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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 265, 2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasing arbovirus infections have been a global burden in recent decades. Many countries have experienced the periodic emergence of arbovirus diseases. However, information on the prevalence of arboviruses is largely unknown or infrequently updated because of the lack of surveillance studies, especially in Africa. METHODS: A surveillance study was conducted in Gabon, Central Africa, on arboviruses, which are a major public health concern in Africa, including: West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), yellow fever virus (YFV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Serological and molecular assays were performed to investigate past infection history and the current status of infection, using serum samples collected from healthy individuals and febrile patients, respectively. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence during 2014-2017 was estimated to be 25.3% for WNV, 20.4% for DENV, 40.3% for ZIKV, 60.7% for YFV, 61.2% for CHIKV, and 14.3% for RVFV. No significant differences were found in the seroprevalence of any of the viruses between the male and female populations. However, a focus on the mean age in each arbovirus-seropositive individual showed a significantly younger age in WNV- and DENV-seropositive individuals than in CHIKV-seropositive individuals, indicating that WNV and DENV caused a relatively recent epidemic in the region, whereas CHIKV had actively circulated before. Of note, this indication was supported by the detection of both WNV and DENV genomes in serum samples collected from febrile patients after 2016. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the recent re-emergence of WNV and DENV in Gabon as well as the latest seroprevalence state of the major arboviruses, which indicated the different potential risks of virus infections and virus-specific circulation patterns. This information will be helpful for public health organizations and will enable a rapid response towards these arbovirus infections, thereby preventing future spread in the country.


Subject(s)
Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Dengue/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Adolescent , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arboviruses/classification , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Dengue/diagnosis , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Gabon/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Public Health , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
2.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 53(1): 73-80, ene. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-200092

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Valorar los resultados obtenidos por una red de vigilancia epidemiológica y asistencial de arbovirosis compuesta por médicos y profesionales de enfermería de hospital y atención primaria (AP) formados en su identificación, confirmación diagnóstica y manejo clínico. Emplazamiento: Zona Sanitaria Metropolitana Norte de Barcelona (1.400.000 habitantes; Cataluña, España) durante un año natural. PARTICIPANTES: Diecisiete médicos (7 de AP y 10 hospitalarios) más 4 enfermeros/as de AP. Tipo de estudio: Estudio observacional prospectivo. Mediciones principales: Se definieron variables demográficas, epidemiológicas (caso autóctono/importado, sospechoso/probable/confirmado) y asistenciales (síntomas, perfil serológico, periodo virémico). RESULTADOS: De los 34 pacientes identificados cumplían criterios de estudio 26 (76,5%) casos; de ellos, se confirmó alguna arbovirosis en 14 (53,8%): 13 fiebres dengues más 1 chikungunya. No se registraron casos de fiebre de zika. Existían antecedentes de viaje a zonas endémicas (23; 88,4%), pero no en 3 casos (11,6%), en los que se consideró la posibilidad de una transmisión autóctona; de ellos, se confirmó un caso de dengue. La incidencia estimada de arbovirosis fue de 0,4 (IC 95%: 0,33-0,51) casos × 10.000 hab./año, que, comparada con la incidencia estimada en la misma área geográfica durante el periodo 2009-2013 (0,19 casos ×10.000hab./año; IC 95%: 0,07-0,31), mostró un incremento significativo (p = 0,044). Los pacientes en periodo de viremia al momento de la primera visita médica fueron 11 (42,3%). CONCLUSIONES: Un programa de vigilancia epidemiológica intensificada definido a nivel de AP y hospitalario es capaz de detectar significativamente más casos de arbovirosis importadas y transmitidas autóctonamente. Posiblemente asistimos a un aumento en la incidencia de arbovirosis importadas, por lo que las medidas encaminadas a su identificación y confirmación deben reforzarse


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results obtained by a surveillance network on arbovirosis composed by doctors and nurses located at hospitals and Primary Care trained in their identification, diagnostic confirmation and clinical management. LOCATION: North Metropolitan Area of Barcelona (1,400,000 inhabitants; Catalonia; Spain) during a calendar year. PARTICIPANTS: Seven Primary Care and 10 hospital physicians plus 4 Primary Care nurses. Type of study: A prospective observational study. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Demographic, epidemiological (autochthonous/imported, suspect/probable/confirmed case) and healthcare variables (symptoms, serological profile, viral period) were defined. RESULTS: Of the 34 patients identified, 26 (76.5%) met study criteria. Among them, any arbovirosis was confirmed in 14 (53.8%): 13 dengue plus 1 chikungunya fever. There were no cases of Zika fever. There was a history of travel to endemic areas 23 (88.4%), but not in 3 cases (11.6%) in which the possibility of an indigenous transmission was considered; of them, a case of dengue was confirmed. The estimated incidence of arbovirosis was 0.4 (95% CI: 0.33-0.51) cases × 10,000 hab/year which, when compared to the estimated incidence in the same geographical area during the period 2009-2013 (0.19 cases × 10,000 hab/year; 95% CI: 0.07-0.31), a significant increase was found (P = .044). Patients within viremia period at the time of their first medical visit were 11 (42.3%). CONCLUSIONS: An intensified epidemiological surveillance program defined at Primary Care and hospital levels is able to detect significantly more cases of imported and autochthonous arbovirosis. Possibly we are witnessing an increase in the incidence of imported arbovirosis and, thus, measures aimed at their identification and confirmation should be reinforced


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Epidemiological Monitoring , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Primary Health Care , Prospective Studies , Arbovirus Infections/therapy , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/therapy , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spain/epidemiology
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2237: 179-189, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237417

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in biosensing analytical platforms have brought relevant outcomes for novel diagnostic and therapy-oriented applications. In this context, hydrogels have emerged as appealing matrices to locally confine biomolecules onto sensing surfaces under solution mimetic conditions, preserving their structural integrity and function. Here, we describe the application of a self-assembling peptide hydrogel as a suitable matrix for 3D microarray bioassays. The hydrogel is printable and self-adhesive and allows for fast analyte diffusion. As a showcase example, we describe its application in a diagnostic immunoassay for the detection of arbovirus infection.


Subject(s)
Bioprinting/methods , Hydrogels/chemistry , Immunologic Tests/methods , Protein Array Analysis/methods , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Peptides/chemistry
4.
Clin Chem ; 66(4): 537-548, 2020 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232463

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tick-borne diseases are an important cause of human morbidity and mortality in the United States. The past several decades have witnessed an increase in both the number of recognized tick-borne pathogens and the number of tick-borne disease cases, whereas tick surveys have revealed substantial geographic expansions of tick populations throughout the country. Multiple laboratory testing options exist for diagnosis of tick-borne diseases, including serology, microscopy, and molecular-based methods. The preferred approach varies by the specific disease, locally available test options, and the stage of illness at patient presentation. Accurate and timely detection of tick-borne illness is of utmost importance, as prompt treatment is strongly linked to better outcomes. CONTENT: This review covers the clinical manifestations and preferred diagnostic approaches for important bacterial, viral, and parasitic tick-borne diseases in the United States, including Lyme disease, tick-borne relapsing fever, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, spotted fever rickettsioses, and babesiosis. Infection with emerging pathogens such as Borrelia miyamotoi, Powassan virus, Heartland virus, Colorado tick fever virus, and Bourbon virus are also covered. SUMMARY: Our understanding of tick-borne diseases in the United States continues to improve with the detection of novel pathogens and development of new diagnostic modalities. While conventional diagnostic methods, including serology and microscopy, will play an ongoing role in the diagnosis of tick-borne diseases, implementation of advanced molecular diagnostics will further broaden our understanding of these diseases by facilitating detection of emerging pathogens and providing more accurate and timely diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Tick-Borne Diseases/diagnosis , Tick-Borne Diseases/etiology , Anaplasmosis/diagnosis , Anaplasmosis/etiology , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/etiology , Ehrlichiosis/diagnosis , Ehrlichiosis/etiology , Humans , Lyme Disease/diagnosis , Lyme Disease/etiology , Ticks , Tularemia/diagnosis , Tularemia/etiology , United States
5.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; abr. 21, 2020. 8 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096871

ABSTRACT

Los brotes de arbovirosis transmitidas por el Aedes aegypti regularmente sobrecargan los sistemas de salud, y la situación puede tornarse más grave en el 2020, con un escenario epidemiológico complejo de transmisión simultánea con la COVID-19. La detección temprana y la rápida atención médica a los pacientes con dengue grave u otras arbovirosis ha ayudado a reducir drásticamente la letalidad por estas enfermedades. Sin embargo, la realidad de la posible cocirculacion de dengue y COVID-19, en las Américas y en el mundo, impone nuevos desafíos para el tratamiento de casos que requieren atención inmediata. Asimismo, se desconoce el impacto en la salud humana de la coinfección de cualquiera de los virus DENV y del COVID-19. Debido a estos desafíos, es fundamental y prioritario que se realicen todos los esfuerzos necesarios para proteger a las poblaciones en riesgo e intentar reducir la cocirculación epidémica de ambos virus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/prevention & control , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus
6.
Brasília; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; abr. 22, 2020. 8 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095983

ABSTRACT

Os surtos de arboviroses transmitidos pelo Aedes aegypti sobrecarregam regularmente os sistemas de saúde, e a situação pode se tornar mais grave em 2020, com um cenário epidemiológico complexo de transmissão simultânea com o COVID-19. A detecção precoce e a atenção médica oportuna a pacientes com dengue grave ou outras arboviroses são fundamentais para reduzir a letalidade por essas doenças.


Los brotes de arbovirosis transmitidas por el Aedes aegypti regularmente sobrecargan los sistemas de salud, y la situación puede tornarse más grave en el 2020, con un escenario epidemiológico complejo de transmisión simultánea con la COVID-19. La detección temprana y la rápida atención médica a los pacientes con dengue grave u otras arbovirosis ha ayudado a reducir drásticamente la letalidad por estas enfermedades. Sin embargo, la realidad de la posible cocirculacion de dengue y COVID-19, en las Américas y en el mundo, impone nuevos desafíos para el tratamiento de casos que requieren atención inmediata. Asimismo, se desconoce el impacto en la salud humana de la coinfección de cualquiera de los virus DENV y del COVID-19. Debido a estos desafíos, es fundamental y prioritario que se realicen todos los esfuerzos necesarios para proteger a las poblaciones en riesgo e intentar reducir la cocirculación epidémica de ambos virus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/prevention & control , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus
7.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227058, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910225

ABSTRACT

Nanotrap® (NT) particles are hydrogel microspheres developed for target analyte separation and discovery applications. NT particles consist of cross-linked N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) copolymers that are functionalized with a variety of chemical affinity baits to enable broad-spectrum collection and retention of target proteins, nucleic acids, and pathogens. NT particles have been previously shown to capture and enrich arboviruses including Rift Valley fever and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses. Yet, there is still a need to enhance the detection ability for other re-emerging viruses such as Zika (ZIKV), chikungunya (CHIKV), and dengue (DENV) viruses. In this study, we exploited NT particles with different affinity baits, including cibacron blue, acrylic acid, and reactive red 120, to evaluate their capturing and enrichment capability for ZIKV, DENV and CHIKV in human fluids. Our results demonstrate that CN1030, a NT particle conjugated with reactive red 120, can recover between 8-16-fold greater genomic copies of ZIKV, CHIKV and DENV in virus spiked urine samples via RT-qPCR, superior to the other chemical baits. Also, we observed that CN1030 simultaneously enriched ZIKV, CHIKV and DENV in co-infection-based settings and could stabilize ZIKV, but not CHIKV infectivity in saliva spiked samples. CN1030 enriched viral detection at various viral concentrations, with significant enhancement observed at viral titers as low as 100 PFU/mL for ZIKV and 10 PFU/mL for CHIKV. The detection of ZIKV was further enhanced with NT particles by processing of larger volume urine samples. Furthermore, we developed a magnetic NT particle, CN3080, based on the same backbone of CN1030, and demonstrated that CN3080 could also capture and enrich ZIKV and CHIKV in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, in silico docking predictions support that the affinity between reactive red 120 and ZIKV or CHIKV envelope proteins appeared to be greater than acrylic acid. Overall, our data show that NT particles along with reactive red 120 can be utilized as a pre-processing technology for enhancement of detecting febrile-illness causing viruses.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/urine , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/virology , Chikungunya virus/genetics , Chikungunya virus/pathogenicity , Coloring Agents/chemistry , Dengue Virus/genetics , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Humans , Hydrogels/chemistry , Nanoparticles/metabolism , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Protein Binding , Saliva/virology , Urine/virology , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Zika Virus/genetics , Zika Virus/pathogenicity
8.
Talanta ; 208: 120338, 2020 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816752

ABSTRACT

Arboviruses have been emerging as a significant global health problem due to the recurrent epidemics. Arboviruses require the development of new diagnostic devices due to the nonspecific clinical manifestations. Herein, we report a biosensor based on cysteine (Cys), zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONp), and Concanavalin A (ConA) lectin to differentiate between arboviruses infections. ConA is capable of interacting with the saccharide components of the viral capsid. In this study, we evaluated the reproducibility, sensitivity, and specificity of the sensor for the virus of Dengue type 2 (DENV2), Zika (ZIKV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), and Yellow fever (YFV). Atomic force microscopy measurements confirmed the electrode surface modification and revealed a heterogeneous topography during the biorecognition process. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to characterize the biosensor. The blockage of the oxidation-reduction process is related to the formation of Cys-ZnONp-ConA system on the electroactive area and its subsequent interaction with viral glycoproteins. The sensor exhibited a linear response to different concentrations of the studied arboviruses. Our study demonstrates that ConA lectin recognizes the structural glycoproteins of the DENV2, ZIKV, CHIKV, and YFV. DENV2 is the most structurally similar to ZIKV. Our results have shown that the impedimetric response correlates with the structural glycoproteins, as follow: DENV2 (18.6 kΩ) > ZIKV (14.6 kΩ) > CHIKV (6.86 kΩ) > YFV (5.98 kΩ). The homologous structural regions contribute to ConA-arboviruses recognition. Our results demonstrate the use of the proposed system for the development of biosensors for arboviruses infections.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arboviruses/metabolism , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Concanavalin A/chemistry , Electrochemistry/methods , Electrodes , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Arbovirus Infections/blood , Arbovirus Infections/virology , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Chikungunya Fever/blood , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/virology , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Chikungunya virus/metabolism , Cysteine/chemistry , Dengue/blood , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Dengue Virus/metabolism , Diagnosis, Differential , Glucose/analysis , Humans , Mannose/analysis , Yellow Fever/blood , Yellow Fever/diagnosis , Yellow Fever/virology , Yellow fever virus/isolation & purification , Yellow fever virus/metabolism , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Zika Virus/metabolism , Zika Virus Infection/blood , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/virology , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
10.
Semin Neurol ; 39(4): 419-427, 2019 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533182

ABSTRACT

There are many arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) capable of neuroinvasion, with West Nile virus being one of the most well known. In this review, we highlight five rarer emerging or reemerging arboviruses capable of neuroinvasion: Cache Valley, eastern equine encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, and Usutu viruses. Cache Valley and Jamestown Canyon viruses likely circulate throughout most of North America, while eastern equine encephalitis and Powassan viruses typically circulate in the eastern half. Usutu virus is not currently circulating in North America, but has the potential to be introduced in the future given similar climate, vectors, and host species to Europe (where it has been circulating). Health care providers should contact their state or local health departments with any questions regarding arboviral disease surveillance, diagnosis, treatment, or prevention. To prevent neuroinvasive arboviral diseases, use of insect repellent and other mosquito and tick bite prevention strategies are key.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Bunyaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Encephalitis, California/epidemiology , Encephalitis, Tick-Borne/epidemiology , Encephalomyelitis, Eastern Equine/epidemiology , Flavivirus Infections/epidemiology , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/therapy , Bunyamwera virus/isolation & purification , Bunyaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Bunyaviridae Infections/therapy , Encephalitis Virus, California/isolation & purification , Encephalitis, California/diagnosis , Encephalitis, California/therapy , Encephalitis, Tick-Borne/diagnosis , Encephalitis, Tick-Borne/therapy , Encephalomyelitis, Eastern Equine/diagnosis , Encephalomyelitis, Eastern Equine/therapy , Flavivirus/isolation & purification , Flavivirus Infections/diagnosis , Flavivirus Infections/therapy , Humans
11.
Int J Biostat ; 15(2)2019 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461403

ABSTRACT

In tropical regions, populations continue to suffer morbidity and mortality from malaria and arboviral diseases. In Kedougou (Senegal), these illnesses are all endemic due to the climate and its geographical position. The co-circulation of malaria parasites and arboviruses can explain the observation of coinfected cases. Indeed there is strong resemblance in symptoms between these diseases making problematic targeted medical care of coinfected cases. This is due to the fact that the origin of illness is not obviously known. Some cases could be immunized against one or the other of the pathogens, immunity typically acquired with factors like age and exposure as usual for endemic area. Thus, coinfection needs to be better diagnosed. Using data collected from patients in Kedougou region, from 2009 to 2013, we adjusted a multinomial logistic model and selected relevant variables in explaining coinfection status. We observed specific sets of variables explaining each of the diseases exclusively and the coinfection. We tested the independence between arboviral and malaria infections and derived coinfection probabilities from the model fitting. In case of a coinfection probability greater than a threshold value to be calibrated on the data, long duration of illness and age are mostly indicative of arboviral disease while high body temperature and presence of nausea or vomiting symptoms during the rainy season are mostly indicative of malaria disease.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Malaria/diagnosis , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arbovirus Infections/immunology , Biostatistics , Coinfection/epidemiology , Computer Simulation , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Logistic Models , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/parasitology , Male , Plasmodium/isolation & purification , Predictive Value of Tests , Senegal/epidemiology
12.
Epidemiol Infect ; 147: e238, 2019 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364567

ABSTRACT

In recent decades, the invasive Aedes albopictus vector has spread across Europe and is responsible for numerous outbreaks of autochthonous arboviral disease. The aim of this study was to identify epidemiological and sociological risk factors related to individual levels of exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. A multidisciplinary survey was conducted with volunteer blood donors living in areas either colonised or not by Aedes albopictus in mainland France. Individual levels of exposure were evaluated by measuring the IgG level specific to Aedes albopictus saliva. The most striking risk factors concerned the localisation and characteristics of the dwelling. Individuals living in areas colonised prior to 2009 or recently colonised (between 2010 and 2012) had higher anti-salivary gland extract IgG levels compared with those who were living in areas not yet colonised by Ae. albopictus. The type of dwelling did not seem to impact the level of exposure to Aedes bites. People living in apartments had a higher anti-salivary gland extract IgG level than those living in individual houses but the difference was not statistically significant. Interestingly, the presence of air conditioning or window nets was associated with a noticeable reduction in bite intensity.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Insect Bites and Stings/epidemiology , Saliva/immunology , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , Disease Vectors , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Mosquito Vectors , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 153(5): 205-212, 2019 09 13.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155384

ABSTRACT

The increase in international travel, the growing presence of arbovirus vectors in our country, and notifications of haemorrhagic fever such as the current outbreak of Ebola in D.R. Congo and the cases of Crimea-Congo haemorrhagic fever in our country have again cast the spotlight on tropical diseases Isolating suspected cases of highly contagious and lethal diseases must be a priority (Haemorrhagic fever, MERS-CoV). Assessing the patient, taking a careful medical history based on epidemiological aspects of the area of origin, activities they have carried out, their length of stay in the area and the onset of symptoms, will eventually help us, if not to make a definitive diagnosis, at least to exclude diseases that pose a threat to these patients. Malaria should be ruled out because of its frequency, without forgetting other common causes of fever familiar to emergency doctors.


Subject(s)
Fever/epidemiology , Travel-Related Illness , Tropical Medicine , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arbovirus Infections/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Vectors , Endemic Diseases , Environmental Exposure , Fever/etiology , Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral/transmission , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/epidemiology , Medical History Taking , Rickettsia Infections/diagnosis , Rickettsia Infections/epidemiology , Risk-Taking , Schistosomiasis/diagnosis , Schistosomiasis/epidemiology , Typhoid Fever/diagnosis , Typhoid Fever/epidemiology
14.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(5): e00023918, 2019 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141024

ABSTRACT

A comprehensive cohort study including an entomological surveillance component can contribute to our knowledge of clinical aspects and transmission patterns of arbovirosis. This article describes the implementation of a populational-based birth cohort study that included an entomological surveillance component, and its associated challenges in a low-income community of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The participants were recruited in two periods: from 2012 to 2014, and from 2015 to 2017. The children had scheduled pediatric consultations and in case of fever. Epidemiological, clinical data and biological samples were collected at pediatric visits. Active febrile surveillance was performed by telephone calls, social networking, message apps, and household visits. A total of 387 newborns and 332 new children were included during the first and second recruitment periods, respectively. By July 2017, there were 451 children on follow-up. During the study, 2,759 pediatric visits were performed: 1,783 asymptomatic and 976 febrile/rash consultations. The number of febrile or rash consultations increased 3.5-fold after the use of media tools for surveillance. No temporal pattern, seasonality or peak of febrile cases was observed during the study period. A total of 10,105 adult mosquitoes (including 3,523 Aedes spp. and 6,582 Culex quinquefasciatus) and 46,047 Aedes eggs were collected from households, schools, and key sites. Although challenging, this structured sentinel populational-based birth cohort is relevant to the knowledge of risks and awareness of emerging pathogens.


Subject(s)
Aedes/classification , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Mosquito Vectors/classification , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/transmission , Brazil/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Entomology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Poverty Areas , Urban Population
15.
J Clin Virol ; 116: 49-57, 2019 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103802

ABSTRACT

Dengue, Zika, Chikungunya and yellow fever viruses are arboviruses transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. These viruses exhibit marked neurotropism but have rarely been studied. Here, we conduct an integrative review of the neurological manifestations caused by these arboviruses in the pediatric population. Data on patients under 18 years of age were extracted from literature databases. The most frequently reported neurological manifestations were encephalitis, meningitis, seizures, hypotonia, paresis, and behavioral changes. This review highlights the importance of accurately diagnosing these arboviral infections in children and adolescents with neurological manifestations.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/pathology , Arbovirus Infections/physiopathology , Arboviruses/pathogenicity , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Adolescent , Americas/epidemiology , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/virology , Arboviruses/classification , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/virology
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(3): e0007183, 2019 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870415

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Distinguishing arboviral infections from bacterial causes of febrile illness is of great importance for clinical management. The Infection Manager System (IMS) is a novel diagnostic algorithm equipped on a Sysmex hematology analyzer that evaluates the host response using novel techniques that quantify cellular activation and cell membrane composition. The aim of this study was to train and validate the IMS to differentiate between arboviral and common bacterial infections in Southeast Asia and compare its performance against C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 600 adult Indonesian patients with acute febrile illness were enrolled in a prospective cohort study and analyzed using a structured diagnostic protocol. The IMS was first trained on the first 200 patients and subsequently validated using the complete cohort. A definite infectious etiology could be determined in 190 of 463 evaluable patients (41%), including 89 arboviral infections (81 dengue and 8 chikungunya), 94 bacterial infections (26 murine typhus, 16 salmonellosis, 6 leptospirosis and 46 cosmopolitan bacterial infections), 3 concomitant arboviral-bacterial infections, and 4 malaria infections. The IMS detected inflammation in all but two participants. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the IMS for arboviral infections were 69.7%, 97.9%, 96.9%, and 77.3%, respectively, and for bacterial infections 77.7%, 93.3%, 92.4%, and 79.8%. Inflammation remained unclassified in 19.1% and 22.5% of patients with a proven bacterial or arboviral infection. When cases of unclassified inflammation were grouped in the bacterial etiology group, the NPV for bacterial infection was 95.5%. IMS performed comparable to CRP and outperformed PCT in this cohort. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The IMS is an automated, easy to use, novel diagnostic tool that allows rapid differentiation between common causes of febrile illness in Southeast Asia.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Automation, Laboratory/methods , Blood Chemical Analysis/methods , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Fever of Unknown Origin/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Indonesia , Male , Mice , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Procalcitonin/analysis , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
17.
Braz J Microbiol ; 50(1): 287-296, 2019 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30637652

ABSTRACT

Equine encephalosis (EE) is an acute, arthropod-borne, noncontagious, febrile disease of equids. The clinical signs of EE are similar to milder forms of African horse sickness (AHS) and the two diseases can be easily confused. The Equine encephalosis virus (EEV) is a distinct virus species within the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae, with ten linear segments of dsRNA genome. Seven distinct serotypes of EEV have been recognised on the basis of sequence analyses of Seg-2. The need for differential diagnosis of similar forms of EE and AHS warranted the development of molecular diagnostic methods for specific detection and identification of EEV. We report the development of quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay for detection of any member of the EEV species targeting the highly conserved EEV Seg-9. Similar serotype-specific qRT-PCR assays were designed for each of the seven EEV serotypes targeting genome Seg-2, encoding the serotype determining VP2 protein. These assays were evaluated using different EEV serotypes and other closely related orbiviruses. They were shown to be EEV virus species-specific, or EEV type-specific capable of detecting 1 to 13 copies of viral RNA in clinical samples. The assays failed to detect RNA from closely related orbiviruses, including AHSV and Peruvian horse sickness virus (PHSV) isolates.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/veterinary , Horse Diseases/virology , Orbivirus/isolation & purification , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/virology , Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horses , Orbivirus/classification , Orbivirus/genetics , Phylogeny
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 68(6): 919-926, 2019 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Beginning in December 2013, an epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection spread across the Caribbean and into virtually all countries in the Western hemisphere, with >2.4 million cases reported through the end of 2017. METHODS: We monitored a cohort of school children in rural Haiti from May 2014, through February 2015, for occurrence of acute undifferentiated febrile illness, with clinical and laboratory data available for 252 illness episodes. RESULTS: Our findings document passage of the major CHIKV epidemic between May and July 2014, with 82 laboratory-confirmed cases. Subsequent peaks of febrile illness were found to incorporate smaller outbreaks of dengue virus serotypes 1 and 4 and Zika virus, with identification of additional infections with Mayaro virus, enterovirus D68, and coronavirus NL63. CHIKV and dengue virus serotype 1 infections were more common in older children, with a complaint of arthralgia serving as a significant predictor for infection with CHIKV (odds ratio, 16.2; 95% confidence interval, 8.0-34.4; positive predictive value, 66%; negative predictive value, 80%). CONCLUSIONS: Viral/arboviral infections were characterized by a pattern of recurrent outbreaks and case clusters, with the CHIKV epidemic representing just one of several arboviral agents moving through the population. Although clinical presentations of these agents are similar, arthralgias are highly suggestive of CHIKV infection.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Chikungunya virus , Coinfection/epidemiology , Adolescent , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/history , Arbovirus Infections/virology , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/history , Chikungunya Fever/virology , Chikungunya virus/classification , Chikungunya virus/genetics , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/history , Coinfection/virology , Dengue Virus/classification , Dengue Virus/genetics , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Geography , Haiti/epidemiology , History, 21st Century , Humans , Male , Public Health Surveillance , Schools , Seasons , Symptom Assessment , Young Adult , Zika Virus/classification , Zika Virus/genetics
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 100(2): 470-475, 2019 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526735

ABSTRACT

Malaria, arbovirus infection and travelers' diarrhea are among the most common etiologies of fever after a stay in the tropics. Because the initial symptoms of these diseases often overlap, the differential diagnostic remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to establish the effectiveness of platelet and leukocyte counts in the differential diagnosis of fever in the returning traveler. Between 2013 and 2016, patients with a clinical suspicion of malaria, who had thick blood smears performed were retrospectively included. The microbiological etiology of each episode was established based on molecular detection in the case of arbovirus infection, the detection of pathogens in stool samples for diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms and the thick and thin blood smear results for malaria. A total of 1,218 episodes were included. Malaria, arbovirus infection, and diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms caused 102 (8.4%), 68 (5.6%), and 72 (5.9%) episodes, respectively. The median platelet counts in malaria episodes were 89 × 109/L and thrombocytopenia (< 150,000 × 109 platelets/L) yielded a 98% negative predictive value to predict malaria. The median leukocyte counts in arbovirus infection episodes were 3.19 × 109/L and leucopenia (< 4 × 109 leukocytes/L) yielded a 97.9% negative predictive value to predict arbovirus infections. Platelet and leukocyte counts were not significantly altered in episodes caused by diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms. Initial platelet and leukocyte counts might be useful for the clinical differential diagnosis of fever in the returning traveler. Although these results are insufficient to establish a diagnosis, they should be considered in the initial clinical assessment.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Blood Platelets/pathology , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Fever/diagnosis , Leukocytes/pathology , Malaria/diagnosis , Adult , Arbovirus Infections/blood , Arbovirus Infections/pathology , Blood Platelets/parasitology , Blood Platelets/virology , Diagnosis, Differential , Diarrhea/blood , Diarrhea/pathology , Feces/parasitology , Feces/virology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/pathology , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Leukocytes/parasitology , Leukocytes/virology , Malaria/blood , Malaria/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Spain , Travel , Tropical Climate
20.
Pediatr Transplant ; 23(1): e13303, 2019 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30338634

ABSTRACT

Recent years have brought a rise in newly emergent viral infections, primarily in the form of previously known arthropod-transmitted viruses that have increased significantly in both incidence and geographical range. Of particular note are DENV, CHIKV, and ZIKV, which are transmitted mostly by Aedes species of mosquitoes that exhibit a wide and increasing global distribution. Being important pathogens for the general population, these viruses have the potential to be devastating in the international transplant community, with graft rejection and death as possible outcomes of infection. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge for these viruses as well as repercussions of infection in the solid organ and HSCT population, with a focus, when possible, on pediatric patients.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Organ Transplantation , Postoperative Complications , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arbovirus Infections/etiology , Arbovirus Infections/therapy , Child , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/etiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/therapy , Global Health , Humans , Pediatrics , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/therapy , Risk Factors
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