resistência antimicrobiana em bactérias gram-negativas. Neste estudo retrospectivo, os dados eletrônicos sobre as bactérias gram-negativas isoladas, incluindo A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, E. coli e K. pneumoniae de pacientes internados e os resultados dos testes de suscetibilidade foram recuperados dos registros médicos do laboratório clínico. Uma regressão linear e análise de correlação cruzada foram realizadas nos dados adquiridos. Foram observadas tendências crescentes (p < 0,05) no consumo de BIBLI e carbapenem com uma mediana de uso de 27,68 e 34,46 DDD/1000 PD por trimestre, respectivamente. Foi observada uma tendência de diminuição (p = 0,023) no consumo de fluoroquinolonas com uma mediana de uso de 29,13 DDD/1000 PD por trimestre. A taxa de resistência de K. pneumoniae foi sincronizada com os consumos de BIBLI e carbapenem com coeficiente de correlação de 0,893 (p = 0,012) e 0,951 (p = 0,016), respectivamente. A análise de correlação cruzada contra o consumo de BIBLI e K. pneumoniae resistente ao meropenem atingiu o pico no intervalo de 0 quarto (r = 951, p = 0,016). Houve uma tendência de aumento no consumo de BLBLI e carbapenêmicos. A tendência crescente nas taxas de resistência a piperacilina/tazobactam, em linha com o consumo crescente de BLBLI, sugere que BLBLI deve ser usado com cautela e não pode ser considerado diretamente como alternativa de longo prazo aos carbapenêmicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248063, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339340

ABSTRACT

Abstract Persea lingue Ness is a tree species that lives mainly in temperate forests of south-central Chile. Its leaves are used in ethnomedicine, the fruit is a drupe similar to that of the avocado and has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity in leukemia cell and antibacterial activity, along with some chemical content characteristics of P. lingue fruit and leaf extracts. The antibacterial activity was determined by the inhibition of bacterial growth in liquid medium assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The leukemia cell lines Kasumi-1 and Jurkat were used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity by using propidium iodide and AlamarBlue assays. Total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin, alkaloid and lipid contents were evaluated in the fruit and in the leaf extracts. The antioxidant activity of both extracts were also elavaluated. Leaf extract presented the highest content of total phenols, condensed tannins and flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant activity. While the fruit extract has a higher amount of lipids and alkaloids and the high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium and Micrococcus luteus. The leaf extract only showed activity against M. luteus. Concerning the cytotoxic activity, only the fruit extract showed cytotoxicity against the cell lines Jurkat and Kasumi-1. P. lingue fruit extract is a potential source of biologically active molecules for the development of new drugs to be used in some types of leukemia, as well as antibacterial agent.


Resumo Persea lingue Ness é uma árvore que vive principalmente na floresta temperada do centro-sul do Chile. As folhas são usadas na etnomedicina. O fruto é uma drupa similar ao abacate e que nunca foi pesquisada anteriormente. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a citotoxicidade em células leucêmicas e as atividades antibacterianas, assim como algumas características químicas do extrato de fruto e da folha do P. lingue. As atividades antibacterianas foram determinadas pelo método da inibição do crescimento bacteriano em meio líquido empregando-se bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas. As linhagens celulares leucêmicas, Kasumi-1 e Jurkat foram usadas para avaliar a atividade citotóxica em ensaios empregando-se iodeto de propídio e AlamarBlue. Foram avaliados os teores totais de fenóis, flavonóides, taninos condensados, alcalóides e lipídeos presentes nos extratos das folhas e dos frutos. As atividades antioxidantes de ambos os extratos também foram avaliadas. O extrato das folhas foi o que apresentou o maior conteúdo de fenóis, taninos condensados e flavonóides totais e a maior atividade antioxidante. Já o extrato de fruto apresentou a maior quantidade de lipídios e alcaloides e a melhor atividade antibacteriana contra Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium e Micrococcus luteus. Já o extrato das folhas apresentou apenas atividade contra M. luteus. Em relação à atividade citotóxica, apenas o extrato do fruto apresentou citotoxicidade contra as linhagens celulares Jurkat e Kasumi-1. Em resumo, o extrato do fruto de P. lingue é uma potencial fonte de moléculas com atividade biológica para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos a serem utilizados em alguns tipos de leucemia, bem como agente antibacteriano.


Subject(s)
Lauraceae , Persea , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Fruit , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242703, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285636

ABSTRACT

Abstract Oral diseases caused by various microorganisms are common around the world. Scientific research has now been focusing on novel medicines to overcome bacterial resistance and antibiotics side effects; therefore, the current study was designed to assess the efficacy of certain antibiotics, toothpaste, and medicinal plant extracts (Ajuga bracteosa and Curcuma longa) versus the bacterial pathogens isolated from the human oral cavity. A total of 130 samples were collected from Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan, among those 27 species isolated, and eight bacterial species were identified from the samples. Among all the bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus (29.62%) and Proteus mirabilis (22.2%) were found to be more prevalent oral pathogens. In comparison, the least pervasive microbes were Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. The study also suggested that dental problems were more prevalent in males (41-50 years of age) than females. Among the eight antibiotics used in the study, the most promising results were shown by Foxicillin against A. hydrophila. The survey of TP1 revealed that it showed more potent antagonist activity against Proteus vulgaris as compared TP2 and TP3 that might be due to the high content of fluoride. The Curcuma longa showed more significant activity than Ajuga bracteosa (Stem, leaves and root) extracts. The data obtained through this study revealed that antibiotics were more effective for oral bacterial pathogens than toothpaste and plant extracts which showed moderate and low activity, respectively. Therefore, it is suggested that the active compounds in individual medicinal plants like Curcuma longa and Ajuga bracteosa could replace the antibiotics when used in daily routine as tooth cleansers or mouth rinses.


Resumo As doenças bucais causadas por vários microrganismos são comuns em todo o mundo. A pesquisa científica agora tem se concentrado em novos medicamentos para superar a resistência bacteriana e os efeitos colaterais dos antibióticos; portanto, o presente estudo foi desenhado para avaliar a eficácia de certos antibióticos, pasta de dente e extratos de plantas medicinais (Ajuga bracteosa e Curcuma longa) contra os patógenos bacterianos isolados da cavidade oral humana. No total, 130 amostras foram coletadas do Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar, Paquistão, entre essas, 27 espécies foram isoladas e oito espécies bacterianas foram identificadas a partir das amostras. Entre todas as espécies bacterianas, Staphylococcus aureus (29.62%) e Proteus mirabilis (22.2%) foram os patógenos orais mais prevalentes. Em comparação, os micróbios menos difundidos foram Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli e Aeromonas hydrophila. O estudo também sugeriu que os problemas dentários eram mais prevalentes em homens (41-50 anos de idade) do que em mulheres. Entre os oito antibióticos usados ​​no estudo, os resultados mais promissores foram mostrados pelo Foxicillin contra A. hydrophila. A pesquisa de TP1 revelou que ele mostrou atividade antagonista mais potente contra Proteus vulgaris em comparação a TP2 e TP3, o que pode ser devido ao alto teor de flúor. A Curcuma longa apresentou atividade mais significativa em relação aos extratos de Ajuga bracteosa (caule, folhas e raiz). Os dados obtidos neste estudo revelaram que os antibióticos foram mais eficazes para os patógenos bacterianos orais do que os dentifrícios e os extratos vegetais que apresentaram atividade moderada e baixa, respectivamente. Portanto, sugere-se que os compostos ativos em plantas medicinais individuais como Curcuma longa e Ajuga bracteosa possam substituir os antibióticos quando usados ​​na rotina diária como limpadores de dentes ou enxaguatórios bucais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Toothpastes , Fluorides , Pakistan , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Anti-Bacterial Agents
10.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244479, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285635

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of the present study was to analyse the bioactive compounds of the leaves of Conocarpus lancifolius (C. lancifolius). The GC-MS analysis of the hot methanolic extract of the leaves (HMEL) of C. lancifolius exhibited the bioactive compounds such as 1-(3-Methoxy-2-nitrobenzyl) iso quinoline, morphin-4-ol-6,7-dione, 1-bromo-N-methyl-, phytol, hexadecanoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester, 2,2':4',2"-terthiophene, ethyl iso-allocholate, caryophyllene oxide, campesterol, epiglobulol, cholestan-3-ol, 2-methylene-, (3á,5à)-, dasycarpidan-1-methanol, acetate (ester) and oleic acid, eicosyl ester. The FT-IR analysis of HMEL of C. lancifolius showed a unique peak at 3184, 2413, 1657 cm-1 representing coumaric acid, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid. The HMEL of C. lancifolius was actively inhibiting the proliferation of breast cancer cells MCF-7 ATCC at the concentration of 72.66 ± 8.21 µg/ml as IC50 value. The HMEL of C. lancifolius also revealed a good spectrum of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cultures screened in this work. The activity observed has shown more or less similar effects against screened bacteria. However, the magnitude of potentiality was significantly lesser compared to standard ciprofloxacin disc at p< 0.001 level (99% confidence intervals). Furthermore, the study demonstrating the bioactive compounds can be isolated from the leaves of C. lancifolius.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar os compostos bioativos das folhas de Conocarpus lancifolius (C. lancifolius). A análise por GC-MS do extrato metanólico quente das folhas (HMEL) de C. lancifolius exibiu os compostos bioativos como 1- (3-Metoxi-2-nitrobenzil) isoquinolina, morfina-4-ol-6,7- diona, 1-bromo-N-metil-, fitol, ácido hexadecanoico, 2,3-di-hidroxipropil éster, 2,2 ': 4', 2 " - tertiofeno, isoalocolato de etil, óxido de cariofileno, campesterol, epiglobulol, colestano -3-ol, 2-metileno-, (3á, 5à) -, dasycarpidan-1-metanol, acetato (éster) e ácido oleico, éster eicosílico. A análise FT-IR de HMEL de C. lancifolius mostrou um pico único em 3184, 2413, 1657 cm-1 representando ácido cumarico, ácido clorogênico e ácido ferúlico. O HMEL de C. lancifolius inibiu ativamente a proliferação de células de câncer de mama MCF-7 ATCC na concentração de 72,66 ± 8,21 µg / ml como valor de IC50. O HMEL de C. lancifolius também revelou bom espectro de atividade contra culturas de bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas rastreadas neste trabalho. A atividade observada mostrou efeitos mais ou menos semelhantes contra bactérias rastreadas. No entanto, a magnitude da potencialidade foi significativamente menor em comparação com o disco de ciprofloxacina padrão em nível de p < 0,001 (intervalos de confiança de 99%). Além disso, o estudo demonstrando os compostos bioativos pode ser isolado das folhas de C. lancifolius.


Subject(s)
Trees , Plant Leaves , Saudi Arabia , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
11.
J Immunol Res ; 2022: 4126273, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35345778

ABSTRACT

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is an herbal medicine with polysaccharides as its important active ingredient. The purpose of this research was to identify the effects of the polysaccharides of P. quinquefolius (WQP) on rats with antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) induced by lincomycin hydrochloride. WQP was primarily composed of galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, and arabinose. The yield, total sugar content, uronic acid content, and protein content were 6.71%, 85.2%, 31.9%, and 2.1%, respectively. WQP reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the ileum and colon, reduced the IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-17A, and TNF-α levels, increased the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 in colon tissues, improved the production of acetate and propionate, regulated the gut microbiota diversity and composition, improved the relative richness of Lactobacillus and Bacteroides, and reduced the relative richness of Blautia and Coprococcus. The results indicated that WQP can enhance the recovery of the intestinal structure in rats, reduce inflammatory cytokine levels, improve short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels, promote recovery of the gut microbiota and intestinal mucosal barrier, and alleviate antibiotic-related side effects such as diarrhoea and microbiota dysbiosis caused by lincomycin hydrochloride. We found that WQP can protect the intestinal barrier by increasing Occludin and Claudin-1 expression. In addition, WQP inhibited the MAPK inflammatory signaling pathway to improve the inflammatory status. This study provides a foundation for the treatment of natural polysaccharides to reduce antibiotic-related side effects.


Subject(s)
Panax , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Diarrhea/metabolism , Lincomycin/pharmacology , Lincomycin/therapeutic use , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Panax/chemistry , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Rats
12.
Dermatol Ther ; 35(2): e15222, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820982

ABSTRACT

Atmospheric-pressure, non-thermal plasma destroys microorganisms by directly reacting with hydrocarbon molecules in the cell wall and/or by damaging the cytoplasmic membrane, proteins, and DNA with charged particles and reactive species. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antibacterial and anticandidal effects of atmospheric-pressure, non-thermal, nitrogen- and argon-plasma pulses on various pathogen preparations. The resultant antibacterial and anticandidal effects were assessed by evaluating percent and log reduction values for pathogen colonies. Nitrogen-plasma pulses emitted at an energy of 1.5 J and argon-plasma pulses generated at 0.5 J elicited remarkable antibacterial effects on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and anticandidal effects on Candida albicans. Nitrogen-plasma pulses at a pulse count of five elicited remarkable antibacterial effects on Cutibacterium acnes at the energy settings of 1.75, 2.5, and 3 J, but not at 1 J. Meanwhile, argon-plasma pulses showed antibacterial effects on C. acnes at an energy of 0.5 and 0.65 J. Nitrogen- or argon-plasma pulses exert antibacterial and anticandidal effects on bacterial and fungal pathogens.


Subject(s)
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Argon/pharmacology , Atmospheric Pressure , Humans , Nitrogen/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
13.
Biomater Adv ; 138: 212952, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913226

ABSTRACT

Developing antimicrobial biomaterials is a major challenge in the fields of orthopaedic and dental implants. In this study, we evaluated the bone-bonding ability and antibacterial activity of a novel biomaterial for preventing implant-associated infections. We have previously reported that NaOH heat treatment improved the bone-bonding ability of titanium, which was later modified to release target ions from the calcium titanate surface. Iodine, an essential nutrient, exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity; hence, we designed a calcium titanate that releases iodine ions (Ca-I-Ti). The material was prepared from a simple solution using heat treatments as well as inexpensive devices and chemical agents. MC3T3-E1 cells seeded on Ca-I-Ti displayed high degrees of bioactivity and viability, and Ca-I-Ti exhibited antibacterial activity against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. In vivo biomechanical and histological experiments showed that Ca-I-Ti had excellent bone-bonding ability at 8 weeks after implantation. In a subcutaneous infection model in rats, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus on the implant was reduced by approximately 95% compared to that on commercially pure titanium, indicating that Ca-I-Ti has antibacterial effects in vivo. In addition, no local or systemic complications were observed, and active infection in the surrounding tissues was histologically inhibited. Thus, iodine-containing calcium titanate is a safe biomaterial with excellent bioactivity and antibacterial properties, indicating its potential in preventing implant-associated infections.


Subject(s)
Iodine , Titanium , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology , Calcium , Iodides/pharmacology , Iodine/pharmacology , Ions/pharmacology , Methicillin/pharmacology , Rats , Staphylococcus aureus , Titanium/pharmacology
14.
Biomater Adv ; 138: 212960, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913230

ABSTRACT

The α-l-Lysine (LL) grafting onto the enzymatic poly(gallic acid) (PGAL) produces a helicoidal brush-like antimicrobial polymer containing outer positive-charged moieties. Best results are found with ca. 16 mol% α-LL-grafting for the inhibition of gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli strains. Membrane permeability, confocal and scanning electron microscopy studies suggest a pore-formation and translocation mechanisms by initial electrostatic interaction of positive charged polymer at the negatively charged bacterial membranes. The attained polymer displays high concentration of hemolysis (Hc) in erythrocytes, and no lymphocyte mitochondrial activity. Interestingly, PGAL-LL is not cytotoxic on human dermal fibroblast. The antioxidant activity after the LL hybridization is also demonstrated by DPPH, ORAC, FRAP and hydroxyl radical scavenging, which enhances the preservation of human cells in addition to antimicrobial for this polymer.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli Infections , Staphylococcal Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Escherichia coli , Gallic Acid , Humans , Lysine , Polymers , Staphylococcus aureus
15.
Biomater Adv ; 138: 212965, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913231

ABSTRACT

The hydration state of bioactive glass materials and its relationship with their biocompatibility have been receiving attention. In this research, silver-containing bioactive glasses (BGAgs) (Ag contents of 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0% in the glass system) were developed using the sol-gel method. Their physicochemical properties, size, morphology, and surface area were characterized by conducting X-rays diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analyses. The surface charges of the developed BGAgs were evaluated using the Nano Zetasizer. Moreover, the antibacterial activities and intermediate water (IW) contents of hydrated BGAgs were determined. Finally, BGAgs disks were tested against osteosarcoma (MG63) cell line to evaluate their death modes. The physicochemical characteristics of the BGAgs revealed no modifications after Ag doping. In comparison, relative changes were recorded in the particle size (20-33 to 16-29 nm), surface area (4.3 to 3.7 m2/g), and particle charge (-24 to -14.6 mV). Doping the current glass system with silver produced impressive amounts of IW, consistent with recorded proliferation rates of the cells when treated with BGAgs. The determined hydration states correlated with other findings in this research might be helpful in predicting and assessing the biological behaviors of BGAgs.


Subject(s)
Silver , Water , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bone Regeneration , Cell Death , Silicates , Silver/pharmacology
16.
Biomater Adv ; 138: 212939, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913235

ABSTRACT

Altered wound healing is a major challenge faced by both developed and developing nations. Biofilm formation has been identified as one of the causative factors for the progression of chronic wounds. The spread of biofilm is controlled by inhibiting the biofilm formation or disrupting the mature biofilm. Functional nanomaterials/enzymes with antimicrobial effects, such as metal oxides, rare earth metals, and carbon nanoparticles have been investigated to treat biofilm and overcome the drawbacks associated with the antibiotic therapy. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) have drawn significant attention as a promising antimicrobial agent owing to their antibacterial, enzyme-mimetic, and crystalline properties but they suffer from poor colloidal stability and dispersity in an aqueous environment and size-dependent function. In this work, we have developed a functionalized silica ceria nanocomposite (FSC), as an antibiotic-free system, to treat biofilms. The FSC possesses a high surface area of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) combined with the intrinsic antibacterial activity of cerium oxide for biofilm inhibition. The nanocomposite was fabricated using silica and ceria precursors, and it exhibited a high surface area of 436 m2/g and an average particle size of around 450 nm. The physical and chemical properties of nanocomposite were characterized using FTIR, XRD, UV-Vis, BET, EDX, and XPS analysis. It exhibited a potent antioxidant activity (86%), positive haloperoxidase mimetic property, and broad-spectrum antibacterial activities. It showed 99.9% inhibition against S. aureus (Gram-positive) and 81% inhibition against E. coli (Gram-negative) within 12 and 24 h along with the significant inhibition of biofilm formation (80%) as well as the disruptive effect against the established biofilm (77%) of S. aureus. Cell viability assays indicated the proliferative nature of composite in normal basal conditions and increased cell viability (97%) in the presence of oxidative stress. Despite being a cationic nanomaterial, it showed a good hemocompatibility against human blood and caused complete wound closure in mouse fibroblast cell line within 24 h. The functionalized silica ceria nanocomposite developed has a strong potential in chronic wound healing applications.


Subject(s)
Nanocomposites , Silicon Dioxide , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Biofilms , Escherichia coli , Humans , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nanocomposites/therapeutic use , Silicon Dioxide/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus
17.
Biomater Adv ; 138: 212950, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913239

ABSTRACT

To provide antibacterial properties, the titanium samples were subjected to electrochemical oxidation in the fluoride-containing diethylene glycol-based electrolyte to create a titanium oxide nanotubular surface. Afterward, the surface was covered by sputtering with silver 5 nm film, and the tops of the nanotubes were capped using laser treatment, resulting in an appearance of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of around 30 nm in diameter on such a modified surface. To ensure a controlled release of the bactericidal substance, the samples were additionally coated with a pH-sensitive chitosan/Eudragit 100 coating, also exhibiting bactericidal properties. The modified titanium samples were characterized using SEM, EDS, AFM, Raman, and XPS techniques. The wettability, corrosion properties, adhesion of the coating to the substrate, the release of AgNPs into solutions simulating body fluids at different pH, and antibacterial properties were further investigated. The obtained composite coatings were hydrophilic, adjacent to the surface, and corrosion-resistant. An increase in the amount of silver released as ions or metallic particles into a simulated body fluid solution at acidic pH was observed for modified samples with the biopolymer coating after three days of exposure avoiding burst effect. The proposed modification was effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.


Subject(s)
Chitosan , Metal Nanoparticles , Nanotubes , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Chitosan/pharmacology , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Lasers , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanotubes/chemistry , Polymers , Polymethacrylic Acids , Silver/pharmacology , Titanium/pharmacology
18.
Biomater Adv ; 138: 212855, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913247

ABSTRACT

The use of chemically synthesized nanoparticles and crude plant extracts as antimicrobial -anticancer agents have many limitations. In this study, we have used Centella asiatica extract (CaE) having relatively less explored but tremendous medicinal properties, as reducing and stabilizing agents to green synthesize magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgONPs) using magnesium nitrate. In comparison to the bulk material, capabilities of Ca-MgONPs as an improved antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer agent in human prostatic carcinoma cells (PC3), as well as membranolytic capability in model cell membrane, were studied. The phyto-functionalized Ca-MgONPs were characterized using UV-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Observation of characteristic peaks by spectroscopic and microscopic analysis confirmed the synthesis of Ca-MgONPs. The Ca-MgONPs showed broad spectrum of bactericidal activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungicidal activity against two species of the Candida fungus. The Ca-MgONPs also exhibited dose-dependent and selective inhibition of proliferating PC3 cells with IC50 of 123.65 ± 4.82 µg/mL at 24 h, however, without having any cytotoxicity toward non-cancerous HEK293 cells. Further studies aimed at understanding the probable mechanism of toxicity of Ca-MgONPs in PC3 cells, the results indicated a significant reduction in cell migration capacities, increment in cytosolic ROS, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, DNA damage and S-phase cell cycle arrest. Ca-MgONPs also induced pore formation in a synthetic large unilamellar vesicle. Thus, Ca-MgONPs might be useful in the effective management of several human pathogens of concern and some more cancer types.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Centella , Metal Nanoparticles , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Green Chemistry Technology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Magnesium Oxide/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Triterpenes
19.
Biomater Adv ; 138: 212856, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913248

ABSTRACT

Magnesium phosphates (MgP)s have attracted interest as an alternative biomaterial compared to the calcium phosphate (CaP)s compounds in the bone regeneration application in terms of their prominent biodegradability, lack of cytotoxicity, and ability of bone repair stimulation. Among them, amorphous magnesium phosphates (AMP)s indicated a higher rate of resorption, while preserving high osteoblasts viability and proliferation, which is comparable to their CaP peers. However, fast degradation of AMP leads to the initial fast release of Mg2+ ions and adverse effects on its excellent biological features. It seems that the addition of graphene oxide (GO) to magnesium phosphate can moderate its degradation rate. Hence, a novel in situ synthesized AMP powders containing 0.05, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 wt% of graphene oxide (AMP/GO) were developed to achieve a favorable degradation rate, desirable antibacterial properties against both Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) accompanying with proper cell viability and proliferation. The incorporation of 0.5 wt% of graphene oxide into the AMP ceramic led to reduce the release of Mg2+ ions from 571.2 ± 12.9 mg/L to 372.8 ± 14.7 mg/L and P ions from 354.8 ± 11.9 mg/L to 245.3 ± 9.9 mg/L, at day 10 of immersion in PBS. Besides, AMP/0.5 GO bioceramics were capable of eradicating all bacterial colonies of both strains. On the other hand, MG63 cells viability went up from 143.46% ± 7.54 to 184.46% ± 11.54 on the 7th day of culture in the presence of 0.5 wt% of GO compared to pure AMP ceramic. Furthermore, alizarin red staining and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity demonstrated the ability of AMP/GO to maintain the osteogenic phenotype of MG63 cells during 7 days culture. Therefore, it can be concluded that well distributed and in situ synthesized AMP/0.5GO powders can be a promising biomaterial for bone tissue regeneration.


Subject(s)
Magnesium , Staphylococcus aureus , Adenosine Monophosphate , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Biocompatible Materials , Bone Regeneration , Escherichia coli , Graphite , Magnesium/pharmacology , Magnesium Compounds , Phosphates , Powders
20.
Biomater Adv ; 138: 212873, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913253

ABSTRACT

Developing non-antibiotic-dependent antibacterial hydrogels for repairing infected skin defect remains largely unexplored. Herein, a synergic photothermal and synergic antibacterial hydrogel was designed via one-pot approach to cope with full-thickness skin wound infection. In this work, the mixture of silver­sodium lignin sulfonate nanoparticles (Ag-SLS NPs) and polypyrrole-polydopamine nanoparticles (PPy-PDA NPs) for the first time as synergic photothermal agent was introduced into poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) to form Ag-SLS/PPy-PDA@PEGDA hydrogel. Thanks to the near-infrared light into heat conversion capacity of both Ag and PPy-PDA NPs, the formed hydrogel shows ultrahigh photothermal activity, and outstanding antibacterial activity to both Gram-negative (E. coli) and Gram-positive (S. aureus) bacteria in vitro. Additionally, in vivo assay indicates that the hydrogel has outstanding long-term antibacterial effect due to the photothermal sterilization along with Ag ions release. Overall, the dual-synergic photothermal and antibacterial effects of the Ag-SLS/PPy-PDA@PEGDA hydrogel could highly accelerate infection wound healing, and thus has great potential to be used for tissue engineering.


Subject(s)
Hydrogels , Polymers , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bandages , Escherichia coli , Hydrogels/pharmacology , Polymers/pharmacology , Pyrroles/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus , Sterilization
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