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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 265, 2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasing arbovirus infections have been a global burden in recent decades. Many countries have experienced the periodic emergence of arbovirus diseases. However, information on the prevalence of arboviruses is largely unknown or infrequently updated because of the lack of surveillance studies, especially in Africa. METHODS: A surveillance study was conducted in Gabon, Central Africa, on arboviruses, which are a major public health concern in Africa, including: West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), yellow fever virus (YFV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Serological and molecular assays were performed to investigate past infection history and the current status of infection, using serum samples collected from healthy individuals and febrile patients, respectively. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence during 2014-2017 was estimated to be 25.3% for WNV, 20.4% for DENV, 40.3% for ZIKV, 60.7% for YFV, 61.2% for CHIKV, and 14.3% for RVFV. No significant differences were found in the seroprevalence of any of the viruses between the male and female populations. However, a focus on the mean age in each arbovirus-seropositive individual showed a significantly younger age in WNV- and DENV-seropositive individuals than in CHIKV-seropositive individuals, indicating that WNV and DENV caused a relatively recent epidemic in the region, whereas CHIKV had actively circulated before. Of note, this indication was supported by the detection of both WNV and DENV genomes in serum samples collected from febrile patients after 2016. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the recent re-emergence of WNV and DENV in Gabon as well as the latest seroprevalence state of the major arboviruses, which indicated the different potential risks of virus infections and virus-specific circulation patterns. This information will be helpful for public health organizations and will enable a rapid response towards these arbovirus infections, thereby preventing future spread in the country.


Subject(s)
Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Dengue/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Adolescent , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arboviruses/classification , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Dengue/diagnosis , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Gabon/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Public Health , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
2.
Public Health ; 192: 21-29, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607517

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal correlation between Wikitrends and conventional surveillance data generated for Chikungunya, Dengue, Zika, and West Nile Virus infection reported by bulletin of Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità in italian, ISS). STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design was used. METHODS: The reported cases of Dengue and Chikungunya were selected from July 2015 to December 2019. For West Nile Virus, the bulletins are issued in the period June-November (6 months) of the years 2015-2019, and for Zika virus, the data reported in the ISS bulletin start from January 2016. From Wikipedia Trends, we extracted the number of monthly views by users from the July 2015 to December 2019 of the pages Chikungunya, Dengue, Zika virus, and West Nile Virus. RESULTS: A correlation was observed between the bulletin of ISS and Wikipedia Wikitrends, the correlation was strong for Chikungunya and West Nile Virus (r = 0.9605; r = 0.9556, respectively), and highly statistically significant with P-values <0.001. The correlation was moderate for Dengue and Zika virus (r = 0.6053; r = 0.5888, respectively), but highly statistically significant with P-values <0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Classical surveillance system should be integrated with the tools of digital epidemiology that have potential role in public health for the dynamic information and provide near real-time indicators of the spread of infectious disease.


Subject(s)
Arboviruses , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Culicidae/virology , Dengue/epidemiology , Internet , West Nile Fever/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Animals , Arboviruses/classification , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Chikungunya virus , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus , Epidemiological Monitoring , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Public Health , West Nile virus , Zika Virus
3.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572847

ABSTRACT

Currently, next generation sequencing (NGS) is the mainly used approach for identification and monitorization of viruses with a potential public health threat in clinical and environmental samples. To facilitate detection in NGS, the sequence-independent, single-primer-amplification (SISPA) is an effective tool for enriching virus sequences. We performed a preliminary assessment of SISPA-nanopore sequencing as a potential approach for screening tick-borne viruses in six specimens with detectable Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and Jingmen tick virus (JMTV) sequences. A comparison of unbiased NGS and SISPA followed by nanopore sequencing was carried out in 4 specimens with single and pooled ticks. The approach was further used for genome sequencing in culture-grown viruses. Overall, total/virus-specific read counts were significantly elevated in cell culture supernatants in comparison to single or pooled ticks. Virus genomes could be successfully characterized by SISPA with identities over 99%. Genome coverage varied according to the segment and total read count. Base calling errors were mainly observed in tick specimens and more frequent in lower viral loads. Culture-grown viruses were phylogenetically-related to previously-reported local viruses. In conclusion, the SISPA + nanopore sequencing was successful in generating data comparable to NGS and will provide an effective tool for broad-range virus detection in ticks.


Subject(s)
Arboviruses/isolation & purification , DNA Primers/genetics , Nanopore Sequencing/methods , Ticks/virology , Animals , Arboviruses/genetics , Flaviviridae/genetics , Flaviviridae/isolation & purification , Genome, Viral/genetics , Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo/genetics , Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo/isolation & purification , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Phylogeny
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235322, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609784

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The re-emergence of vector borne diseases affecting millions of people in recent years has drawn attention to arboviruses globally. Here, we report on the sero-prevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), dengue virus (DENV), mayaro virus (MAYV) and zika virus (ZIKV) in a swamp community in Zambia. METHODS: We collected blood and saliva samples from residents of Lukanga swamps in 2016 during a mass-cholera vaccination campaign. Over 10,000 residents were vaccinated with two doses of Shanchol™ during this period. The biological samples were collected prior to vaccination (baseline) and at specified time points after vaccination. We tested a total of 214 baseline stored serum samples for IgG antibodies against NS1 of DENV and ZIKV and E2 of CHIKV and MAYV on ELISA. We defined sero-prevalence as the proportion of participants with optical density (OD) values above a defined cut-off value, determined using a finite mixture model. RESULTS: Of the 214 participants, 79 (36.9%; 95% CI 30.5-43.8) were sero-positive for Chikungunya; 23 (10.8%; 95% CI 6.9-15.7) for Zika, 36 (16.8%; 95% CI 12.1-22.5) for Dengue and 42 (19.6%; 95% CI 14.5-25.6) for Mayaro. Older participants were more likely to have Zika virus whilst those involved with fishing activities were at greater risk of contracting Chikungunya virus. Among all the antigens tested, we also found that Chikungunya saliva antibody titres correlated with baseline serum titres (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.222; p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Arbovirus transmission is occurring in Zambia. This requires proper screening tools as well as surveillance data to accurately report on disease burden in Zambia.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arbovirus Infections/virology , Arboviruses/classification , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Adult , Coinfection/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Serogroup , Wetlands , Young Adult , Zambia/epidemiology
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2842, 2020 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503971

ABSTRACT

Characterizing the circulation of Mayaro virus (MAYV), an emerging arbovirus threat, is essential for risk assessment but challenging due to cross-reactivity with other alphaviruses such as chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Here, we develop an analytical framework to jointly assess MAYV epidemiology and the extent of cross-reactivity with CHIKV from serological data collected throughout French Guiana (N = 2697). We find strong evidence of an important sylvatic cycle for MAYV with most infections occurring near the natural reservoir in rural areas and in individuals more likely to go to the forest (i.e., adult males) and with seroprevalences of up to 18% in some areas. These findings highlight the need to strengthen MAYV surveillance in the region and showcase how modeling can improve interpretation of cross-reacting assays.


Subject(s)
Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Chikungunya virus/immunology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Adolescent , Adult , Alphavirus Infections/blood , Alphavirus Infections/immunology , Alphavirus Infections/virology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Arboviruses/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/blood , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , French Guiana/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233669, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502226

ABSTRACT

Only few data exist in Cambodia on mosquito diversity and their potential role as vectors. Many arboviruses, such as dengue and Japanese encephalitis, are endemic and mostly affect children in the country. This research sets out to evaluate vector relative abundance and diversity in primary schools in Cambodia in an attempt to explain the apparent burden of dengue fever, severe dengue (DEN), Japanese encephalitis (JE), other arboviral diseases and malaria among children, 15 years and under, attending selected primary schools through vector surveys. Entomological surveys were implemented in primary schools in two provinces of Cambodia to assess the potential risk of exposure of schoolchildren to mosquito vector species. Light traps and BG traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes in 24 schools during the rainy and dry seasons of 2017 and 2018 in Kampong Cham and Tboung Khmum provinces. A total of 61 species were described, including Aedes, Culex and Anopheles species. The relative abundance and biodiversity of mosquito species were dependent on the month and school. Of the 37,725 mosquitoes caught during the study, three species accounted for three-quarters of the relative abundance: Culex vishnui, Anopheles indefinitus and Culex quinquefasciatus. More importantly, nearly 90% of the mosquitoes caught in the schools were identified as potential vectors of pathogens including Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and malaria parasites. Our results showed that schools in Cambodia represent a risk for vector-borne disease transmission and highlight the importance of implementing vector control in schools in Cambodia to decrease the risk of transmission.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/transmission , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Mosquito Vectors , Adolescent , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arboviruses/classification , Biodiversity , Cambodia/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/transmission , Dengue/virology , Encephalitis, Japanese/epidemiology , Encephalitis, Japanese/transmission , Encephalitis, Japanese/virology , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/transmission , Malaria/virology
7.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232192, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343725

ABSTRACT

The introduction of exotic disease vectors into a new habitat can drastically change the local epidemiological situation. During 2012-2015, larvae and an adult of the yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, were captured alive at two international airports serving the Greater Tokyo Area, Japan. Because this species does not naturally distribute in this country, those mosquitoes were considered to be introduced from overseas via air-transportation. To infer the places of origin of those mosquitoes, we genotyped the 12 microsatellite loci for which the most comprehensive population genetic reference is currently available. Although clustering by Bayesian and multivariate methods both suggested that all those mosquitoes captured at the airports in Japan belonged to the Asia/Pacific populations, they were not clustered into a single cluster. Moreover, there was variation in mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (CoxI) haplotypes among mosquitoes collected in different incidents of discovery which indicated the existence of multiple maternal origins. We conclude there is little evidence to support the overwintering of Ae. aegypti at the airports; nevertheless, special attention is still needed to prevent the invasion of this prominent arbovirus vector.


Subject(s)
Aedes/genetics , Airports , Mosquito Vectors/genetics , Aedes/classification , Aedes/virology , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/transmission , Arbovirus Infections/virology , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Arboviruses/pathogenicity , Bayes Theorem , Ecosystem , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Genes, Insect , Genes, Mitochondrial , Genetic Variation , Genetics, Population , Genotype , Haplotypes , Humans , Insect Proteins/genetics , Microsatellite Repeats , Mosquito Vectors/classification , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Tokyo
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(2): 236-243, 2020 Feb 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164136

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the types and distribution of Arboviruses in Hainan province. Methods: Blood-sucking insects were collected in Hainan province from 2017 to 2018. After laboratory treatment, BHK-21 cells and C6/36 cells were inoculated with grinding supernatant of all blood-sucking insects to isolate all of involving virus. Arbovirus genes in blood-sucking insects were detected in parallel by RT-PCR method. Results: A total of 15 062 mosquitoes were classified into four genera (Culex, Armigeres, Aedes, Anopheles) and 11 360 midges were collected. Culex tritaeniorhynchus was in the majority and accounted for 92.88% (13 990/15 062) of all the mosquitoes collected. Four strains of virus isolates were notified by tissue culture method. Three strains of viruses belonged to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), with the other one as Getah virus (GETV). Five pools of JEV gene amplification were positive, from Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Results from the phylogenetic analysis showed that they belonged to genotype JEV-Ⅰ. The minimum infection rate of JEV was 0.57‰ (8/13 990). A total of 5 pools of Akabane virus (AKV) gene amplification were positive. The minimum infection rate of AKV was 0.44‰ (5/11 360). Based on the S gene and M gene sequences of the virus, data from the phylogenetic analysis showed that the five AKV strains carried by midges in Hainan province were in a separate evolutionary branch and with formed unique geographical distribution. Conclusions: JEV and GETV had been isolated again from the mosquito specimens in this survey, since the 1980s. AKV was detected from the midge specimens in Hainan province. These results showed the needs of strengthening the programs on detection and monitor of JEV, GETV and AKV that were related to animal and human diseases in order to reduce the risks of related diseases in this area.


Subject(s)
Arboviruses/genetics , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Culicidae/virology , Alphavirus/genetics , Alphavirus/isolation & purification , Animals , China , Culex/virology , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese/genetics , Encephalitis Virus, Japanese/isolation & purification , Humans , Phylogeny
9.
Talanta ; 208: 120338, 2020 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816752

ABSTRACT

Arboviruses have been emerging as a significant global health problem due to the recurrent epidemics. Arboviruses require the development of new diagnostic devices due to the nonspecific clinical manifestations. Herein, we report a biosensor based on cysteine (Cys), zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONp), and Concanavalin A (ConA) lectin to differentiate between arboviruses infections. ConA is capable of interacting with the saccharide components of the viral capsid. In this study, we evaluated the reproducibility, sensitivity, and specificity of the sensor for the virus of Dengue type 2 (DENV2), Zika (ZIKV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), and Yellow fever (YFV). Atomic force microscopy measurements confirmed the electrode surface modification and revealed a heterogeneous topography during the biorecognition process. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to characterize the biosensor. The blockage of the oxidation-reduction process is related to the formation of Cys-ZnONp-ConA system on the electroactive area and its subsequent interaction with viral glycoproteins. The sensor exhibited a linear response to different concentrations of the studied arboviruses. Our study demonstrates that ConA lectin recognizes the structural glycoproteins of the DENV2, ZIKV, CHIKV, and YFV. DENV2 is the most structurally similar to ZIKV. Our results have shown that the impedimetric response correlates with the structural glycoproteins, as follow: DENV2 (18.6 kΩ) > ZIKV (14.6 kΩ) > CHIKV (6.86 kΩ) > YFV (5.98 kΩ). The homologous structural regions contribute to ConA-arboviruses recognition. Our results demonstrate the use of the proposed system for the development of biosensors for arboviruses infections.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arboviruses/metabolism , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Concanavalin A/chemistry , Electrochemistry/methods , Electrodes , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Arbovirus Infections/blood , Arbovirus Infections/virology , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Chikungunya Fever/blood , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/virology , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Chikungunya virus/metabolism , Cysteine/chemistry , Dengue/blood , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Dengue Virus/metabolism , Diagnosis, Differential , Glucose/analysis , Humans , Mannose/analysis , Yellow Fever/blood , Yellow Fever/diagnosis , Yellow Fever/virology , Yellow fever virus/isolation & purification , Yellow fever virus/metabolism , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Zika Virus/metabolism , Zika Virus Infection/blood , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/virology , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
10.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO5078, 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859787

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance of indirect immunofluorescence for serological diagnosis of dengue virus in a population with high prevalence of arboviruses. METHODS: Two-hundred serum samples from patients with clinical suspicion of dengue fever were tested by immunoenzymatic and indirect immunofluorescence assay BIOCHIP® mosaic. Specificity, sensitivity and Kappa coefficient were calculated. Discordant samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction for confirmation. RESULTS: Of the 200 samples, 20% were positive and 80% negative for anti-dengue virus IgM antibodies in the immunoenzymatic test. Of the 40 positives, 25% were negative in indirect immunofluorescence. Of these ten discordant results, only 20% were also negative in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of the 160 negatives in the immunoenzymatic test, 5% were positive in indirect immunofluorescence. Of these nine discordant results, 33% were positive in the PCR. The Kappa coefficient was 0.7 (0.572-0.829). Sensitivity and specificity of indirect immunofluorescence were respectively 75% and 94%. For anti-dengue virus IgG antibodies, of the 200 samples, 15.5% were positive and 84.5% were negative in the immunoenzymatic test. Of the 31 positives, 12.9% were negative in indirect immunofluorescence. Of these four discordant results, 25% were negative in the PCR. Of the 169 negatives, 8% were positive in indirect immunofluorescence. Of these 14 discordant results, 64% were also positive in the PCR. The Kappa coefficient was 0.695 (0.563-0.83). Sensitivity and specificity of indirect immunofluorescence were 87.1% and 91.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: For diagnosis of acute infection, the immunoenzymatic test is enough, and the use of additional methods is not warranted. Replacing the immunoenzymatic test by indirect immunofluorescence would compromise the sensitivity for IgM. However, indirect immunofluorescence can distinguish three arboviruses simultaneously, an advantage during concomitant epidemics.


Subject(s)
Dengue/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/methods , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Brazil , Dengue/immunology , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/standards , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/standards , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Standards , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods , Serologic Tests/standards
11.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(1): 11-17, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420970

ABSTRACT

Sloths are genetically and physiologically divergent mammals. Phleboviruses are major arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) causing disease in humans and other animals globally. Sloths host arboviruses, but virus detections are scarce. A phlebovirus termed Anhanga virus (ANHV) was isolated from a Brazilian Linnaeus's two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus) in 1962. Here, we investigated the presence of phleboviruses in sera sampled in 2014 from 74 Hoffmann's two-toed (Choloepus hoffmanni, n = 65) and three-toed (Bradypus variegatus, n = 9) sloths in Costa Rica by broadly reactive RT-PCR. A clinically healthy adult Hoffmann's two-toed sloth was infected with a phlebovirus. Viral load in this animal was high at 8.5 × 107  RNA copies/ml. The full coding sequence of the virus was determined by deep sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses and sequence distance comparisons revealed that the new sloth virus, likely representing a new phlebovirus species, provisionally named Penshurt virus (PEHV), was most closely related to ANHV, with amino acid identities of 93.1%, 84.6%, 94.7% and 89.0% in the translated L, M, N and NSs genes, respectively. Significantly more non-synonymous mutations relative to ANHV occurred in the M gene encoding the viral glycoproteins and in the NSs gene encoding a putative interferon antagonist compared to L and N genes. This was compatible with viral adaptation to different sloth species and with micro-evolutionary processes associated with immune evasion during the genealogy of sloth-associated phleboviruses. However, gene-wide mean dN/dS ratios were low at 0.02-0.15 and no sites showed significant evidence for positive selection, pointing to comparable selection pressures within sloth-associated viruses and genetically related phleboviruses infecting hosts other than sloths. The detection of a new phlebovirus closely-related to ANHV, in sloths from Costa Rica fifty years after and more than 3,000 km away from the isolation of ANHV confirmed the host associations of ANHV-related phleboviruses with the two extant species of two-toed sloths.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/veterinary , Arboviruses/classification , Phlebovirus/classification , Sloths/virology , Vector Borne Diseases/veterinary , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/virology , Arboviruses/genetics , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Brazil , Costa Rica , Geography , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/veterinary , Phlebovirus/genetics , Phlebovirus/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Vector Borne Diseases/virology , Viral Load/veterinary
12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19398, 2019 12 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852942

ABSTRACT

The ability to identify all the viruses within a sample makes metatranscriptomic sequencing an attractive tool to screen mosquitoes for arboviruses. Practical application of this technique, however, requires a clear understanding of its analytical sensitivity and specificity. To assess this, five dilutions (1:1, 1:20, 1:400, 1:8,000 and 1:160,000) of Ross River virus (RRV) and Umatilla virus (UMAV) isolates were spiked into subsamples of a pool of 100 Culex australicus mosquitoes. The 1:1 dilution represented the viral load of one RRV-infected mosquito in a pool of 100 mosquitoes. The subsamples underwent nucleic acid extraction, mosquito-specific ribosomal RNA depletion, and Illumina HiSeq sequencing. The viral load of the subsamples was also measured using reverse transcription droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR) and quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Metatranscriptomic sequencing detected both RRV and UMAV in the 1:1, 1:20 and 1:400 subsamples. A high specificity was achieved, with 100% of RRV and 99.6% of UMAV assembled contigs correctly identified. Metatranscriptomic sequencing was not as sensitive as RT-qPCR or RT-ddPCR; however, it recovered whole genome information and detected 19 other viruses, including four first detections for Australia. These findings will assist arbovirus surveillance programs in utilising metatranscriptomics in routine surveillance activities to enhance arbovirus detection.


Subject(s)
Arboviruses/genetics , Culicidae/virology , Metagenome/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics , Animals , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Australia/epidemiology , Culex/genetics , Culex/virology , Culicidae/genetics , Humans , Mosquito Vectors/genetics , Mosquito Vectors/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Ross River virus/genetics , Ross River virus/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1081, 2019 Dec 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878895

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The European Commission (EC) Horizon 2020 (H2020)-funded ZIKAlliance Consortium designed a multicentre study including pregnant women (PW), children (CH) and natural history (NH) cohorts. Clinical sites were selected over a wide geographic range within Latin America and the Caribbean, taking into account the dynamic course of the ZIKV epidemic. METHODS: Recruitment to the PW cohort will take place in antenatal care clinics. PW will be enrolled regardless of symptoms and followed over the course of pregnancy, approximately every 4 weeks. PW will be revisited at delivery (or after miscarriage/abortion) to assess birth outcomes, including microcephaly and other congenital abnormalities according to the evolving definition of congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). After birth, children will be followed for 2 years in the CH cohort. Follow-up visits are scheduled at ages 1-3, 4-6, 12, and 24 months to assess neurocognitive and developmental milestones. In addition, a NH cohort for the characterization of symptomatic rash/fever illness was designed, including follow-up to capture persisting health problems. Blood, urine, and other biological materials will be collected, and tested for ZIKV and other relevant arboviral diseases (dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever) using RT-PCR or serological methods. A virtual, decentralized biobank will be created. Reciprocal clinical monitoring has been established between partner sites. Substudies of ZIKV seroprevalence, transmission clustering, disabilities and health economics, viral kinetics, the potential role of antibody enhancement, and co-infections will be linked to the cohort studies. DISCUSSION: Results of these large cohort studies will provide better risk estimates for birth defects and other developmental abnormalities associated with ZIKV infection including possible co-factors for the variability of risk estimates between other countries and regions. Additional outcomes include incidence and transmission estimates of ZIKV during and after pregnancy, characterization of short and long-term clinical course following infection and viral kinetics of ZIKV. STUDY REGISTRATIONS: clinicaltrials.gov NCT03188731 (PW cohort), June 15, 2017; clinicaltrials.gov NCT03393286 (CH cohort), January 8, 2018; clinicaltrials.gov NCT03204409 (NH cohort), July 2, 2017.


Subject(s)
Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Microcephaly/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Zika Virus/immunology , Adult , Arboviruses/genetics , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Coinfection , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Latin America/epidemiology , Microcephaly/epidemiology , Microcephaly/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Prenatal Care , Prospective Studies , Risk , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/virology
14.
Viruses ; 11(11)2019 11 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The intensification of trade and travel is linked to the growing number of imported cases of dengue, chikungunya or Zika viruses into continental Europe and to the expansion of invasive mosquito species such as Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus. Local outbreaks have already occurred in several European countries. Very little information exists on the vector competence of native mosquitoes for arboviruses. As such, the vectorial status of the nine mosquito species largely established in North-Western Europe (Aedes cinereus and Aedes geminus, Aedes cantans, Aedes punctor, Aedes rusticus, Anopheles claviger s.s., Anopheles plumbeus, Coquillettidia richiardii, Culex pipiens s.l., and Culiseta annulata) remains mostly unknown. OBJECTIVES: To review the vector competence of both invasive and native mosquito populations found in North-Western Europe (i.e., France, Belgium, Germany, United Kingdom, Ireland, The Netherlands, Luxembourg and Switzerland) for dengue, chikungunya, Zika, West Nile and Usutu viruses. METHODS: A bibliographical search with research strings addressing mosquito vector competence for considered countries was performed. RESULTS: Out of 6357 results, 119 references were related to the vector competence of mosquitoes in Western Europe. Eight species appear to be competent for at least one virus. CONCLUSIONS: Aedes albopictus is responsible for the current outbreaks. The spread of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus increases the risk of the autochthonous transmission of these viruses. Although native species could contribute to their transmission, more studies are still needed to assess that risk.


Subject(s)
Anopheles/virology , Arbovirus Infections/transmission , Arbovirus Infections/virology , Arboviruses/physiology , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Aedes/virology , Animals , Anopheles/classification , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Biodiversity , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Imported/virology , Culex/virology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Population Dynamics
15.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 554, 2019 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753035

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The threat of mosquito-borne diseases is increasing in continental Europe as demonstrated by several autochthonous chikungunya, dengue and West Nile virus outbreaks. In Switzerland, despite the presence of competent vectors, routine surveillance of arboviruses in mosquitoes is not being carried out, mainly due to the high costs associated with the need of a constant cold chain and laborious processing of thousands of mosquitoes. An alternative approach is using honey-baited nucleic acid preserving cards (FTA cards) to collect mosquito saliva that may be analysed for arboviruses. Here, we evaluate whether FTA cards could be used to detect potentially emerging viruses in an area of low virus prevalence in combination with an effective mosquito trap. METHODS: In a field trial in southern Switzerland we measured side-by-side the efficacy of the BG-Sentinel 2, the BG-GAT and the Box gravid trap to catch Aedes and Culex mosquitoes in combination with honey-baited FTA cards during 80 trapping sessions of 48 hours. We then screened both the mosquitoes and the FTA cards for the presence of arboviruses using reverse-transcription PCR. The efficacy of the compared trap types was evaluated using generalized linear mixed models. RESULTS: The Box gravid trap collected over 11 times more mosquitoes than the BG-GAT and BG-Sentinel 2 trap. On average 75.9% of the specimens fed on the honey-bait with no significant difference in feeding rates between the three trap types. From the total of 1401 collected mosquitoes, we screened 507 Aedes and 500 Culex females for the presence of arboviruses. A pool of six Cx. pipiens/Cx. torrentium mosquitoes and also the FTA card from the same Box gravid trap were positive for Usutu virus. Remarkably, only two of the six Culex mosquitoes fed on the honey-bait, emphasising the high sensitivity of the method. In addition, two Ae. albopictus collections but no FTA cards were positive for mosquito-only flaviviruses. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our results we conclude that honey-baited FTA cards, in combination with the Box gravid trap, are an effective method for arbovirus surveillance in areas of low prevalence, particularly where resources are limited for preservation and screening of individual mosquitoes.


Subject(s)
Aedes/virology , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Culex/virology , Entomology/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Animals , Arboviruses/genetics , Honey , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Switzerland
16.
Viruses ; 11(11)2019 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694175

ABSTRACT

Metagenomic studies of mosquitoes have revealed that their virome is far more diverse and includes many more viruses than just the pathogenic arboviruses vectored by mosquitoes. In this study, the virome of 953 female mosquitoes collected in the summer of 2017, representing six mosquito species from two geographic locations in Mid-Eastern Sweden, were characterized. In addition, the near-complete genome of nine RNA viruses were characterized and phylogenetically analysed. These viruses showed association to the viral orders Bunyavirales, Picornavirales, Articulavirales, and Tymovirales, and to the realm Ribovira. Hence, through this study, we expand the knowledge of the virome composition of different mosquito species in Sweden. In addition, by providing viral reference genomes from wider geographic regions and different mosquito species, future in silico recognition and assembly of viral genomes in metagenomic datasets will be facilitated.


Subject(s)
Culicidae/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , RNA Viruses/genetics , Animals , Arboviruses/classification , Arboviruses/genetics , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Culicidae/classification , Female , Host Specificity , Metagenomics , Phylogeny , RNA Viruses/classification , RNA Viruses/isolation & purification , Sweden
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 463, 2019 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578140

ABSTRACT

Arboviruses infecting people primarily exist in urban transmission cycles involving urban mosquitoes in densely populated tropical regions. For dengue, chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever viruses, sylvatic (forest) transmission cycles also exist in some regions and involve non-human primates and forest-dwelling mosquitoes. Here we review the investigation methods and available data on sylvatic cycles involving non-human primates and dengue, chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever viruses in Africa, dengue viruses in Asia and yellow fever virus in the Americas. We also present current putative data that Mayaro, o'nyong'nyong, Oropouche, Spondweni and Lumbo viruses exist in sylvatic cycles.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/veterinary , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Primate Diseases/virology , Africa , Americas , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/virology , Arboviruses/classification , Asia , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Humans
18.
Pathog Glob Health ; 113(5): 209-228, 2019 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664886

ABSTRACT

Mosquito-borne diseases, including arbovirus-related diseases, make up a large proportion of infectious disease cases worldwide, causing a serious global public health burden with over 700,000 deaths annually. Mosquito-borne arbovirus outbreaks can range from global to regional. In the East African Community (EAC) region, these viruses have caused a series of emerging and reemerging infectious disease outbreaks. Member states in the EAC share a lot in common including regional trade and transport, some of the factors highlighted to be the cause of mosquito-borne arbovirus disease outbreaks worldwide. In this review, characteristics of 24 mosquito-borne arboviruses indigenous to the EAC are reviewed, including lesser or poorly understood viruses, like Batai virus (BATV) and Ndumu virus (NDUV), which may escape their origins under perfect conditions to establish a foothold in new geographical locations. Factors that may influence the future spread of these viruses within the EAC are addressed. With the continued development observed in the EAC, strategies should be developed by the Community in improving mosquito and mosquito-borne arbovirus surveillance to prevent future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Arboviruses/classification , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Africa, Eastern/epidemiology , Alphavirus Infections/transmission , Animals , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Humans , Mosquito Vectors/growth & development
19.
Viruses ; 11(10)2019 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569736

ABSTRACT

Mosquitoes are vectors of arboviruses affecting animal and human health. Arboviruses circulate primarily within an enzootic cycle and recurrent spillovers contribute to the emergence of human-adapted viruses able to initiate an urban cycle involving anthropophilic mosquitoes. The increasing volume of travel and trade offers multiple opportunities for arbovirus introduction in new regions. This scenario has been exemplified recently with the Zika pandemic. To incriminate a mosquito as vector of a pathogen, several criteria are required such as the detection of natural infections in mosquitoes. In this study, we used a high-throughput chip based on the BioMark™ Dynamic arrays system capable of detecting 64 arboviruses in a single experiment. A total of 17,958 mosquitoes collected in Zika-endemic/epidemic countries (Brazil, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Suriname, Senegal, and Cambodia) were analyzed. Here we show that this new tool can detect endemic and epidemic viruses in different mosquito species in an epidemic context. Thus, this fast and low-cost method can be suggested as a novel epidemiological surveillance tool to identify circulating arboviruses.


Subject(s)
Culicidae/virology , Endemic Diseases , Epidemics , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/transmission , Arbovirus Infections/virology , Arboviruses/genetics , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Brazil , Cambodia , Disease Vectors , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , French Guiana , Guadeloupe , Humans , Male , Molecular Epidemiology , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Pilot Projects , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Senegal , Suriname , Zika Virus/genetics , Zika Virus Infection/transmission
20.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 385-391, 2019 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559790

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Arthropod-borne viruses are important causes of human morbidity worldwide. However, the available literatur and the epidemiological data concerning the importation to Poland of globally emerging arboviral infections, such as DENV, CHIKV, WNV, or ZIKV, are scarce. Only few seroepidemiologic studies concerning WNV in animals or humans in Poland have been published. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review paper is to summarize and present the current state of knowledge and the perspectives for research concerning the importation and the risk posed by the introduction to Poland of the four above-mentioned arboviral diseases. CURRENT STATE OF KNOWLEDGE: Climate change may facilitate the northward expansion of both the vectors for diseases previously unseen in Europe, as well as of the viruses themselves, resulting in autochthonous cases of diseases previously exclusively imported. Little is known about the importation of arboviral diseases to Poland because of the frequently asymptomatic or self-limiting course of the disease, lack of epidemiologic studies or effective disease reporting, as well as inadequate access to diagnostic methods. CONCLUSIONS: Further epidemiologic studies in Polish travellers are necessary in order to prevent importation or introduction of the above-mentioned viruses, and to act against potential problems related to blood transfusion or organ transplantation from infected donors.


Subject(s)
Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arboviruses/physiology , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/blood , Arbovirus Infections/transmission , Arbovirus Infections/virology , Arboviruses/genetics , Arboviruses/immunology , Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Biomedical Research/trends , Humans , Knowledge , Poland/epidemiology
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