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1.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273980, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067192

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Arboviruses represent a threat to global public health. In the Americas, the dengue fever is endemic. This situation worsens with the introduction of emerging, Zika fever and chikungunya fever, causing epidemics in several countries within the last decade. Hotspot analysis contributes to understanding the spatial and temporal dynamics in the context of co-circulation of these three arboviral diseases, which have the same vector: Aedes aegypti. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the spatial distribution and agreement between the hotspots of the historical series of reported dengue cases from 2000 to 2014 and the Zika, chikungunya and dengue cases hotspots from 2015 to 2019 in the city of Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: To identify hotspots, Gi* statistics were calculated for the annual incidence rates of reported cases of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya by neighborhood. Kendall's W statistic was used to analyze the agreement between diseases hotspots. RESULTS: There was no agreement between the hotspots of the dengue fever historical series (2000-2014) and those of the emerging Zika fever and chikungunya fever (2015-2019). However, there was agreement between hotspots of the three arboviral diseases between 2015 and 2019. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show the existence of persistent hotspots that need to be prioritized in public policies for the prevention and control of these diseases. The techniques used with data from epidemiological surveillance services can help in better understanding of the dynamics of these diseases wherever they circulate in the world.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections , Chikungunya Fever , Dengue , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Dengue/epidemiology , Humans , Mosquito Vectors
2.
Water Res ; 223: 118904, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007397

ABSTRACT

Arboviral diseases are caused by a group of viruses spread by the bite of infected arthropods. Amongst these, dengue, Zika, west nile fever and yellow fever cause the greatest economic and social impact. Arboviral epidemics have increased in frequency, magnitude and geographical extent over the past decades and are expected to continue increasing with climate change and expanding urbanisation. Arboviral prevalence is largely underestimated, as most infections are asymptomatic, nevertheless existing surveillance systems are based on passive reporting of loosely defined clinical syndromes with infrequent laboratory confirmation. Wastewater-based surveillance (WBS), which has been demonstrated to be useful for monitoring diseases with significant asymptomatic populations including COVID19 and polio, could be a useful complement to arboviral surveillance. We review the current state of knowledge and identify key factors that affect the feasibility of monitoring arboviral diseases by WBS to include viral shedding loads by infected persons, the persistence of shed arboviruses and the efficiency of their recovery from sewage. We provide a simple model on the volume of wastewater that needs to be processed for detection of arboviruses, in face of lower arboviral shedding rates. In all, this review serves to reflect on the key challenges that need to be addressed and overcome for successful implementation of arboviral WBS.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections , Arboviruses , COVID-19 , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Sewage , Waste Water , Wastewater-Based Epidemiological Monitoring , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
4.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-08-29.
in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56321

ABSTRACT

La infección causada en el ser humano por los arbovirus, como los del dengue, la fiebre amarilla, el chikunguña y el Zika, se produce a través de la picadura de artrópodos hematófagos (mosquitos, garrapatas y jejenes, entre otros). Hay más de 100 tipos de arbovirus y la gravedad de las infecciones que estos desencadenan varía desde asintomática hasta potencialmente mortal. Los brotes causados por estos virus son cada vez más comunes en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales, incluida gran parte de la Región de las Américas, lo que los convierte en un tema de preocupación a nivel internacional. Según la Organización Mundial de la Salud, casi 4000 millones de personas viven en zonas donde los arbovirus plantean actualmente una amenaza para la salud pública. En esta publicación se presentan recomendaciones técnicas para los laboratorios de salud pública que participan en el diagnóstico y la vigilancia de los arbovirus. En ella se incluyen los tipos de muestras más útiles para diagnosticar infecciones; se enumeran los conjuntos de datos clínicos mínimos para la rotulación y el análisis de muestras; y se describen las mejores prácticas para el procesamiento y la manipulación de muestras, junto con los flujos de trabajo recomendados y las consideraciones de bioseguridad. Las pruebas más adecuadas para cada uno de los arbovirus más comunes se presentan con los algoritmos recomendados para el diagnóstico. Se incluyen tanto los métodos de diagnóstico directo, a través de la detección genómica, la detección de antígenos y el aislamiento de los virus, como los métodos serológicos indirectos (que no detectan al virus en sí sino la respuesta inmunitaria a la infección viral). Además de estar dirigida al personal de los laboratorios de salud pública, su público destinatario principal, esta publicación también será útil para los centros de investigación que detectan infecciones por arbovirus como parte de sus tareas de investigación.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections , Laboratories , Clinical Epidemiology , Americas
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11719, 2022 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35810191

ABSTRACT

In November 2015, cases of Zika virus infection were recorded in Cabo Verde (Africa), originating from Brazil. The outbreak subsided after seven months with 7580 suspected cases. We performed a serological survey (n = 431) in Praia, the capital city, 3 months after transmission ceased. Serum samples were screened for arbovirus antibodies using ELISA techniques and revealed seroconverted individuals with Zika (10.9%), dengue (1-4) (12.5%), yellow fever (0.2%) and chikungunya (2.6%) infections. Zika seropositivity was predominantly observed amongst females (70%). Using a logistic model, risk factors for increased odds of Zika seropositivity included age, self-reported Zika infection, and dengue seropositivity. Serological data from Zika and dengue virus assays were strongly correlated (Spearman's rs = 0.80), which reduced when using a double antigen binding ELISA (Spearman's rs = 0.54). Overall, our work improves an understanding of how Zika and other arboviruses have spread throughout the Cabo Verde population. It also demonstrates the utility of serological assay formats for outbreak investigations.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections , Chikungunya Fever , Dengue Virus , Dengue , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Cabo Verde , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
6.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 22(8): 425-442, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35867036

ABSTRACT

Background: Arboviral disease is of increasing concern to human and animal health professionals as emerging and re-emerging arboviruses are more frequently recognized. Wildlife species are known to play a role in the transmission and maintenance of arboviruses and infections can result in morbidity and mortality in wildlife hosts. Materials and Methods: In this review, we detail existing evidence of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as an important host to a diverse collection of arboviruses and evaluate the utility of this species as a resource to better understand the epidemiology of related viral diseases. Results: Relevant veterinary and zoonotic viral pathogens endemic to North America include epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, bluetongue virus, orthobunyaviruses, vesicular stomatitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and Powassan virus. Exotic viral pathogens that may infect white-tailed deer are also identified with an emphasis on zoonotic disease risks. The utility of this species is attributed to the high degree of contact with humans and domestic livestock and evidence of preferential feeding by various insect vectors. Conclusions: There is mounting evidence that white-tailed deer are a useful, widely available source of information regarding arboviral circulation, and that surveillance and monitoring of deer populations would be of value to the understanding of certain viral transmission dynamics, with implications for improving human and domestic animal health.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections , Arboviruses , Deer , Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Epizootic , Animals , Animals, Wild , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arbovirus Infections/veterinary , Humans
7.
Vopr Virusol ; 67(3): 227-236, 2022 07 13.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831965

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Bat cell cultures are a popular model both for the isolation of vector-borne disease viruses and for assessing the possible role of these mammalian species in forming the natural reservoirs of arbovirus infection vectors. The goal of the research was to obtain and characterize strains of diploid lung cells of the bat (Pipistrellus pipistrellus) and evaluate their permissivity to bluetongue, African horse sickness (AHS), and epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer (EHD) viruses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cell cultures of the dwarf bat's lung were obtained by standard enzymatic disaggregation of donor tissue and selection of cells for adhesive properties. The permissivity of cell cultures was determined to bluetongue, AHL, and EHD orbiviruses. RESULTS: Diploid cell strains (epithelium-like and fibroblast-like types) retaining cytomorphological characteristics and karyotype stability were obtained from tissue of the bat's lung. Their permissivity to viruses of the genus Orbivirus of the Reoviridae family, pathogens of transmissible animal diseases, has been established. DISCUSSION: The permissivity of the obtained strains of bat's lung cells to bluetongue, AHL, and EHD viruses is consistent with the isolation of orbiviruses in bats of the species Pteropus poliocephalus, Pteropus hypomelanus, Rousettus aegyptiacus leachii, Syconycteris crassa, Myotis macrodactylus, and Eidolon helvum. CONCLUSION: Strains of diploid lung cells of the dwarf bat are permissive to orbiviruses of bluetongue, AHS, and EHD, which allows us to recommend them for the isolation of these viruses, and the species Pipistrellus pipistrellus to be considered as a potential natural reservoir and carrier of pathogens of these vector-borne diseases.


Subject(s)
Animal Diseases , Arbovirus Infections , Bluetongue virus , Bluetongue , Chiroptera , Deer , Orbivirus , Reoviridae Infections , Reoviridae , Animals , Diploidy , Lung , Orbivirus/genetics , Reoviridae Infections/veterinary , Sheep
8.
RECIIS (Online) ; 16(2): 298-316, abr.-jun. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1378362

ABSTRACT

Este artigo apresenta reflexões acerca do conjunto de ações do projeto ArboControl em Roraima relatadas, neste estudo, a partir das experiências e práticas de combate à desinformação do Amazoom ­ Observatório Cultural da Amazônia e do Caribe. Para a melhor compreensão das formas de fazer apresentamos, neste estudo, o contexto em que elas ocorrem; os aspectos gerais que pautaram a criação do Amazoom e a sua vinculação à iniciativa nacional do ArboControl; os objetivos e as múltiplas dimensões das práticas comunicativas executadas no âmbito do projeto; os conceitos e as ideias que movimentamos no exercício desse fazer; os métodos e as técnicas que utilizamos; e os principais produtos, os seus processos e os resultados parciais alcançados até o momento. Enfatizamos, a partir das práticas realizadas e do material analisado, a importância da produção de conteúdos próprios (apropriados e apropriáveis), inspirados nos preceitos da educomunicação, capazes de acionar linguagens híbridas, narrativas múltiplas e mais efetivas, na prevenção, no monitoramento e no controle das arboviroses (e de seus vetores).


This article presents some thoughts about the set of actions of the ArboControl project in Roraima, reported in this study, based on the experiences and practices in fighting misinformation by Amazoom ­ Cultural Observatory of the Amazon and the Caribbean. For a better understanding of these ways of doing, we present, in this study, the context in which they occur; the general aspects that guided the creation of Amazoom and its connection to the national initiative of ArboControl; the objectives and the multiple dimensions of the communicative practices implemented in the scope of the project; the concepts and ideas that we put into motion in these practices; the methods and techniques that we employed; and the main products, their processes and partial results achieved so far. We emphasize, based on the accomplished activities and their analyzed material, the importance of producing our own content (appropriate and appropriable), inspired by the principles of educommunication, which are able to engage in hybrid languages, narratives that are multiple and more effective in the prevention, monitoring and control of arboviruses (and their vectors).


Este artículo presenta reflexiones sobre el conjunto de acciones del proyecto ArboControl en Roraima, relatado, en este estudio, a partir de las experiencias y prácticas de Amazoom ­ Observatorio Cultural de la Amazonia y el Caribe ­ en la lucha contra la desinformación. Para una mejor comprensión de estas formas de hacer, presentamos, en este estudio, el contexto en el que se producen; los aspectos generales que guiaron la creación de Amazoom y su vinculación a la iniciativa nacional de ArboControl; los objetivos y las múltiples dimensiones de las prácticas comunicativas ejecutadas en el ámbito del proyecto; los conceptos e ideas que movemos en el ejercicio de este hacer; los métodos y técnicas que utilizamos; y los principales productos, sus procesos y resultados parciales alcanzados hasta el momento. A partir de las prácticas realizadas y del material analizado, destacamos la importancia de la producción de contenidos propios (adecuados y apropiados), inspirados en los preceptos de la educomunicación, capaces de activar lenguajes híbridos, narrativas múltiples y más eficaces en la prevención, el seguimiento y el control de las arbovirosis (y sus vectores).


Subject(s)
Humans , Communication , Health Communication , Disinformation , Arbovirus Infections , Reference Standards , Information Dissemination , Projects , Mass Media
9.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35891468

ABSTRACT

Arbovirus infections are increasingly important causes of disease, whose spectrum of neurological manifestations are not fully known. This study sought to retrospectively assess the incidence of arboviruses in cerebrospinal fluid samples of patients with neurological symptoms to inform diagnosis of central and peripheral nervous system disorders. A total of 255 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected from January 2016 to December 2017 were tested for dengue virus (DENV 1-4), Zika virus (ZIKV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in addition to other neurotropic arboviruses of interest, using genetic and serologic assays. Of the 255 CSF samples analyzed, 3.53% (09/255) were positive for arboviruses presenting mainly as meningitis, encephalitis, and cerebrovascular events, of which ZIKV was detected in 2.74% (7/255), DENV in 0.78% (2/255), in addition to an identified ILHV infection that was described previously. All the cases were detected in adults aged 18 to 74 years old. Our findings highlight the scientific and clinical importance of neurological syndromes associated with arboviruses and demonstrate the relevance of specific laboratory methods to achieve accurate diagnoses as well as highlight the true dimension of these diseases to ultimately improve public health planning and medical case management.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections , Arboviruses , Chikungunya Fever , Dengue , Nervous System Diseases , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arboviruses/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult , Zika Virus/genetics
10.
Article in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56147

ABSTRACT

[RESUMEN]. Introducción. El dengue, el chikunguña y el zika son enfermedades virales que representan una amenaza constante a la salud pública. Las tres arbovirosis pueden producir un cuadro clínico muy similar, lo que repre- senta un desafío para lograr un diagnóstico clínico adecuado y puede conllevar a un inadecuado manejo y generar eventos fatales. La guía Directrices para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento del dengue, el chikunguña y el zika es parte del esfuerzo de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y los países de la Región de las Américas para evitar los casos graves y la muerte por estas enfermedades, en medio de un complejo panorama epidemiológico donde la presencia de múltiples factores favorece la dinámica de transmisión y ocasiona brotes y epidemias en los países de la Región. Objetivos. Sintetizar las recomendaciones incluidas en dicha guía, publicada por la OPS en 2022, con el fin de presentar el adecuado diagnóstico y tratamiento de estas arbovirosis y abordar aspectos sobre la imple- mentación de las recomendaciones. Métodos. Se llevó a cabo una síntesis de la guía y sus recomendaciones. Adicionalmente, se realizó una bús- queda sistemática en Pubmed, Lilacs, Health Systems Evidence, Epistemonikos y literatura gris de estudios desarrollados en América Latina y el Caribe con el fin de identificar barreras, facilitadores y estrategias de implementación. Se identificaron y construyeron indicadores de proceso y de resultado de la implementación de las recomendaciones. Resultados. Se presentan 12 recomendaciones aplicables a pacientes adultos y pediátricos con sospecha o confirmación de dengue, chikunguña o zika. Se presentan barreras, facilitadores y estrategias para su implementación. Conclusiones. Las recomendaciones proveen estrategias para el diagnóstico y el tratamiento oportunos de casos agudos de dengue, chikunguña y zika, así como consideraciones para su implementación.


[ABSTRACT]. Introduction. Dengue, chikungunya, and Zika are viral diseases that pose a constant threat to public health. These three arboviruses can produce very similar clinical pictures, which represents a challenge to achieving an accurate clinical diagnosis and can lead to inadequate management and even fatal outcomes. Guidelines for the Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment of Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika is part of the effort by the Pan American Health Organization and the countries of the Region of the Americas to prevent severe cases and death from these diseases, in a complex epidemiological context in which multiple factors favor transmission dynamics and lead to outbreaks and epidemics in the countries of the Region. Objectives. Synthesize the recommendations in the PAHO guidelines, published in 2022, in order to present appropriate diagnosis and treatment of these arboviruses, and to address aspects of implementation of the recommendations. Methods. The guidelines and their recommendations were synthesized. In addition, a systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Lilacs, Health Systems Evidence, Epistemonikos, and gray literature for studies done in the Region of the Americas, in order to identify barriers, facilitators, and implementation strategies. Process and outcome indicators for implementation of the recommendations were identified and formulated. Results. We present 12 recommendations applicable to adult and pediatric patients with suspected or confir- med dengue, chikungunya, or Zika, along with barriers, facilitators, and strategies for their implementation. Conclusions. The recommendations provide strategies for timely diagnosis and treatment of acute cases of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, as well as considerations for implementation of the strategies.


[RESUMO]. Introdução. Dengue, chikungunya e zika são doenças virais que representam uma ameaça constante à saúde pública. As três arboviroses podem produzir um quadro clínico muito semelhante, o que representa um desafio para se obter um diagnóstico clínico adequado, podendo levar a um manejo inadequado e eventos fatais. O documento Diretrizes para o diagnóstico e o tratamento da dengue, chikungunya e zika faz parte do esforço da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde e dos países da Região das Américas para prevenir casos graves e mortes por essas doenças, em meio a um complexo panorama epidemiológico onde a presença de múltiplos fatores favorece a dinâmica de transmissão e causa surtos e epidemias nos países da Região. Objetivos. Sintetizar as recomendações do documento mencionado, publicado pela OPAS em 2022, a fim de apresentar o diagnóstico e o tratamento adequados dessas arboviroses e abordar aspectos da implemen- tação das recomendações. Métodos. Foi realizada uma síntese do documento e suas recomendações. Além disso, foi feita uma busca sistemática nas bases de dados PubMed, LILACS, Health Systems Evidence, Epistemonikos e na literatura cinzenta de estudos realizados na América Latina e no Caribe para identificar barreiras, facilitadores e estra- tégias de implementação. Foram identificados e construídos indicadores de processo e de resultado da implementação das recomendações. Resultados. Apresentam-se 12 recomendações aplicáveis a pacientes adultos e pediátricos com suspeita ou confirmação de dengue, chikungunya ou zika. Apresentam-se, ainda, barreiras, facilitadores e estratégias para sua implementação. Conclusões. As recomendações fornecem estratégias para o diagnóstico e o tratamento oportunos de casos agudos de dengue, chikungunya e zika, bem como considerações para sua implementação.


Subject(s)
Dengue , Chikungunya virus , Zika Virus Infection , Arbovirus Infections , Evidence-Based Medicine , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Americas , Zika Virus Infection , Chikungunya virus , Arbovirus Infections , Evidence-Based Medicine , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Americas , Zika Virus Infection , Chikungunya virus , Arbovirus Infections , Evidence-Based Medicine , Therapeutics
11.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. Centro Nacional de Epidemiología, Prevención y Control de Enfermedades; 1 ed; Jul. 2022. 1225-260 p. ilus.(Boletín Epidemiológico, 31, Se 26).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS, MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1380414

ABSTRACT

El dengue es una arbovirosis de distribución global. Cerca de cuatro billones de personas en 128 países a nivel mundial viven en zonas de riesgo; de las cuales, 500 millones se encuentran en América. En la Región de las Américas, entre las semanas epidemiológicas (SE) 1 y SE 25 del año 2022, se notificaron un total de 2,073,391 casos de enfermedad por arbovirosis, de los cuales 1,885,410 (90,9 %) fueron casos de dengue, 170,210 (8,2 %) casos de chikungunya y 17,771 (0,9 %) casos de zika


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections , Epidemiologic Studies , Dengue , Epidemiological Monitoring , Chikungunya Fever , Epidemiological Investigation
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 233, 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35761349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fatty acids are the building blocks of complex lipids essential for living organisms. In mosquitoes, fatty acids are involved in cell membrane production, energy conservation and expenditure, innate immunity, development and reproduction. Fatty acids are synthesized by a multifunctional enzyme complex called fatty acid synthase (FAS). Several paralogues of FAS were found in the Aedes aegypti mosquito. However, the molecular characteristics and expression of some of these paralogues have not been investigated. METHODS: Genome assemblies of Ae. aegypti were analyzed, and orthologues of human FAS was identified. Phylogenetic analysis and in silico molecular characterization were performed to identify the functional domains of the Ae. aegypti FAS (AaFAS). Quantitative analysis and loss-of-function experiments were performed to determine the significance of different AaFAS transcripts in various stages of development, expression following different diets and the impact of AaFAS on dengue virus, serotype 2 (DENV2) infection and transmission. RESULTS: We identified seven putative FAS genes in the Ae. aegypti genome assembly, based on nucleotide similarity to the FAS proteins (tBLASTn) of humans, other mosquitoes and invertebrates. Bioinformatics and molecular analyses suggested that only five of the AaFAS genes produce mRNA and therefore represent complete gene models. Expression levels of AaFAS varied among developmental stages and between male and female Ae. aegypti. Quantitative analyses revealed that expression of AaFAS1, the putative orthologue of the human FAS, was highest in adult females. Transient knockdown (KD) of AaFAS1 did not induce a complete compensation by other AaFAS genes but limited DENV2 infection of Aag2 cells in culture and the midgut of the mosquito. CONCLUSION: AaFAS1 is the predominant AaFAS in adult mosquitoes. It has the highest amino acid similarity to human FAS and contains all enzymatic domains typical of human FAS. AaFAS1 also facilitated DENV2 replication in both cell culture and in mosquito midguts. Our data suggest that AaFAS1 may play a role in transmission of dengue viruses and could represent a target for intervention strategies.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Arbovirus Infections , Dengue , Fatty Acid Synthases , Aedes/genetics , Aedes/virology , Animals , Dengue Virus , Fatty Acid Synthases/genetics , Fatty Acids , Female , Humans , Insect Proteins/genetics , Male , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Phylogeny , Virus Replication
14.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 147(12): 755-767, 2022 06.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672023

ABSTRACT

Arboviral infections are an important differential diagnosis in returning travelers with fever, muscle or joint pain and rash. Arboviruses have spread widely around the globe in the last decades. The most common arboviral infections in returning travelers from tropical and subtropical areas are dengue, chikungunya and zika. Their most important vectors, Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquito species, have adapted to the urban environment, which enabled arboviruses to establish urban transmission cycles. Population growth, urbanization, globalization, modern means of transportation and global warming are speeding up their spread.Laboratory confirmation of an arboviral infection can generally be obtained by direct virus detection (PCR, antigen test) in the first week of illness; from the second week of illness serology can be used. Treatment is mostly symptomatic.Dengue fever is the most common cause of fever in returning travelers from South-East Asia. Patients have to be educated about and observed for warning signs of severe dengue that can rarely develop around day 5 of the disease and is marked by a rise in hematocrit.Chikungunya mostly occurs in epidemics and is characterized by severe and often long-lasting arthritis.Preconceptional screening for zika virus infection is not recommended. Instead, travelers should delay conception for up to three months after returning from a zika endemic area.Dengue, chikungunya and zika vaccine development has been hampered by difficulties, for example antibody-dependent-enhancement or the unpredictability of outbreaks, and up to now no vaccines for travelers have been licensed. Yet several promising vaccine candidates are currently under development.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Arbovirus Infections , Arboviruses , Chikungunya Fever , Dengue , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/epidemiology , Humans , Mosquito Vectors , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 900077, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35719644

ABSTRACT

Arboviruses are a group of diseases that are transmitted by an arthropod vector. Since they are part of the Neglected Tropical Diseases that pose several public health challenges for countries around the world. The arboviruses' dynamics are governed by a combination of climatic, environmental, and human mobility factors. Arboviruses prediction models can be a support tool for decision-making by public health agents. In this study, we propose a systematic literature review to identify arboviruses prediction models, as well as models for their transmitter vector dynamics. To carry out this review, we searched reputable scientific bases such as IEE Xplore, PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, and Scopus. We search for studies published between the years 2015 and 2020, using a search string. A total of 429 articles were returned, however, after filtering by exclusion and inclusion criteria, 139 were included. Through this systematic review, it was possible to identify the challenges present in the construction of arboviruses prediction models, as well as the existing gap in the construction of spatiotemporal models.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/virology , Arboviruses/classification , Arthropod Vectors/classification , Machine Learning , Neglected Diseases/virology , Public Health/methods , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arbovirus Infections/transmission , Arboviruses/pathogenicity , Arboviruses/physiology , Arthropod Vectors/virology , Humans , Machine Learning/standards , Machine Learning/trends , Models, Statistical , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Public Health/trends
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(24): e2114309119, 2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35675424

ABSTRACT

Viruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes are an increasingly important global cause of disease. Defining common determinants of host susceptibility to this large group of heterogenous pathogens is key for informing the rational design of panviral medicines. Infection of the vertebrate host with these viruses is enhanced by mosquito saliva, a complex mixture of salivary-gland-derived factors and microbiota. We show that the enhancement of infection by saliva was dependent on vascular function and was independent of most antisaliva immune responses, including salivary microbiota. Instead, the Aedes gene product sialokinin mediated the enhancement of virus infection through a rapid reduction in endothelial barrier integrity. Sialokinin is unique within the insect world as having a vertebrate-like tachykinin sequence and is absent from Anopheles mosquitoes, which are incompetent for most arthropod-borne viruses, whose saliva was not proviral and did not induce similar vascular permeability. Therapeutic strategies targeting sialokinin have the potential to limit disease severity following infection with Aedes-mosquito-borne viruses.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Arbovirus Infections , Arboviruses , Saliva , Tachykinins , Virus Diseases , Aedes/genetics , Aedes/virology , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/transmission , Arboviruses/genetics , Arboviruses/metabolism , Saliva/virology , Tachykinins/genetics , Tachykinins/metabolism , Virus Diseases/transmission
17.
Pediatrics ; 149(6)2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543085

ABSTRACT

Dengue is the disease caused by 1 of 4 distinct, but closely related dengue viruses (DENV-1-4) that are transmitted by Aedes spp. mosquito vectors. It is the most common arboviral disease worldwide, with the greatest burden in tropical and sub-tropical regions. In the absence of effective prevention and control measures, dengue is projected to increase in both disease burden and geographic range. Given its increasing importance as an etiology of fever in the returning traveler or the possibility of local transmission in regions in the United States with competent vectors, as well as the risk for large outbreaks in endemic US territories and associated states, clinicians should understand its clinical presentation and be familiar with appropriate testing, triage, and management of patients with dengue. Control and prevention efforts reached a milestone in June 2021 when the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended Dengvaxia for routine use in children aged 9 to 16 years living in endemic areas with laboratory confirmation of previous dengue virus infection. Dengvaxia is the first vaccine against dengue to be recommended for use in the United States and one of the first to require laboratory testing of potential recipients to be eligible for vaccination. In this review, we outline dengue pathogenesis, epidemiology, and key clinical features for front-line clinicians evaluating patients presenting with dengue. We also provide a summary of Dengvaxia efficacy, safety, and considerations for use as well as an overview of other potential new tools to control and prevent the growing threat of dengue .


Subject(s)
Aedes , Arbovirus Infections , Dengue , Animals , Child , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Mosquito Vectors , United States/epidemiology
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(5): e0009600, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35560029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wolbachia is an endosymbiont bacterium generally found in about 40% of insects, including mosquitoes, but it is absent in Aedes aegypti which is an important vector of several arboviral diseases. The evidence that Wolbachia trans-infected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes lost their vectorial competence and became less capable of transmitting arboviruses to human hosts highlights the potential of using Wolbachia-based approaches for prevention and control of arboviral diseases. Recently, release of Wolbachia trans-infected Ae. aegypti has been deployed widely in many countries for the control of mosquito-borne viral diseases. Field surveillance and monitoring of Wolbachia presence in released mosquitoes is important for the success of these control programs. So far, a number of studies have reported the development of loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays to detect Wolbachia in mosquitoes, but the methods still have some specificity and cost issues. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe here the development of a LAMP assay combined with the DNA strand displacement-based electrochemical sensor (BIOSENSOR) method to detect wAlbB Wolbachia in trans-infected Ae. aegypti. Our developed LAMP primers used a low-cost dye detecting system and 4 oligo nucleotide primers which can reduce the cost of analysis while the specificity is comparable to the previous methods. The detection capacity of our LAMP technique was 1.4 nM and the detection limit reduced to 2.2 fM when combined with the BIOSENSOR. Our study demonstrates that a BIOSENSOR can also be applied as a stand-alone method for detecting Wolbachia; and it showed high sensitivity when used with the crude DNA extracts of macerated mosquito samples without DNA purification. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that both LAMP and BIOSENSOR, either used in combination or stand-alone, are robust and sensitive. The methods have good potential for routine detection of Wolbachia in mosquitoes during field surveillance and monitoring of Wolbachia-based release programs, especially in countries with limited resources.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Arbovirus Infections , Wolbachia , Aedes/genetics , Animals , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Mosquito Vectors , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Wolbachia/genetics
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(18): 628-632, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511710

ABSTRACT

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV), mainly transmitted by Culex species mosquitos, is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the United States (1). Other arboviruses cause sporadic cases of disease and occasional outbreaks. This report summarizes passive data for nationally notifiable domestic arboviruses in the United States reported to CDC for 2020. Forty-four states reported 884 cases of domestic arboviral disease, including those caused by West Nile (731), La Crosse (88), Powassan (21), St. Louis encephalitis (16), eastern equine encephalitis (13), Jamestown Canyon (13), and unspecified California serogroup (2) viruses. A total of 559 cases of neuroinvasive WNV disease were reported, for a national incidence of 0.17 cases per 100,000 population. Because arboviral diseases continue to cause serious illness and the locations of outbreaks vary annually, health care providers should consider arboviral infections in patients with aseptic meningitis or encephalitis that occur during periods when ticks and mosquitoes are active, perform recommended diagnostic testing, and promptly report cases to public health authorities to guide prevention strategies and messaging.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections , Culicidae , West Nile Fever , West Nile virus , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Population Surveillance , United States/epidemiology , West Nile Fever/epidemiology
20.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2022-05-24.
in Portuguese | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-56036

ABSTRACT

A Estratégia de gestão integrada para a prevenção e controle da dengue na Região das Américas (EGI-dengue) foi elaborada em 2003 pelos países da Região das Américas e pela Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS). Essa estratégia foi ampliada em 2016 para englobar outras arboviroses (Chikungunya e Zika), passando a ser a Estratégia de gestão integrada para a prevenção e controle das arboviroses nas Américas nas Américas (EGI-Arbovírus). A EGI-Arbovírus é hoje uma sólida ferramenta de trabalho para responder às situações causadas por essas doenças. A sustentabilidade é um dos pontos fortes da EGI-Arbovírus, em parte devido aos processos de monitoramento e avaliação realizados pelos países da Região e pela OPAS. Até a data de publicação desta metodologia, 34 processos de avaliações externas haviam sido realizados nos Estados Membros da Região, sendo conduzidas duas ou mais avaliações em alguns deles. Aqui são reunidas a experiência e as evidências resultantes destes processos para oferecer uma metodologia clara e simples para que as equipes responsáveis pela implementação da EGI-Arbovírus nacional em cada país e do Programa Regional de Arboviroses da OPAS possam realizar, de modo harmonioso, o acompanhamento e a avaliação destas estratégias. O intuito é que os processos de avaliação da EGI-Arbovírus nacional contribuam para aprimorar a cooperação técnica e reforçar a capacidade de resposta em prevenção e controle das arboviroses nos países e territórios das Américas.


Subject(s)
Chikungunya virus , Chikungunya Fever , Dengue Virus , Arbovirus Infections , Noncommunicable Diseases , Disease Prevention , Public Health Surveillance
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