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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251219, 2023. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345535

ABSTRACT

Abstract The most common form of psycho-social dysfunction is anxiety with depression being related closely without any age bar. They are present with combined state of sadness, confusion, stress, fear etc. Glyoxalase system contains enzyme named glyoxalase 1 (GLO1).It is a metabolic pathway which detoxifies alpha-oxo-aldehydes, particularly methylglyoxal (MG). Methylglyoxal is mainly made by the breakdown of the glycolytic intermediates, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphates and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Glyoxylase-1 expression is also related with anxiety behavior. A casual role or GLO-1 in anxiety behavior by using viral vectors for over expression in the anterior cingulate cortex was found and it was found that local GLO-1 over expression increased anxiety behavior. The present study deals with the molecular mechanism of protective activity of eugenol against anxiolytic disorder. A pre-clinical animal study was performed on 42 BALB/c mice. Animals were given stress through conventional restrain model. The mRNA expression of GLO-1 was analyzed by real time RT-PCR. Moreover, the GLO-1 protein expression was also examined by immunohistochemistry in whole brain and mean density was calculated. The mRNA and protein expressions were found to be increased in animals given anxiety as compared to the normal control. Whereas, the expressions were decreased in the animals treated with eugenol and its liposome-based nanocarriers in a dose dependent manner. However, the results were better in animals treated with nanocarriers as compared to the compound alone. It is concluded that the eugenol and its liposome-based nanocarriers exert anxiolytic activity by down-regulating GLO-1 protein expression in mice.


Resumo A forma mais comum de disfunção psicossocial é a ansiedade intimamente relacionada com a depressão, sem qualquer barreira de idade. Elas estão presentes em um estado combinado de tristeza, confusão, estresse, medo etc. O sistema de glioxalase contém uma enzima chamada glioxalase 1 (GLO1). É uma via metabólica que desintoxica alfa-oxo-aldeídos, particularmente metilglioxal (MG). O metilglioxal é produzido principalmente pela quebra dos intermediários glicolíticos, gliceraldeído-3-fosfatos e fosfato de diidroxiacetona. A expressão da glioxalase 1 também está relacionada ao comportamento de ansiedade. Um papel casual ou GLO1 no comportamento de ansiedade usando vetores virais para superexpressão no córtex cingulado anterior foi encontrado e descobriu-se que a superexpressão local de GLO1 aumentava o comportamento de ansiedade. O presente estudo trata do mecanismo molecular da atividade protetora do eugenol contra o transtorno ansiolítico. Um estudo pré-clínico em animais foi realizado em 42 camundongos BALB / c. Os animais foram submetidos ao estresse por meio do modelo de contenção convencional. A expressão de mRNA de GLO1 foi analisada por RT-PCR em tempo real. Além disso, a expressão da proteína GLO1 também foi examinada por imuno-histoquímica em todo o cérebro e a densidade média foi calculada. Verificou-se que as expressões de mRNA e proteínas estavam aumentadas em animais que receberam ansiedade em comparação com o controle normal. Considerando que as expressões foram diminuídas nos animais tratados com eugenol e seus nanocarreadores baseados em lipossomas de forma dependente da dose. No entanto, os resultados foram melhores em animais tratados com nanocarreadores em comparação com o composto sozinho. Conclui-se que o eugenol e seus nanocarreadores baseados em lipossomas exercem atividade ansiolítica por regulação negativa da expressão da proteína GLO1 em camundongos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Eugenol/therapeutic use , Eugenol/pharmacology , Lactoylglutathione Lyase/antagonists & inhibitors , Anxiety/drug therapy , Liposomes , Mice, Inbred BALB C
2.
Emotion ; 22(3): 493-510, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370146

ABSTRACT

Despite the well-documented negative effects of anxiety on task-switching (switch costs), few studies have directly tested major theoretical assumptions about (a) the specific processing component of task-switching that is impaired by anxiety, (b) anxious individuals' strategies during task-switching, and (c) the mediating role of mind wandering in the relation between anxiety and task-switching. We addressed these issues using a stochastic diffusion model analysis and novel thought-probe technique in the task-switching paradigm. Our results suggest that the locus of impaired switch costs under state anxiety lies in the efficiency of task-set reconfiguration and not in proactive interference processing. Moreover, state anxiety was associated with impaired mixing costs, which are another crucial index of task-switching. We found only partial evidence for anxious individuals' proneness to compensatory strategies during task-switching. However, no evidence was found for a mediating role of task-unrelated thoughts and a moderating role of working memory in the relation between anxiety and task-switching. Our findings elucidate theoretical assumptions underlying anxiety and cognitive functioning. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders , Anxiety , Cognition , Humans , Memory, Short-Term
4.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-8, 01/jan./2022. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361739

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: contribuir para a compreensão do desenvolvimento histórico do conceito de ansiedade, das classificações dos transtornos ansiosos e suas manifestações clínicas, bem como para a atualização sobre o processo de avaliação diagnóstica. Métodos: todas as edições das classificações da Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS) - CID e da Associação Psiquiátrica Americana (APA) - DSM foram examinadas, além de livros-texto de referência de psiquiatria clínica, de publicações sobre a história e a evolução desses diagnósticos e de publicações produzidas pelas equipes responsáveis pela revisão das classificações atuais. Resultados: entende-se por ansiedade um estado afetivo normal, como um sintoma ou um termo para nomear um grupo de transtornos mentais. Nas primeiras e subsequentes edições das classificações da OMS e da APA, entre 1948 e 1975, os quadros ansiosos faziam parte do grupo das psiconeurose/neuroses. A partir do DSM-III (1980), o grupo das neuroses foi fragmentado em diversos outros, entre os quais os transtornos de ansiedade, o que foi seguido pela CID-10 (1992), apesar de alguma distinção na composição dos subtipos. Para as últimas versões, houve um empenho de compatibilização entre as duas, contudo restaram diferenças: o DSM-5 (2013) adota critérios diagnósticos; a CID-11 (2019) utiliza descrições clínicas e diretrizes diagnósticas, além de abordagens dimensionais para alguns transtornos. Conclusão: ocorreram modificações nas classificações psiquiátricas atuais, no grupo dos transtornos de ansiedade, que precisam ser disseminadas e agregadas a estratégias de formação e qualificação profissionais, incrementando habilidades diagnósticas e permitindo uma comunicação mais uniforme e precisa na prática clínica.


Objectives: to contribute to the understanding of the historical development of the concept of anxiety, the classifications of anxiety disorders and their clinical manifestations, as well as to update on the diagnostic evaluation process. Methods: all editions of the classifications of the World Health Organization (WHO) - ICD and the American Psychiatric Association (APA) - DSM were examined, in addition to reference textbooks on clinical psychiatry, publications on the history and evolution of these diagnoses, and scientific articles produced by the teams responsible for reviewing the current classifications. Results: anxiety is understood as a normal affective state, as a symptom, or as a term to name a group of mental disorders. In the first and subsequent editions of the WHO and APA classifications, between 1948 and 1975, anxiety disorders were part of the psychoneuroses/neuroses group. As of DSM-III (1980) onwards, the neuroses group was fragmented into several others, including anxiety disorders, which was followed by ICD-10 (1992), despite some different choices of subtypes. For the latest versions, there was a compatibility effort between them. However, differences remained: DSM-5 (2013) adopts diagnostic criteria; ICD-11 (2019) uses clinical description and diagnostic guidelines, in addition to dimensional approaches for some disorders. Conclusion: modifications have occurred in current psychiatric classifications, in the group of anxiety disorders, which need to be disseminated and added to professional training and qualification strategies, increasing diagnostic skills and providing for more uniform and accurate communication in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders , Psychiatry , Health , Health Strategies , Diagnosis , History , Mental Disorders
5.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226321, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO - Dentistry | ID: biblio-1354787

ABSTRACT

Aim: This cross-sectional observational study aimed to evaluate the influence of the Universities lockdown measures on academic perspectives and psychosocial aspects of Brazilian finalyear dental students. Methods: 268 undergraduate students regularly enrolled in a Dentistry course at public universities were asked about anxiety, depression, stress sensitivity, and their academic perspectives by using an online survey. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure anxiety and depression, while the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) evaluated stress levels. The academic perspective was evaluated by five affirmatives regarding possible difficulties that will be faced when school reopens and after graduation. The possible association between fear of having COVID-19 with psychosocial outcomes and COVID-19 association with academic perspectives were analyzed by ANOVA and chisquare tests, respectively, considering a significance level of 5%. Results: Considering possible associations between the fear of having COVID-19 and psychosocial aspects, significant values were found for anxiety (P = 0.018) and stress sensitivity (P = 0.002). Regarding students' academic perspectives, COVID-19 had significant impact on less opportunity to perform procedures (P = 0.023), additional expenses with personal protective equipment (P = 0.007), and concerns of consulting elderly people (P = 0.012). Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic led to increased psychological impairments and enlarged concerns with learning and biosecurity, which might impact academic perspectives. Thus, being aware of these apprehensions, university professors and staff can improve the clinical training of final-year dental students in an empathetic way


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Anxiety , Students, Dental , Depression , Pandemics , COVID-19
6.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(5): 298-299, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35521036

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial misuse has risen sharply during the pandemic, exacerbating already worrying trends. Lynn Eaton reports.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Pandemics , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anxiety , Humans
7.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 346, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524256

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Academic burnout has a negative effect on learning outcomes of nursing students. Factors affecting academic burnout may differ depending on whether or not they have experience in clinical practice and identifying these differences would be necessary to seek for strategies to lower academic burnout of nursing students. This study aimed to determine the effects of stress, depression, and anxiety on academic burnout according to the clinical practice experience of nursing students. METHODS: Data were collected from 171 female nursing students in South Korea. Self-report questionnaires from 83 participants without clinical practice experience and 88 with clinical practice experience were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ2-tests, analysis of variance, t-test, Spearman correlation coefficient, and stepwise multiple regression. RESULTS: Academic burnout was positively correlated to stress (r = .52, p < .001), anxiety (r = .50, p < .001) and depression (r = .44, p < .001). In those students with no clinical practice experience, anxiety and depression explained for academic burnout by 44%, and those students with clinical practice experience, stress and major satisfaction explained for 33% of academic burnout. CONCLUSIONS: Universities and clinical institutions should establish a cooperative system to reduce stress, depression and anxiety and increase major satisfaction.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , Students, Nursing , Anxiety , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Psychological , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 43(3): 234-242, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524361

ABSTRACT

Background: Compared with advances in a drug hypersensitivity diagnosis and management, little is known about the mental health status of patients with drug hypersensitivity and the impact of this psychological distress on their quality of life (QoL). Objective: The objectives were to evaluate anxiety, depression, and QoL levels in patients with drug hypersensitivity, assess how some related factors may affect them, and determine the impact of disease on their QoL. Methods: A total of 203 patients with drug hypersensitivity and 80 healthy controls were evaluated with the Beck Anxiety (BAI) and the Depression Inventory (BDI), and the short version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) scale. Results: The mean ± standard deviation (SD) BAI scores of the patients and the controls were 13.46 ± 11.78 and 1.94 ± 1.93, respectively (p < 0.0001). The mean ± SD BDI scores were higher in the patient group (9.23 ± 6.36) than in the control group (2.18 ± 2.02) (p < 0.0001). The patients had significantly increased risk of anxiety versus the controls (48.8% versus 7.5%) (odds ratio [OR] 11.74 [95% confidence {CI}, 4.88-28.20]; p < 0.0001) and depression versus the controls (31.5% versus 6.2%) (OR 6.90 [95% CI, 2.66-17.90]; p = 0.0001). The comparison of patients' BAI and BDI scores showed that those with more severe reactions had higher scores than those with moderate and mild reactions. A negative correlation was found among all WHOQOL-BREF scale domain scores and the BAI and BDI scores. Conclusion: Anxiety and depressive symptoms have a high prevalence in patients with confirmed drug hypersensitivity, which leads to a notable decrease in QoL. Self-administered psychological questionnaires were shown to be useful in the psychological examination and management of patients with drug hypersensitivity. Therefore, we found that psychological support is critical to reducing the negative outcomes of hypersensitivity reactions in patients.


Subject(s)
Drug Hypersensitivity , Quality of Life , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Comorbidity , Depression/diagnosis , Drug Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Drug Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Humans , Quality of Life/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 402, 2022 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525932

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With rising age, the incidence of physical and mental problems increases. Physiological and social changes occur across the lifespan that can affect an individual's health and ability. The present study was aimed to determine older adult's ability to recognize cognitive changes and its relation with mental health status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive correlational design was used to recruit 423 older adults who were referred to health centers in Tabriz, Iran in 2019 to receive primary health care. A systematic random sampling method was used for selecting participants. Data collection tools included a demographic-social questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire for assessing mental health (with 4 subscales) and a questionnaire of ability to recognize cognitive changes (with 8 sub-scales). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. RESULTS: The mean score of mental health of the older adults was 56.35 (8.40) which shows moderately impaired mental health. The most impaired aspect of mental health detected was the social function dimension 13.20 (2.67). The average of the total ability score was 41.19 (4.78) and the physical strength dimension had the highest average of 9.08 (1.80) and the empowerment obligation dimension had the lowest average of 3.06 (1.08). There was significant relationship between dimensions of depression (r = 0.21, p < 0.001), anxiety (r = 0.1, p = 0.04) and social functioning (r = 0.17), p < 0.001) with the ability to recognize cognitive changes of the older adults. CONCLUSION: Negative mood states and social functioning were associated with the ability to recognize cognitive changes in this population of older adults. This sample exhibited moderately impaired mental health status and relatively large burdens of untreated affective symptoms. Although causality cannot be determined with this cross-sectional design, use of social programs to keep older adults mentally active, as well as cognitive rehabilitation programs could be tested with longitudinal designs for their impact on cognitive change recognition.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Mental Health , Aged , Cognition , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 118, 2022 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting restrictions placed upon society have had a profound impact on both physical and mental health, particularly for young people. AIMS: The current study assesses the impact of COVID-19 on student mental health. METHOD: Four hundred and thirty four first year Undergraduate students completed a battery of self-report questionnaires (PHQ-P, GAD-7 and SAS-SV) to assess for depression, anxiety and mobile phone addiction respectively with data being collected over a 2 year period. The data from each year was compared (216 and 218 students respectively). RESULTS: A MANOVA revealed that COVID-19 had a significant impact on self-reported levels of depression, anxiety and smartphone addiction-which all significantly increased from the 2020 to the 2021 group. The percentage of students who had a score which warranted a classification of clinical depression increased from 30 to 44%, and for anxiety increased from 22 to 27%-those students who showed a comorbidity across the two rose from 12 to 21%. Smartphone addiction levels rose from 39 to 50%. Correlational analysis showed a significant relationship between Smartphone usage and depression and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: This research suggests that COVID-19 has had a major impact upon student mental health, and smartphone addiction. The importance of identifying predictive factors of depression and anxiety is emphasised, and suggestions for intervention are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Students/psychology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
11.
Br J Community Nurs ; 27(5): 242-250, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522447

ABSTRACT

This article will explore the district nurse (DN) role in caring for palliative service users and their responsibility to prepare them and their family members to understand the trajectory of their prognosis and the possible decline in urinary function and incontinence. Educating DNs to advise service users in appropriate management options and collaborating with the wider multidisciplinary team (MDT) to ensure service users' individual goals and aims are followed as closely as possible. Urinary incontinence (UI) is not a natural part of the ageing process, although the prevalence of UI is increased as people age, through multi-morbidities, polypharmacy, cognitive decline, mobility limitations or life-limiting conditions. UI affects an individual's dignity and can cause a negative impact on self-esteem, and it is often accompanied by a perceived stigma that can lead to anxiety, depression and a reluctance to ask for help and advice.


Subject(s)
Palliative Care , Urinary Incontinence , Anxiety , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Quality of Life , Respect , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urinary Incontinence/psychology
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 24(5): e34769, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522458

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Self-guided web-based programs are effective; however, inadequate implementation of these programs limits their potential to provide effective and low-cost treatment for common mental health problems at scale. There is a lack of research examining optimal methods for the dissemination of web-based programs in the community. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the uptake, reach, relative costs, and adherence associated with 3 community-based pathways for delivering a low-intensity web-based transdiagnostic mental health program. The 3 dissemination pathways were social media advertising, advertising in general practice, and advertising in pharmacies. METHODS: Participants were recruited on the web, from general practices, or from community pharmacies; completed a screener for psychological distress; and were offered the 4-week FitMindKit program-a 12-module psychotherapeutic intervention. Uptake was defined as the number of participants who enrolled in the web-based program; reach was defined as the rate of uptake per exposure; and costs were calculated based on staff time, equipment, and advertising. Adherence was assessed as the number of modules of FitMindKit completed by the participants. RESULTS: Uptake comprised 1014 participants who were recruited through the 3 dissemination pathways: on the web (991/1014, 97.73%), in general practice (16/1014, 1.58%), and in pharmacy (7/1014, 0.69%). Reach was highest for social media: 1 in every 50 people exposed to web-based advertising took up the intervention compared with 1 in every 441 in general practitioner clinics and 1 in every 1708 in pharmacies. The dissemination cost was US $4.87 per user on social media, US $557 per user for general practitioner clinics, and US $1272 per user for pharmacy dissemination. No significant differences in adherence were observed between the conditions, whereas all pathways showed an underrepresentation of men and linguistic diversity. CONCLUSIONS: The web-based dissemination pathway was the most efficient and cost-effective for delivering a self-guided internet-based mental health program to people in the community. More research is needed to identify how best to engage men and those with culturally diverse backgrounds in web-based interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12618001688279; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=376113.


Subject(s)
Internet-Based Intervention , Suicidal Ideation , Anxiety/therapy , Australia , Depression/therapy , Humans , Internet , Male
13.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267507, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522683

ABSTRACT

Pregnancy and postpartum are periods in which women develop psychosocially. However, becoming a mother is stressful, and mood disorders related to anxiety and depression often develop. In recent years, research on interoception-sensations related to the body's internal physiological state-has attracted attention. Interoception has multifaceted characteristics. It involves directly perceiving information in the body while also inferring and evaluating it. In this study, we examined interoception, anxiety, and depression in Japanese pregnant women. Empirical examinations and questionnaire surveys were used to measure interoception in 32 pregnant women not at high risk of pregnancy. A Japanese adaption of the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness was used to measure interoceptive sensibility, and a heartbeat counting task performance was used to measure interoceptive accuracy. Anxiety and depression were measured using the Japanese versions of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, respectively. A correlation analysis was performed between interoception, anxiety and depression and between differences between sensibility and accuracy of interoception, anxiety and depression. We revealed that interoceptive sensibility and differences between sensibility and accuracy of interoception were associated with anxiety. Based on results of this pilot study, it is necessary to investigate using longitudinal studies whether interoception might be an effective predictor tool for early detection of anxiety during pregnancy and postpartum.


Subject(s)
Interoception , Anxiety , Awareness/physiology , Depression , Female , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Interoception/physiology , Pilot Projects , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women
14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522828

ABSTRACT

Objective: A range of psychiatric morbidities such as persistent depression, anxiety, insomnia, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been observed in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors. The objective of this study was to explore the psychological status of health care workers after recovery from COVID-19 and to examine the sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with psychiatric morbidity.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among health care workers of a tertiary care hospital in South India. The study included health care workers who tested positive for COVID-19 according to the provisional guidelines of the World Health Organization. The data were collected after they tested negative for COVID-19 from September 2020 to October 2020. The study used a semistructured proforma and rating scales such as the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 to assess for depression, anxiety, and PTSD.Results: The results indicate that the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and PTSD among 107 post-COVID patients was 26.2%%, 12.1%, and 3.7%%, respectively. Female sex (P = .017), patients with post-COVID persistent physical symptoms (P = .05), and the duration of fever during the acute phase of COVID-19 infection (P = .005) were found to have a statistically significant association with a higher rate of depression among the study population.Conclusions: The study findings indicate that all COVID-19 survivors working in the health care sector should be screened for depression and anxiety disorders regularly for early detection and effective management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Survivors/psychology
15.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e058561, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523500

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of depression and anxiety and identify associated risk factors in hospitalised persons with confirmed COVID-19 in Edo, Nigeria. DESIGN: A multicentre cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Patients with COVID-19 hospitalised at the three government-designated treatment and isolation centres in Edo State, Nigeria. PARTICIPANTS: The study was conducted from 15 April to 11 November 2020 among 489 patients with confirmed COVID-19 and in treatment and isolation centres in Edo State, Nigeria. The mean age of participants was 43.39 (SD=16.94) years. Male participants were 252 (51.5%) and female were 237 (48.5%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire for depression, (total score: 0-27, depression ≥10), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 for anxiety (total score: 0-21, anxiety ≥10), and social demographic and clinical characteristics for associated risk factors. RESULTS: Of the 489 participants, 49.1% and 38.0% had depressive and anxiety symptoms, respectively. The prevalence rates of depression, anxiety and combination of both were 16.2%, 12.9% and 9.0%, respectively. Moderate-severe symptoms of COVID-19, ≥14 days in isolation, worrying about the outcome of infection and stigma increased the risk of having depression and anxiety. Additionally, being separated/divorced increased the risk of having depression and having comorbidity increased the risk of having anxiety. CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of our participants experienced depression, anxiety and a combination of both especially in those who had the risk factors we identified. The findings underscore the need to address modifiable risk factors for psychiatric manifestations early in the course of the disease and integrate mental health interventions and psychosocial support into COVID-19 management guidelines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Nigeria/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 28(3): 227-233, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511098

ABSTRACT

This column reviews >50 years of research on the functions subsumed by the locus coeruleus (LC) (also called the central adrenergic system). A major role of the LC is monitoring acid-base balance in the brain and responding by regulating blood-brain permeability to water and other small molecules and cerebral blood flow. The LC, through its downward projections, also regulates and coordinates respiratory and cardiac functions. Through its effect regionally or more globally depending on the stimulus and its magnitude, the LC can regulate the extracellular space in the brain, which in turn can alter ionic concentrations and thus the sensitivity of neurons to signaling. As a result of these far-reaching effects, the LC has been implicated in brain functions ranging from sleep and wakefulness to psychiatric conditions such as hyperarousal/hypervigilance, fear, agitation, anxiety, and panic attacks. This understanding of the brain functions subsumed by the LC has, in turn, led to the most recent development in the use of dexmedetomidine, an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, to treat agitation in patients with bipolar disorder. This column also illustrates a theme discussed in a series of previous columns concerning the successful development of novel psychiatric/central nervous system drugs on the basis of an understanding of relatively simple circuits or mechanisms that underlie pathologic behavior.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder , Dexmedetomidine , Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Anxiety , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Humans , Locus Coeruleus/physiology
18.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268061, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511888

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: High prevalence of anxiety symptoms has been reported globally in the university students. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the recognized treatment for anxiety and is traditionally conducted face-to-face (f-CBT). The efficacy of internet-based CBT (i-CBT) for anxiety has been extensively studied, yet evidence on its cost-effectiveness is scarce. We aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of guided low-intensity i-CBT for university students with mild anxiety symptoms from the societal perspective of Hong Kong. METHODS: A 5-year Markov model was designed to compare outcomes of guided i-CBT and f-CBT in a hypothetical cohort of university students with mild anxiety symptoms. Model inputs of cost and healthcare resources associated with anxiety were retrospectively collected from a cohort of university students with anxiety symptoms. Clinical and utility model inputs were retrieved from published literature. Model outcome measures were anxiety-related total cost (including direct medical and indirect costs) and quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the robustness of base-case results. RESULTS: In base-case analysis, i-CBT gained higher QALYs (2.9956 versus 2.9917) at lower total cost (US$6,101 versus US$6,246) than f-CBT. In one-way sensitivity analysis, the QALY gained by i-CBT was sensitive to the relative patient acceptance and adherence to CBT. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, i-CBT was cost-effective in 90.9% of the time at the willingness-to-pay threshold of 138,210 per QALY (3× GDP per capita in Hong Kong). The probability of i-CBT to be cost-effective was 99.9% at a willingness-to-pay threshold of zero. CONCLUSIONS: Guided i-CBT appears to be cost-saving and effective for management of university students with mild symptoms of anxiety from the societal perspective of Hong Kong. The cost-effectiveness of i-CBT is highly subject to the individual acceptance and adherence of CBT delivered by the internet platform.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Anxiety/therapy , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Internet , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Retrospective Studies , Students , Universities
19.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267709, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511928

ABSTRACT

Several COVID-19 studies on the felt passage of time have been conducted due to the strong feeling of time distortion many people have experienced during the pandemic. Overall, a relative decelaration of time passage was generally associated with negative affect and social isolation; a relative acceleration was associated with an increase in routine in daily life. There is some variability in results depending on the country of study and COVID-19 restrictions introduced, participants' demographics, and questionnaire items applied. Here we present a study conducted in May 2021 in Germany including n = 500 participants to assess time perception, emotional reactions, and attitudes towards the countermeasures. The passage of time judgments (POTJ) for the preceding 12 months during the pandemic were compared to data addressing the same question posed in previous studies conducted before the outbreak of COVID-19. The previous year was rated as having passed relatively slower during the pandemic compared to the ratings from before the pandemic. The duration judgments (DJ) of the 14 months since the start of the pandemic showed a bimodal distribution with both relatively shorter and relatively longer DJs. Higher levels of several negative emotions, as well as less social satisfaction, were associated with prolonged DJs and partially slower POTJs. Fear for health was not linked with the subjective experience of time, but exploratory analyses suggested that higher levels of fear were linked to more positive evaluations and approval of the governmental countermeasures. Those who reported higher levels of negative, agitated-aggressive emotions showed lower levels of consent with these measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7385, 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513397

ABSTRACT

Seeking information when anxious may help reduce the aversive feeling of uncertainty and guide decision-making. If information is negative or confusing, however, this may increase anxiety further. Information gathered under anxiety can thus be beneficial and/or damaging. Here, we examine whether anxiety leads to a general increase in information-seeking, or rather to changes in the type of information and/or situations in which it is sought. In two controlled laboratory studies, we show that both trait anxiety and induced anxiety lead to a selective alteration in information-seeking. In particular, anxiety did not enhance the general tendency to seek information, nor did it alter the valence of the information gathered. Rather, anxiety amplified the tendency to seek information more in response to large changes in the environment. This was true even when the cause of the anxiety was not directly related to the information sought. As anxious individuals have been shown to have problems learning in changing environments, greater information-seeking in such environments may be an adaptive compensatory mechanism.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders , Information Seeking Behavior , Anxiety , Emotions/physiology , Humans , Uncertainty
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