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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 265, 2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasing arbovirus infections have been a global burden in recent decades. Many countries have experienced the periodic emergence of arbovirus diseases. However, information on the prevalence of arboviruses is largely unknown or infrequently updated because of the lack of surveillance studies, especially in Africa. METHODS: A surveillance study was conducted in Gabon, Central Africa, on arboviruses, which are a major public health concern in Africa, including: West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), yellow fever virus (YFV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Serological and molecular assays were performed to investigate past infection history and the current status of infection, using serum samples collected from healthy individuals and febrile patients, respectively. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence during 2014-2017 was estimated to be 25.3% for WNV, 20.4% for DENV, 40.3% for ZIKV, 60.7% for YFV, 61.2% for CHIKV, and 14.3% for RVFV. No significant differences were found in the seroprevalence of any of the viruses between the male and female populations. However, a focus on the mean age in each arbovirus-seropositive individual showed a significantly younger age in WNV- and DENV-seropositive individuals than in CHIKV-seropositive individuals, indicating that WNV and DENV caused a relatively recent epidemic in the region, whereas CHIKV had actively circulated before. Of note, this indication was supported by the detection of both WNV and DENV genomes in serum samples collected from febrile patients after 2016. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the recent re-emergence of WNV and DENV in Gabon as well as the latest seroprevalence state of the major arboviruses, which indicated the different potential risks of virus infections and virus-specific circulation patterns. This information will be helpful for public health organizations and will enable a rapid response towards these arbovirus infections, thereby preventing future spread in the country.


Subject(s)
Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Dengue/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Adolescent , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arboviruses/classification , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Dengue/diagnosis , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Gabon/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Public Health , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
2.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 53(1): 73-80, ene. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-200092

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Valorar los resultados obtenidos por una red de vigilancia epidemiológica y asistencial de arbovirosis compuesta por médicos y profesionales de enfermería de hospital y atención primaria (AP) formados en su identificación, confirmación diagnóstica y manejo clínico. Emplazamiento: Zona Sanitaria Metropolitana Norte de Barcelona (1.400.000 habitantes; Cataluña, España) durante un año natural. PARTICIPANTES: Diecisiete médicos (7 de AP y 10 hospitalarios) más 4 enfermeros/as de AP. Tipo de estudio: Estudio observacional prospectivo. Mediciones principales: Se definieron variables demográficas, epidemiológicas (caso autóctono/importado, sospechoso/probable/confirmado) y asistenciales (síntomas, perfil serológico, periodo virémico). RESULTADOS: De los 34 pacientes identificados cumplían criterios de estudio 26 (76,5%) casos; de ellos, se confirmó alguna arbovirosis en 14 (53,8%): 13 fiebres dengues más 1 chikungunya. No se registraron casos de fiebre de zika. Existían antecedentes de viaje a zonas endémicas (23; 88,4%), pero no en 3 casos (11,6%), en los que se consideró la posibilidad de una transmisión autóctona; de ellos, se confirmó un caso de dengue. La incidencia estimada de arbovirosis fue de 0,4 (IC 95%: 0,33-0,51) casos × 10.000 hab./año, que, comparada con la incidencia estimada en la misma área geográfica durante el periodo 2009-2013 (0,19 casos ×10.000hab./año; IC 95%: 0,07-0,31), mostró un incremento significativo (p = 0,044). Los pacientes en periodo de viremia al momento de la primera visita médica fueron 11 (42,3%). CONCLUSIONES: Un programa de vigilancia epidemiológica intensificada definido a nivel de AP y hospitalario es capaz de detectar significativamente más casos de arbovirosis importadas y transmitidas autóctonamente. Posiblemente asistimos a un aumento en la incidencia de arbovirosis importadas, por lo que las medidas encaminadas a su identificación y confirmación deben reforzarse


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results obtained by a surveillance network on arbovirosis composed by doctors and nurses located at hospitals and Primary Care trained in their identification, diagnostic confirmation and clinical management. LOCATION: North Metropolitan Area of Barcelona (1,400,000 inhabitants; Catalonia; Spain) during a calendar year. PARTICIPANTS: Seven Primary Care and 10 hospital physicians plus 4 Primary Care nurses. Type of study: A prospective observational study. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Demographic, epidemiological (autochthonous/imported, suspect/probable/confirmed case) and healthcare variables (symptoms, serological profile, viral period) were defined. RESULTS: Of the 34 patients identified, 26 (76.5%) met study criteria. Among them, any arbovirosis was confirmed in 14 (53.8%): 13 dengue plus 1 chikungunya fever. There were no cases of Zika fever. There was a history of travel to endemic areas 23 (88.4%), but not in 3 cases (11.6%) in which the possibility of an indigenous transmission was considered; of them, a case of dengue was confirmed. The estimated incidence of arbovirosis was 0.4 (95% CI: 0.33-0.51) cases × 10,000 hab/year which, when compared to the estimated incidence in the same geographical area during the period 2009-2013 (0.19 cases × 10,000 hab/year; 95% CI: 0.07-0.31), a significant increase was found (P = .044). Patients within viremia period at the time of their first medical visit were 11 (42.3%). CONCLUSIONS: An intensified epidemiological surveillance program defined at Primary Care and hospital levels is able to detect significantly more cases of imported and autochthonous arbovirosis. Possibly we are witnessing an increase in the incidence of imported arbovirosis and, thus, measures aimed at their identification and confirmation should be reinforced


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Epidemiological Monitoring , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Primary Health Care , Prospective Studies , Arbovirus Infections/therapy , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/therapy , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spain/epidemiology
3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244028, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320896

ABSTRACT

Many applications have been developed for electronic data collection. However, offline field navigation tools incorporating secure electronic data capture and field visit tracking are currently scarce. We created an R-Shiny application, HTrack (Household Tracking), for use on encrypted Android devices in the field. The application was implemented in the Communities Organized to Prevent Arboviruses (COPA) project, a study beginning in 2018 to better understand arboviral disease incidence in 38 communities in Puerto Rico. The application was used to navigate to randomly selected structures and capture visit outcomes after conducting multiple visits for participant recruitment. It also served as a bridge to an alternate software, Epi Info, to collect participant-level questionnaire data. This application successfully captured each visit outcome and improved the logistics of field level activities for the COPA project, eliminating the use of paper maps for navigation. We show the development of HTrack and comment on the limitations and strengths of this application and further improvements.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Community Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiological Monitoring , Geographic Mapping , Mobile Applications , Humans
4.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375455

ABSTRACT

The emergence of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) as linked to land-use changes, especially the growing agricultural intensification and expansion efforts in rural parts of Africa, is of growing health concern. This places an additional burden on health systems as drugs, vaccines, and effective vector-control measures against arboviruses and their vectors remain lacking. An integrated One Health approach holds potential in the control and prevention of arboviruses. Land-use changes favour invasion by invasive alien plants (IAPs) and investigating their impact on mosquito populations may offer a new dimension to our understanding of arbovirus emergence. Of prime importance to understand is how IAPs influence mosquito life-history traits and how this may affect transmission of arboviruses to mammalian hosts, questions that we are exploring in this review. Potential effects of IAPs may be significant, including supporting the proliferation of immature and adult stages of mosquito vectors, providing additional nutrition and suitable microhabitats, and a possible interaction between ingested secondary plant metabolites and arboviruses. We conclude that aspects of vector biology are differentially affected by individual IAPs and that while some plants may have the potential to indirectly increase the risk of transmission of certain arboviruses by their direct interaction with the vectors, the reverse holds for other IAPs. In addition, we highlight priority research areas to improve our understanding of the potential health impacts of IAPs.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arbovirus Infections/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Culicidae/virology , Introduced Species , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Plants , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Ecosystem , Humans
5.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(4): e671, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156451

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las enfermedades producidas por arbovirus son un problema grave a nivel mundial. Objetivo: Caracterizar los pacientes estudiados por sospecha de arbovirosis en una institución de salud. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en el policlínico Edor de los Reyes Martínez Áreas del municipio Jiguaní, provincia Granma, en el periodo comprendido entre el 1 de enero y el 31 de diciembre de 2019. Se trabajó con una muestra de 2947 personas y se estudiaron las siguientes variables: edad, sexo, consejos populares, forma de identificación de signos/síntomas, diagnóstico inicial y positividad a dengue. Resultados: El 40,07 por ciento de los casos estudiados pertenece al consejo popular Jiguaní Norte. Fueron pacientes femeninas 1590 (53,95 por ciento). El rango de edad predominante fue 41-60 años (n = 1222; 41,47 por ciento). En 1908 (64,74 por ciento) pacientes la identificación de signos y síntomas sugerentes de arbovirosis fue mediante las pesquisas. El 98,88 por ciento de los pacientes (n = 2914) fue diagnosticado inicialmente con síndrome febril inespecífico. La única arbovirosis identificada fue el dengue, el que se encontró en 637 pacientes. Octubre fue el mes con mayor número de pacientes estudiados (n = 1063; 36,07 por ciento). Conclusiones: La mayoría de los casos pertenecía al sexo femenino y a la zona urbanizada del municipio. El consejo popular urbano Jiguaní Norte fue el que más casos positivos a dengue aportó(AU)


Introduction: Arbovirus infections are a serious global health problem. Objective: Characterize the patients studied for suspected arbovirus infection at a health institution. Methods: A cross-sectional observational descriptive study was conducted at Edor de los Reyes Martínez Arias polyclinic in the municipality of Jiguaní, province of Granma, from 1 January to 31 December 2019. The study sample was 2947 people, and the variables examined were age, sex, people's council, form of sign / symptom identification, initial diagnosis and positivity for dengue. Results: Of the cases studied, 40.07 percent were from the people's council of Jiguaní Norte. 1590 patients were female (53.95 percent). The prevailing age group was 41-60 years (n = 1222; 41.47 percent). In 1908 patients (64.74 percent) signs and symptoms suggesting arbovirus infection were identified through screening. 98.88 percent of the patients (n = 2914) were initially diagnosed with unspecific febrile syndrome. The only arbovirus infection identified was dengue, which was detected in 637 patients. October was the month when the highest number of patients were studied (n = 1063; 36.07 percent). Conclusions: Most cases were female and from urbanized areas in the municipality. Jiguaní Norte urban people's council contributed the most dengue positive cases(AU)


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/prevention & control , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
6.
Med. oral patol. oral cir. bucal (Internet) ; 25(6): e810-e817, nov. 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-197191

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although there are no population-based studies that support an association, there are reports in the literature of mucocutaneous, vesiculobullous and ulcerated lesions in the oral mucosa in cases of arbovirus infection. The aim of this study is to analyze the prevalence of ulcerative stomatitis in individuals affected by arboviruses in a population of the municipality of Arcoverde, Pernambuco, Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 1,003 people living in an area assigned to a Primary Health Care Unit were interviewed. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection, with questions about sociodemographic variables, residence conditions, general health information, as well as information about the general signs and symptoms of arboviruses and specifically about oral lesions. RESULTS: Of the 1,003 individuals interviewed, 815 (81.25%) were infected by one or more arboviruses. Of these, 147 (18%) reported ulcerated oral lesions during arbovirus infections. The association between arbovirus infections and the presence of ulcerated oral lesions was statistically significant (p = 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: In these cases, the ulcerated lesions on the oral mucosa appear to be associated with arbovirus infection, especially Chikungunya, although the pathophysiological mechanisms are not defined, and the studies are not sufficient to confirm this association


No disponible


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Gingivitis, Necrotizing Ulcerative/epidemiology , Gingivitis, Necrotizing Ulcerative/virology , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Socioeconomic Factors , Age and Sex Distribution , Brazil/epidemiology
7.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal ; 25(6): e810-e817, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although there are no population-based studies that support an association, there are reports in the literature of mucocutaneous, vesiculobullous and ulcerated lesions in the oral mucosa in cases of arbovirus infection. The aim of this study is to analyze the prevalence of ulcerative stomatitis in individuals affected by arboviruses in a population of the municipality of Arcoverde, Pernambuco, Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 1,003 people living in an area assigned to a Primary Health Care Unit were interviewed. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection, with questions about sociodemographic variables, residence conditions, general health information, as well as information about the general signs and symptoms of arboviruses and specifically about oral lesions. RESULTS: Of the 1,003 individuals interviewed, 815 (81.25%) were infected by one or more arboviruses. Of these, 147 (18%) reported ulcerated oral lesions during arbovirus infections. The association between arbovirus infections and the presence of ulcerated oral lesions was statistically significant (p = 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: In these cases, the ulcerated lesions on the oral mucosa appear to be associated with arbovirus infection, especially Chikungunya, although the pathophysiological mechanisms are not defined, and the studies are not sufficient to confirm this association.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections , Arboviruses , Chikungunya Fever , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008338, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790670

ABSTRACT

Pathogens originating from wildlife (zoonoses) pose a significant public health burden, comprising the majority of emerging infectious diseases. Efforts to control and prevent zoonotic disease have traditionally focused on animal-to-human transmission, or "spillover." However, in the modern era, increasing international mobility and commerce facilitate the spread of infected humans, nonhuman animals (hereafter animals), and their products worldwide, thereby increasing the risk that zoonoses will be introduced to new geographic areas. Imported zoonoses can potentially "spill back" to infect local wildlife-a danger magnified by urbanization and other anthropogenic pressures that increase contacts between human and wildlife populations. In this way, humans can function as vectors, dispersing zoonoses from their ancestral enzootic systems to establish reservoirs elsewhere in novel animal host populations. Once established, these enzootic cycles are largely unassailable by standard control measures and have the potential to feed human epidemics. Understanding when and why translocated zoonoses establish novel enzootic cycles requires disentangling ecologically complex and stochastic interactions between the zoonosis, the human population, and the natural ecosystem. In this Review, we address this challenge by delineating potential ecological mechanisms affecting each stage of enzootic establishment-wildlife exposure, enzootic infection, and persistence-applying existing ecological concepts from epidemiology, invasion biology, and population ecology. We ground our discussion in the neotropics, where four arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of zoonotic origin-yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses-have separately been introduced into the human population. This paper is a step towards developing a framework for predicting and preventing novel enzootic cycles in the face of zoonotic translocations.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arboviruses , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Americas , Animals , Animals, Wild/virology , Arbovirus Infections/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Ecosystem , Humans , Mosquito Vectors , Tropical Climate , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235322, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609784

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The re-emergence of vector borne diseases affecting millions of people in recent years has drawn attention to arboviruses globally. Here, we report on the sero-prevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), dengue virus (DENV), mayaro virus (MAYV) and zika virus (ZIKV) in a swamp community in Zambia. METHODS: We collected blood and saliva samples from residents of Lukanga swamps in 2016 during a mass-cholera vaccination campaign. Over 10,000 residents were vaccinated with two doses of Shanchol™ during this period. The biological samples were collected prior to vaccination (baseline) and at specified time points after vaccination. We tested a total of 214 baseline stored serum samples for IgG antibodies against NS1 of DENV and ZIKV and E2 of CHIKV and MAYV on ELISA. We defined sero-prevalence as the proportion of participants with optical density (OD) values above a defined cut-off value, determined using a finite mixture model. RESULTS: Of the 214 participants, 79 (36.9%; 95% CI 30.5-43.8) were sero-positive for Chikungunya; 23 (10.8%; 95% CI 6.9-15.7) for Zika, 36 (16.8%; 95% CI 12.1-22.5) for Dengue and 42 (19.6%; 95% CI 14.5-25.6) for Mayaro. Older participants were more likely to have Zika virus whilst those involved with fishing activities were at greater risk of contracting Chikungunya virus. Among all the antigens tested, we also found that Chikungunya saliva antibody titres correlated with baseline serum titres (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.222; p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Arbovirus transmission is occurring in Zambia. This requires proper screening tools as well as surveillance data to accurately report on disease burden in Zambia.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arbovirus Infections/virology , Arboviruses/classification , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Adult , Coinfection/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Serogroup , Wetlands , Young Adult , Zambia/epidemiology
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233669, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502226

ABSTRACT

Only few data exist in Cambodia on mosquito diversity and their potential role as vectors. Many arboviruses, such as dengue and Japanese encephalitis, are endemic and mostly affect children in the country. This research sets out to evaluate vector relative abundance and diversity in primary schools in Cambodia in an attempt to explain the apparent burden of dengue fever, severe dengue (DEN), Japanese encephalitis (JE), other arboviral diseases and malaria among children, 15 years and under, attending selected primary schools through vector surveys. Entomological surveys were implemented in primary schools in two provinces of Cambodia to assess the potential risk of exposure of schoolchildren to mosquito vector species. Light traps and BG traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes in 24 schools during the rainy and dry seasons of 2017 and 2018 in Kampong Cham and Tboung Khmum provinces. A total of 61 species were described, including Aedes, Culex and Anopheles species. The relative abundance and biodiversity of mosquito species were dependent on the month and school. Of the 37,725 mosquitoes caught during the study, three species accounted for three-quarters of the relative abundance: Culex vishnui, Anopheles indefinitus and Culex quinquefasciatus. More importantly, nearly 90% of the mosquitoes caught in the schools were identified as potential vectors of pathogens including Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and malaria parasites. Our results showed that schools in Cambodia represent a risk for vector-borne disease transmission and highlight the importance of implementing vector control in schools in Cambodia to decrease the risk of transmission.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/transmission , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Mosquito Vectors , Adolescent , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arboviruses/classification , Biodiversity , Cambodia/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/transmission , Dengue/virology , Encephalitis, Japanese/epidemiology , Encephalitis, Japanese/transmission , Encephalitis, Japanese/virology , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/transmission , Malaria/virology
11.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190437, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428083

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are the most important arbovirus vectors in the world. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to investigate and compare the infestation pattern of these species in a neighbourhood of Recife, Brazil, endemic for arboviruses in 2005 (T1) and 2013 (T2). METHODS Infestation, distribution and relative abundance of these sympatric species were recorded by egg collection using a network of 59 sentinel ovitraps (s-ovt) at fixed sampling stations for 12 months in T1 and T2. FINDINGS A permanent occupation pattern was detected which was characterised by the presence of egg-laying females of one or both species with a high ovitrap positivity index (94.3 to 100%) throughout both years analysed. In terms of abundance, the total of eggs collected was lower (p < 0.005) in T2 (146,153) than in T1 (281,103), although ovitraps still displayed a high index of positivity. The spatial distribution showed the presence of both species in 65.1% of the 148 s-ovt assessed, while a smaller number of traps exclusively contained Ae. aegypti (22%) or Ae. albopictus (13.2%) eggs. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our comparative analysis demonstrated the robustness of the spatial occupation and permanence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations in this endemic urban area.


Subject(s)
Aedes/classification , Mosquito Vectors/classification , Aedes/physiology , Animal Distribution , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arbovirus Infections/transmission , Brazil/epidemiology , Endemic Diseases , Female , Male , Mosquito Vectors/physiology , Oviposition , Population Density , Seasons
12.
Acta Trop ; 209: 105468, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416077

ABSTRACT

Arboviruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes are a growing global concern; however, there remain large gaps in surveillance of both arboviruses and their vectors in West Africa. We reviewed over 50 years of data including outbreak reports, peer-reviewed literature, and prior data compilations describing Zika, dengue, and chikungunya, and their vectors in West Africa. Large outbreaks of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya have recently occurred in the region with over 27,000 cases of Aedes-borne disease documented since 2007. Recent arboviral outbreaks have become more concentrated in urban areas, and Aedes albopictus, recently documented in the region, has emerged as an important vector in several areas. Seroprevalence surveys suggest reported cases are a gross underestimate of the underlying arboviral disease burden. These findings indicate a shifting epidemiology of arboviral disease in West Africa and highlight a need for increased research and implementation of vector and disease control. Rapid urbanization and climate change may further alter disease patterns, underscoring the need for improved diagnostic capacity, and vector and disease surveillance to address this evolving health challenge.


Subject(s)
Aedes/virology , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Africa, Western/epidemiology , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
13.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; abr. 21, 2020. 8 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096871

ABSTRACT

Los brotes de arbovirosis transmitidas por el Aedes aegypti regularmente sobrecargan los sistemas de salud, y la situación puede tornarse más grave en el 2020, con un escenario epidemiológico complejo de transmisión simultánea con la COVID-19. La detección temprana y la rápida atención médica a los pacientes con dengue grave u otras arbovirosis ha ayudado a reducir drásticamente la letalidad por estas enfermedades. Sin embargo, la realidad de la posible cocirculacion de dengue y COVID-19, en las Américas y en el mundo, impone nuevos desafíos para el tratamiento de casos que requieren atención inmediata. Asimismo, se desconoce el impacto en la salud humana de la coinfección de cualquiera de los virus DENV y del COVID-19. Debido a estos desafíos, es fundamental y prioritario que se realicen todos los esfuerzos necesarios para proteger a las poblaciones en riesgo e intentar reducir la cocirculación epidémica de ambos virus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/prevention & control , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus
14.
Brasília; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; abr. 22, 2020. 8 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095983

ABSTRACT

Os surtos de arboviroses transmitidos pelo Aedes aegypti sobrecarregam regularmente os sistemas de saúde, e a situação pode se tornar mais grave em 2020, com um cenário epidemiológico complexo de transmissão simultânea com o COVID-19. A detecção precoce e a atenção médica oportuna a pacientes com dengue grave ou outras arboviroses são fundamentais para reduzir a letalidade por essas doenças.


Los brotes de arbovirosis transmitidas por el Aedes aegypti regularmente sobrecargan los sistemas de salud, y la situación puede tornarse más grave en el 2020, con un escenario epidemiológico complejo de transmisión simultánea con la COVID-19. La detección temprana y la rápida atención médica a los pacientes con dengue grave u otras arbovirosis ha ayudado a reducir drásticamente la letalidad por estas enfermedades. Sin embargo, la realidad de la posible cocirculacion de dengue y COVID-19, en las Américas y en el mundo, impone nuevos desafíos para el tratamiento de casos que requieren atención inmediata. Asimismo, se desconoce el impacto en la salud humana de la coinfección de cualquiera de los virus DENV y del COVID-19. Debido a estos desafíos, es fundamental y prioritario que se realicen todos los esfuerzos necesarios para proteger a las poblaciones en riesgo e intentar reducir la cocirculación epidémica de ambos virus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/prevention & control , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(2): e0007969, 2020 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059026

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dengue, chikungunya, and Zika are arboviruses of major global health concern. Decisions regarding the clinical management of suspected arboviral infection are challenging in resource-limited settings, particularly when deciding on patient hospitalization. The objective of this study was to determine if hospitalization of individuals with suspected arboviral infections could be predicted using subject intake data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two prediction models were developed using data from a surveillance study in Machala, a city in southern coastal Ecuador with a high burden of arboviral infections. Data were obtained from subjects who presented at sentinel medical centers with suspected arboviral infection (November 2013 to September 2017). The first prediction model-called the Severity Index for Suspected Arbovirus (SISA)-used only demographic and symptom data. The second prediction model-called the Severity Index for Suspected Arbovirus with Laboratory (SISAL)-incorporated laboratory data. These models were selected by comparing the prediction ability of seven machine learning algorithms; the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve from the prediction of a test dataset was used to select the final algorithm for each model. After eliminating those with missing data, the SISA dataset had 534 subjects, and the SISAL dataset had 98 subjects. For SISA, the best prediction algorithm was the generalized boosting model, with an AUC of 0.91. For SISAL, the best prediction algorithm was the elastic net with an AUC of 0.94. A sensitivity analysis revealed that SISA and SISAL are not directly comparable to one another. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both SISA and SISAL were able to predict arbovirus hospitalization with a high degree of accuracy in our dataset. These algorithms will need to be tested and validated on new data from future patients. Machine learning is a powerful prediction tool and provides an excellent option for new management tools and clinical assessment of arboviral infection.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/therapy , Arboviruses/physiology , Adolescent , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arbovirus Infections/pathology , Arbovirus Infections/virology , Arboviruses/genetics , Child , Child, Preschool , Ecuador/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Machine Learning , Male , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Acta Trop ; 202: 105257, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682813

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted in Cape Coast, a major tourist destination in Ghana to assess the risk of an outbreak of Aedes-borne arboviruses based on entomological indicators and determine their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. A larval survey was conducted in 414 houses between April and July 2017. Larvae collected were reared to adult for WHO susceptibility bioassay against four pyrethroid insecticides (Deltamethrin 0.05%, Permethrin 0.75%, Cyfluthrin 0.15%, Etofenprox 0.5%) and three different brands of mosquito coil; Heaven® (Dimefluthrin 0.03%), Sasso® (Esbiothrin 0.25%), and Fastkit® (D-allethrin 0.25%) as well as four enzyme-activities and F1534C kdr-mutation. Some physicochemical parameters were also measured in Aedes breeding sites. Three larval indices and water quality index (WQI) were calculated. The estimated larval indices were: House index - 68%, Container index - 44%, and Breteau index - 2.4. The level of resistance of the vector to the different pyrethroid insecticides and mosquito coils varied. F1534C kdr-mutation with an allele frequency of 35% and metabolic detoxifying enzyme activities are suspected to be the cause of resistance. Ae. aegypti breeding sites were found to contain organic and other anthropogenic pollutants. Based on the larval indices estimated, the population density of Ae. aegypti in Cape Coast was found to be sufficient to promote an outbreak of arboviruses. Pyrethroid resistance in the vector population could compromise the effectiveness of pyrethroid-based control strategies as was seen with the reduced efficacy of mosquito coils. With large number of international travellers to the city, there is a need to put in place a regular Aedes surveillance program for early response to any potential outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Aedes/virology , Arbovirus Infections/transmission , Arboviruses/physiology , Insecticide Resistance , Insecticides/pharmacology , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Ghana/epidemiology , Larva/drug effects , Population Dynamics
17.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 28(3): e2018397, 2019.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800868

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to describe the experience and preliminary results of the Arbovirus Death Investigation Committee in Ceará, Brazil, in 2017. METHODS: the Committee investigates and discusses all suspected cases of arbovirus deaths reported by the epidemiological surveillance service. RESULTS: a total of 443 suspected arbovirus deaths were reported, 220 (49.7%) of which were confirmed; of these, 88.2% were from chikungunya and 11.8% from dengue; the median age of chikungunya deaths was higher when compared to dengue (77 versus 56 years) and the time until death was also longer when compared to dengue (38 versus 12 days); median time for case closure was 54.5 days; in 2017, Ceará confirmed 80.4% of Brazilian chikungunya deaths. CONCLUSION: the investigation of deaths showed that CHIK viruses were responsible for the majority of arboviral deaths in the state of Ceará, in 2017.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Dengue/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arbovirus Infections/mortality , Arbovirus Infections/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Dengue/mortality , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Young Adult
18.
Viruses ; 11(11)2019 11 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The intensification of trade and travel is linked to the growing number of imported cases of dengue, chikungunya or Zika viruses into continental Europe and to the expansion of invasive mosquito species such as Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus. Local outbreaks have already occurred in several European countries. Very little information exists on the vector competence of native mosquitoes for arboviruses. As such, the vectorial status of the nine mosquito species largely established in North-Western Europe (Aedes cinereus and Aedes geminus, Aedes cantans, Aedes punctor, Aedes rusticus, Anopheles claviger s.s., Anopheles plumbeus, Coquillettidia richiardii, Culex pipiens s.l., and Culiseta annulata) remains mostly unknown. OBJECTIVES: To review the vector competence of both invasive and native mosquito populations found in North-Western Europe (i.e., France, Belgium, Germany, United Kingdom, Ireland, The Netherlands, Luxembourg and Switzerland) for dengue, chikungunya, Zika, West Nile and Usutu viruses. METHODS: A bibliographical search with research strings addressing mosquito vector competence for considered countries was performed. RESULTS: Out of 6357 results, 119 references were related to the vector competence of mosquitoes in Western Europe. Eight species appear to be competent for at least one virus. CONCLUSIONS: Aedes albopictus is responsible for the current outbreaks. The spread of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus increases the risk of the autochthonous transmission of these viruses. Although native species could contribute to their transmission, more studies are still needed to assess that risk.


Subject(s)
Anopheles/virology , Arbovirus Infections/transmission , Arbovirus Infections/virology , Arboviruses/physiology , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Aedes/virology , Animals , Anopheles/classification , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Biodiversity , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Imported/virology , Culex/virology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Population Dynamics
20.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(10): e1007369, 2019 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600194

ABSTRACT

Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) and Ae. (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) mosquitoes can transmit dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika viruses. Limited surveillance has led to uncertainty regarding the geographic ranges of these vectors globally, and particularly in regions at the present-day margins of habitat suitability such as the contiguous United States. Empirical habitat suitability models based on environmental conditions can augment surveillance gaps to describe the estimated potential species ranges, but model accuracy is unclear. We identified previously published regional and global habitat suitability models for Ae. aegypti (n = 6) and Ae. albopictus (n = 8) for which adequate information was available to reproduce the models for the contiguous U.S. Using a training subset of recently updated county-level surveillance records of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus and records of counties conducting surveillance, we constructed accuracy-weighted, probabilistic ensemble models from these base models. To assess accuracy and uncertainty we compared individual and ensemble model predictions of species presence or absence to both training and testing data. The ensemble models were among the most accurate and also provided calibrated probabilities of presence for each species. The quantitative probabilistic framework enabled identification of areas with high uncertainty and model bias across the U.S. where improved models or additional data could be most beneficial. The results may be of immediate utility for counties considering surveillance and control programs for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Moreover, the assessment framework can drive future efforts to provide validated quantitative estimates to support these programs at local, national, and international scales.


Subject(s)
Aedes/pathogenicity , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Demography/methods , Animals , Consensus , Models, Statistical , Mosquito Vectors/pathogenicity , Uncertainty , United States
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