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1.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304763, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848416

ABSTRACT

Identifying the factors that favor group living is central to studies of animal social behavior. One demographic parameter that is expected to substantially shape spatial and social relationships is population density. Specifically, high population densities may favor group living by constraining opportunities to live alone. In contrast, low densities may allow individuals to spread out within the habitat, leading to a reduction in the prevalence or size of social groups. Abrupt changes in density following natural catastrophic events provide important opportunities to evaluate the effects of population density on patterns of spatial and social organization. As part of long-term studies of the behavioral ecology of a population of highland tuco-tucos (Ctenomys opimus) at Monumento Natural Laguna de los Pozuelos, Jujuy Province, Argentina, we monitored the demographic and behavioral consequences of a flood that inundated our study site during December 2012. Unlike most species of Ctenomys studied to date, highland tuco-tucos are group living, meaning that multiple adults share burrow systems and nest sites. Despite a post-flood reduction in population density of ~75%, animals present on the study site during the 2013 breeding season continued to live in multi-adult social units (groups). No differences between pre- and post-flood home range sizes were detected and although between-unit spatial overlap was reduced in 2013, overlap within social units did not differ from that in pre-flood years. Animals assigned to the same social unit in 2013 had not lived together during 2012, indicating that post-flood groups were not simply the remnants of those present prior to the flood. Collectively, these findings indicate that group living in highland tuco-tucos is not driven by the density of conspecifics in the habitat. In addition to enhancing understanding of the adaptive bases for group living in Ctenomys, our analyses underscore the power of catastrophic events to generate insights into fundamental aspects of social behavior.


Subject(s)
Population Density , Social Behavior , Animals , Argentina , Ecosystem , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Floods , Rodentia/physiology , Female , Male
2.
J Helminthol ; 98: e47, 2024 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38828707

ABSTRACT

Relative to the numerous studies focused on mammalian schistosomes, fewer include avian schistosomatids particularly in the southern hemisphere. This is changing and current research emerging from the Neotropics shows a remarkable diversity of endemic taxa. To contribute to this effort, nine ducks (Spatula cyanoptera, S.versicolor, Netta peposaca), 12 swans (Cygnus melancoryphus) and 1,400 Physa spp. snails from Chile and Argentina were collected for adults and larval schistosomatids, respectively. Isolated schistosomatids were preserved for morphological and molecular analyses (28S and COI genes). Four different schistosomatid taxa were retrieved from birds: Trichobilharzia sp. in N. peposaca and S. cyanoptera that formed a clade; S.cyanoptera and S. versicolor hosted Trichobilharzia querquedulae; Cygnus melancoryphus hosted the nasal schistosomatid, Nasusbilharzia melancorhypha; and one visceral, Schistosomatidae gen. sp., which formed a clade with furcocercariae from Argentina and Chile from previous work. Of the physid snails, only one from Argentina had schistosomatid furcocercariae that based on molecular analyses grouped with T. querquedulae. This study represents the first description of adult schistosomatids from Chile as well as the elucidation of the life cycles of N.melancorhypha and T. querquedulae in Chile and Neotropics, respectively. Without well-preserved adults, the putative new genus Schistosomatidae gen. sp. could not be described, but its life cycle involves Chilina spp. and C. melancoryphus. Scanning electron microscopy of T. querquedulae revealed additional, undescribed morphological traits, highlighting its diagnostic importance. Authors stress the need for additional surveys of avian schistosomatids from the Neotropics to better understand their evolutionary history.


Subject(s)
Life Cycle Stages , Phylogeny , Schistosomatidae , Animals , Schistosomatidae/genetics , Schistosomatidae/classification , Schistosomatidae/isolation & purification , Schistosomatidae/growth & development , Schistosomatidae/anatomy & histology , Chile , Argentina , Birds/parasitology , Bird Diseases/parasitology , RNA, Ribosomal, 28S/genetics , Snails/parasitology , South America , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics
3.
BMJ Open Qual ; 13(2)2024 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38830729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The demand for healthcare services during the COVID-19 pandemic was excessive for less-resourced settings, with intensive care units (ICUs) taking the heaviest toll. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to achieve adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) use in 90% of patient encounters, to reach 90% compliance with objectives of patient flow (OPF) and to provide emotional support tools to 90% of healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS: We conducted a quasi-experimental study with an interrupted time-series design in 14 ICUs in Argentina. We randomly selected adult critically ill patients admitted from July 2020 to July 2021 and active HCWs in the same period. We implemented a quality improvement collaborative (QIC) with a baseline phase (BP) and an intervention phase (IP). The QIC included learning sessions, periods of action and improvement cycles (plan-do-study-act) virtually coached by experts via platform web-based activities. The main study outcomes encompassed the following elements: proper utilisation of PPE, compliance with nine specific OPF using daily goal sheets through direct observations and utilisation of a web-based tool for tracking emotional well-being among HCWs. RESULTS: We collected 7341 observations of PPE use (977 in BP and 6364 in IP) with an improvement in adequate use from 58.4% to 71.9% (RR 1.2, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.29, p<0.001). We observed 7428 patient encounters to evaluate compliance with 9 OPF (879 in BP and 6549 in IP) with an improvement in compliance from 53.9% to 67% (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.32, p<0.001). The results showed that HCWs did not use the support tool for self-mental health evaluation as much as expected. CONCLUSION: A QIC was effective in improving healthcare processes and adequate PPE use, even in the context of a pandemic, indicating the possibility of expanding QIC networks nationwide to improve overall healthcare delivery. The limited reception of emotional support tools requires further analyses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units , Quality Improvement , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Argentina , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Female , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Adult , Public Health/methods , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/psychology , Interrupted Time Series Analysis/methods
4.
Food Res Int ; 189: 114515, 2024 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38876601

ABSTRACT

Culture is a well-known driver of food choices, and therefore, it could also impact food pairing preferences. Food pairing has been studied from different approaches; however, little cross-cultural research has been done. This work explored food and beverage pairing using projective mapping (PM) to create maps of food-beverage combinations. Four countries (Mexico, Argentina, France, and Norway), thirty foods, and six beverages were selected. PM was carried out through an online study in each country. Participants were asked to map foods together with beverages following the instruction that foods and beverages closer together represented a good combination. The coordinates of each product were analyzed through Multiple Factorial Analyses (MFA) by countries. The first four factors of each MFA were used to perform RV coefficients to test similarities in food-beverage pairings between the countries. Finally, a k-means clustering was performed on the beverage coordinates of each MFA. PM provided maps representing food and beverage pairings for each country in which the proximity between food-beverages represented a good combination according to consumers. RV coefficients between countries were low, showing that food-beverage pairings were not similar across countries, evidencing the cultural effect in food-drink combinations. Results from the k-means clustering showed some similarities and differences between countries. In general, the food-beverage pairing was effectively explored with PM, from which several differences and similarities were found within cultures.


Subject(s)
Beverages , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Food Preferences , Humans , Female , Adult , Male , Norway , Mexico , France , Young Adult , Argentina , Choice Behavior , Middle Aged , Consumer Behavior , Food , Adolescent
5.
Food Res Int ; 189: 114559, 2024 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38876608

ABSTRACT

Comprehensive lipid and volatile compound analyses were performed with squids collected from four varied geographical locations to discriminate the regional characteristics. A total of 1442 lipid molecules and 110 volatiles were detected in the squid muscle samples. There were significant differences in the lipid profiles between Argentine squid (Illex argentinus, AGT), North Pacific Ocean squid (Ommastrephes Bartram, NPO), Equatorial squid (Dosidicus gigas, EQ), and Peruvian squid (Dosidicus gigas, PR) muscle. Phosphatidylcholines (14.64%), triacylglycerols (12.42%), and ceramides (10.97%) were the main lipid components. The contents of polyunsaturated fatty acid in phospholipids and in glycerolipids were 30.35-52.05% and 18.11-25.15%, respectively. The volatiles in squids exhibited significant regional variation; 1-pentanol and 1-octanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and terpinen-4-ol, 2,7-ethyl-1-hexanol, 3-methy-1-butanol and 2-propyl-1-pentanol were identified as characteristic flavor compounds in AGT, NPO, EQ, and PR, respectively. Sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and ceramide were strongly correlated with volatiles in squid muscle. Our study is a reference for the lipid nutritional value and flavor compounds of squids.


Subject(s)
Decapodiformes , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Lipidomics , Volatile Organic Compounds , Animals , Decapodiformes/chemistry , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis , Pacific Ocean , Lipidomics/methods , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/methods , Argentina , Peru , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Solid Phase Microextraction/methods , Triglycerides/analysis , Lipids/analysis , Phospholipids/analysis , Muscles/chemistry
6.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 77, 2024 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38872101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Unenlagiine paravians are among the most relevant Gondwanan theropod dinosaur clades for understanding the origin of birds, yet their fossil record remains incomplete, with most taxa being represented by fragmentary material and/or separated by lengthy temporal gaps, frustrating attempts to characterize unenlagiine evolution. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Here we describe Diuqin lechiguanae gen. et sp. nov., a new unenlagiine taxon from the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian) Bajo de la Carpa Formation of the Neuquén Basin of Neuquén Province in northern Patagonia, Argentina that fills a substantial stratigraphic gap in the fossil record of these theropods. Although known only from a very incomplete postcranial skeleton, the preserved bones of Diuqin differ from corresponding elements in other unenlagiines, justifying the erection of the new taxon. Moreover, in several morphological aspects, the humerus of Diuqin appears intermediate between those of geologically older unenlagiines from the Neuquén Basin (e.g., Unenlagia spp. from the Turonian-Coniacian Portezuelo Formation) and that of the stratigraphically younger, larger-bodied Austroraptor cabazai from the Campanian-Maastrichtian Allen Formation. Consequently, the morphology of the new taxon appears to indicate a transitional stage in unenlagiine evolution. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Diuqin as a paravian with multiple plausible systematic positions, but the strongest affinity is with Unenlagiinae. The humerus of the new form exhibits subcircular punctures near its distal end that are interpreted as feeding traces most likely left by a conical-toothed crocodyliform, mammal, or theropod, the latter potentially corresponding to a megaraptorid or another unenlagiine individual. Thus, in addition to filling important morphological and temporal gaps in unenlagiine evolutionary history, the new taxon also offers information relating to the paleoecology of these theropods.


Subject(s)
Dinosaurs , Fossils , Argentina , Animals , Dinosaurs/anatomy & histology , Dinosaurs/classification , Phylogeny , Biological Evolution
7.
Vet Parasitol ; 329: 110209, 2024 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823188

ABSTRACT

The transmission of Fasciola hepatica occurs only where there are -or recently were- aquatic or amphibious snails of the Lymnaeidae family, the intermediate host of this parasite. Direct detection of these snails is time-consuming and imprecise, hindering accurate and detailed mapping of transmission risk. To identify which microenvironmental factors could be used as proxies for the occurrence of the lymnaeid snail Galba viator, a major intermediate host in South America, a total of 183 1-m2 quadrants across diverse water bodies in an endemic area in Andean Patagonia were manually timed-searched for snails and microenvironmental variables were registered. Data was analyzed using a Bayesian hierarchical occupancy model that assessed the effects of the microenvironmental variables on the presence of snails while considering imperfect snail detection. The model estimated that G. viator predominantly inhabits shallow aquatic environments, in the presence of grasses, where snails of the genus Biomphalaria are also detected, and with scarce tree canopy cover. Physical factors affecting occupancy presumably act as proxies for the average water temperature, while the temperature at the time of sampling was found to affect snail detectability. The identified variables are easy, fast, and inexpensive to measure, and can complement management decisions and risk maps based on coarser remote-sensing data, particularly relevant in a context of growing resistance to anthelminthic drugs.


Subject(s)
Fasciola hepatica , Snails , Temperature , Water , Animals , Fasciola hepatica/physiology , Snails/parasitology , Water/parasitology , Water/chemistry , Argentina/epidemiology , Fascioliasis/veterinary , Fascioliasis/epidemiology , Fascioliasis/parasitology , Bayes Theorem
8.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 158: 185-193, 2024 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38869094

ABSTRACT

The southern king crab (SKC) Lithodes santolla is a crustacean parasitised by the bopyrid Eremitione tuberculata. This study aimed to analyse spatial and temporal variations in E. tuberculata prevalence in the juvenile SKC population of San Jorge Gulf (SJG) and adjacent waters (Argentine Patagonia), and evaluate the effects of the parasite on SKC juveniles to improve our understanding of its impact as a disease on SKC health condition. Moult increment and body weight were compared between parasitised and unparasitised individuals. The prevalence of E. tuberculata in SKC juveniles varied both spatially and temporally. In the south of SJG, the prevalence was 54.5% (n = 11). Temporal prevalence analysis revealed values lower than 17.4% in mid SJG during May and September 2015. No significant differences were observed in E. tuberculata prevalence between sexes or among seasons. Eremitione tuberculata had a negative effect on SKC growth (lower body dry mass, moult increment and relative increment rate) in parasitised individuals. We hypothesised that the higher prevalence of E. tuberculata in the south SJG could be attributed to the retention of parasite larvae and the presence of the frontal system in this part of the gulf. The temporal variations could reflect host mortality. Our results suggest that bopyrid infestation may have a more important role than previously believed in the dynamics of the SKC population in mid-Patagonia.


Subject(s)
Anomura , Isopoda , Anomura/growth & development , Anomura/parasitology , Isopoda/physiology , Argentina , Animal Distribution , Seasons , Animals , Population Dynamics
9.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 52: 101046, 2024 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38880577

ABSTRACT

In Argentina, as in the rest of the world, cyathostomins are the most common nematodes parasitizing horses. Control is based almost exclusively on the administration of benzimidazoles, pyrimidines, and macrocyclic lactones. However, intensive use of these drugs is resulting in the development of anthelmintic resistance (AR). For example, AR to benzimidazoles is currently distributed throughout Argentina, while incipient AR to pyrimidines (pyrantel embonate) is appearing in areas where this drug is used. Macrocyclic lactones and especially ivermectin, are by far the most used drugs by the vast majority of equine premises in the country. Although ivermectin has been used since 1982, its efficacy against equine strongylid parasites has remained very high until the present. In this study we report for the first time, the presence of a cyathostomin population with resistance to ivermectin in adult horses belonging to an equine premise located in central Argentina. Fecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were performed following the most recent guidelines of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) for the diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance (research protocol) and resistance was considered when the Upper 90% Credible Interval fell below the expected efficacy threshold of 99.9%. Calculations were carried out using two different online calculation interfaces suggested by WAAVP. For the 14-day post-treatment interval, ivermectin efficacy was 79.5% (90% Credible Interval: 68.1-88.8) and 79.3% (74.2-83.6.3%) with the two methods, respectively. At 19 days post treatment, fecal egg count reductions were 68.6% (50.5-83.1) and 68.4% (61.9-74.1), respectively. At both intervals, this cyathostomin population fullfilled the criteria for AR. These findings suggest dispersion of ivermectin resistant cyathostomins in Argentina. Given the widespread use of macrocyclic lactones, it is important that veterinarians and the equine industry promote a more selective and evidence-based use of these drugs and establish routine monitoring to determine anthelmintic field efficacy to detect treatment failures as early as possible and avoid potential health problems as well as further spread of resistant genes.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance , Ivermectin , Parasite Egg Count , Animals , Horses , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Argentina , Parasite Egg Count/veterinary , Strongyle Infections, Equine/drug therapy , Strongyle Infections, Equine/parasitology , Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Feces/parasitology , Horse Diseases/drug therapy , Horse Diseases/parasitology , Strongyloidea/drug effects
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 942: 173685, 2024 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38825192

ABSTRACT

Pesticide mixtures are frequently utilized in agriculture, yet their cumulative effects on aquatic organisms remain poorly understood. Aquatic animals can be effective bioindicators and invasive bivalves, owing to their widespread distribution, provide an opportunity to assess these impacts. Glyphosate and imidacloprid, among the most prevalent pesticides globally, are frequently detected in freshwater systems in South America. This study aims to understand the cumulative effects of pesticide mixtures on aquatic organisms, using invasive Corbicula largillierti clams from a natural stream in northwestern Argentina. We conducted 48-hour exposure experiments using two concentrations of imidacloprid (20 and 200 µg L-1 a.i), two concentrations of glyphosate (0.3 and 3 mg L-1 a.i), and two combinations of these pesticides (both at low and high concentrations, respectively), simulating the direct contamination of both pesticides based on their agronomic recipe and observed values in Argentine aquatic environments. Clam metabolism was assessed through the examination of multiple oxidative stress parameters and measuring oxygen consumption rate as a proxy for standard metabolic rate (SMR). Our findings revealed that imidacloprid has a more pronounced effect compared to glyphosate. Imidacloprid significantly decreased clam SMR and cellular levels of reduced glutathione (GSH). However, when both pesticides were present, also cellular glycogen and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) were affected. Proteins and glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity were unaffected by either pesticide or their mixture at the assayed concentrations, highlighting the need to test several stress parameters to detect toxicological impacts. Our results indicated additive effects of imidacloprid and glyphosate across all measured parameters. The combination of multiple physiological and cytological biomarkers in invasive bivalves offers significant potential to enhance biomonitoring sensitivity and obtain insights into the origins and cellular mechanisms of chemical impacts. These studies can improve pollution regulatory policies and pesticide management.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Corbicula , Glycine , Glyphosate , Neonicotinoids , Nitro Compounds , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Neonicotinoids/toxicity , Animals , Nitro Compounds/toxicity , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Glycine/toxicity , Biomarkers/metabolism , Argentina , Corbicula/drug effects , Herbicides/toxicity , Environmental Monitoring , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Insecticides/toxicity
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(6): e2415929, 2024 Jun 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857051

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study investigates whether there are associations between inflation, economic policy changes, and retirees' access to medicines in Argentina.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Essential , Argentina , Humans , Aged , Male , Female , Drugs, Essential/economics , Drugs, Essential/supply & distribution , Retirement/economics , Inflation, Economic , Middle Aged , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Cross-Sectional Studies
12.
Planta Med ; 90(7-08): 561-575, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843796

ABSTRACT

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are still an important option for managing symptoms of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the potential in vitro AChE inhibitory activity of two Argentinian endemic Solanaceae species, Jaborosa bergii and J. runcinata. UHPLC-DAD-HRMS metabolite profiling revealed the presence of withanolides in the active CH2Cl2 subextracts. Their fractionation led to the isolation and identification of two known spiranoid withanolides from J. runcinata and three new withanolides with a skeleton similar to that of trechonolide-type withanolides from J. bergii. The known compounds showed moderate AChE inhibitory activity, while the new ones were inactive.


Subject(s)
Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Solanaceae , Withanolides , Withanolides/pharmacology , Withanolides/chemistry , Withanolides/isolation & purification , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/chemistry , Solanaceae/chemistry , Argentina , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Acetylcholinesterase/drug effects , Molecular Structure , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/chemistry
13.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 19: 1207-1223, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831892

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) poses a significant global health burden despite being largely preventable and treatable. Despite the availability of guidelines, COPD care remains suboptimal in many settings, including high-income countries (HICs) and upper-middle-income countries (UMICs), with varied approaches to diagnosis and management. This study aimed to identify common and unique barriers to COPD care across six countries (Australia, Spain, Taiwan, Argentina, Mexico, and Russia) to inform global policy initiatives for improved care. Methods: COPD care pathways were mapped for each country and supplemented with epidemiological, health-economic, and clinical data from a targeted literature review. Semi-structured interviews with 17 respiratory care clinicians were used to further validate the pathways and identify key barriers. Thematic content analysis was used to generate the themes. Results: Six themes were common in most HICs and UMICs: "Challenges in COPD diagnosis", "Strengthening the role of primary care", "Fragmented healthcare systems and coordination challenges", "Inadequate management of COPD exacerbations", "Limited access to specialized care" and, "Impact of underfinanced and overloaded healthcare systems". One theme, "Insurance coverage and reimbursement challenges", was more relevant for UMICs. HICs and UMICs differ in patient and healthcare provider awareness, primary care involvement, spirometry access, and availability of specialized care. Both face issues with healthcare fragmentation, guideline adherence, and COPD exacerbation management. In addition, UMICs also grapple with resource limitations and healthcare infrastructure challenges. Conclusion: Many challenges to COPD care are the same in both HICs and UMICs, underscoring the pervasive nature of these issues. While country-specific issues require customized solutions, there are untapped possibilities for implementing global respiratory strategies that support countries to manage COPD effectively. In addition to healthcare system-level initiatives, there is a crucial need for political prioritization of COPD to allocate the essential resources it requires.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , Health Services Accessibility , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Qualitative Research , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Humans , Developing Countries/economics , Primary Health Care/standards , Developed Countries , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Mexico/epidemiology , Healthcare Disparities , Interviews as Topic , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , Pulmonologists , Argentina/epidemiology , Guideline Adherence , Taiwan/epidemiology
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 943: 173813, 2024 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848914

ABSTRACT

Heat waves, defined as periods with daily temperatures surpassing the historical average for a specific region, have become more frequent worldwide in recent years. Previous studies have reported a negative association between temperature and semen quality, but the focus has mainly been on Asian and European populations. The study included 54,926 men (18-60 years) undergoing routine semen analysis between 2005 and 2023 at CEUSA-LAEH andrology unit, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Hourly temperature readings were provided by the Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. R programming (R Studio v2022.07.2) was used to define heat waves, calculate key characteristics, visualize results, and perform statistical tests at the IBYME laboratory. During the period studied, a total of 124 days had heat waves (defined after at least 3 consecutive days with 32.3 °C and 22 °C). Men exposed to heat waves during spermatogenesis exhibited lower sperm number (concentration and count; P < 0.0001) and decreased normal morphology (percentage of normal sperm and normal motile count; P < 0.05) compared to those not exposed. These differences were most pronounced between semen samples from years with several heat waves (2013, 2023) and none (2005, 2007, 2016), displaying 4-5 times higher fold changes (P < 0.05). Further analysis employing multiple regression revealed a significantly negative association between semen quality and heat wave length, suggesting that a prolonged exposure may be more detrimental than an acute exposure. Subsequent analysis focusing on prolonged exposure (≥6-days heat wave) during spermatogenesis revealed a negative (P < 0.05) association between early exposure (spermatocytogenesis: 64-90 days prior semen collection) and semen quality. This study underscores the negative association between early exposure to heat waves during sperm development and semen quality, raising concerns about its possible association with the worldwide declining male fertility. A comprehensive collaborative approach is crucial, involving global governmental policies, sustainable practices, and coordinated efforts across scientific, healthcare, and policy domains.


Subject(s)
Semen Analysis , Male , Humans , Argentina , Adult , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult , Hot Temperature , Adolescent , Middle Aged , Sperm Count , Semen/physiology
15.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(3): e202310130, jun. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1554608

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Durante 2020 y 2021, la circulación de los virus influenza se mantuvo por debajo de lo esperado en todo el mundo. En Argentina, en el año 2022 observamos una circulación ininterrumpida de influenza todo el año. Nuestros objetivos fueron describir los patrones de circulación y las características clínicas de niños internados con influenza. Población y métodos. Estudio retrospectivo, analítico, observacional. Se incluyeron todos los niños internados en un centro pediátrico con detección del virus influenza durante los años 2019-2022. Resultados. Se internaron 138 pacientes en 4 años; en 2019 se observó una tasa del 4,5/1000 egresos hospitalarios mientras que en 2022, fue del 15,1/1000. En 2020 y 2021 no hubo casos. En el 2019 la mayoría de los casos ocurrieron en invierno, la causa de la internación fue la infección respiratoria aguda baja (IRAB) en el 79 % y se detectó influenza A en el 92 % de los casos. En el 2022, la mayoría de los casos ocurrieron en primavera, el 62 % presentó IRAB y en el 56 % se detectó influenza A. Ambos períodos tuvieron similares frecuencias de vacunación y de comorbilidades. Conclusiones. En el 2022 se registraron más internaciones por influenza, lo que podría corresponder a que se realizaron métodos diagnósticos moleculares, que son más sensibles, y se observó un cambio en la estacionalidad con más casos en primavera. En 2019 predominó influenza A en infecciones del tracto respiratorio inferior, mientras que en el 2022 influenza A y B fueron similares, y hubo más formas extrapulmonares.


Introduction. During 2020 and 2021, the circulation of influenza virus remained below expectations worldwide. In Argentina, in 2022, we observed an uninterrupted circulation of influenza all year round. Our objectives were to describe the circulation patterns and clinical characteristics of hospitalized children with influenza. Population and methods. Retrospective, analytical, observational study. All children with influenza virus admitted to a children's hospital during the 2019­2022 period were included. Results. A total of 138 patients were admitted over 4 years; in 2019, the rate of hospital discharges was 4.5/1000, compared to 15.1/1000 in 2022. No cases were recorded in 2020 and 2021. In 2019, most cases were observed in the winter; in 79%, the cause was acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI); influenza A was detected in 92%. In 2022, most cases occurred in the spring; 62% developed ALRTI; and influenza A was detected in 56%. Similar rates of vaccination and comorbidities were observed in both periods. Conclusions. In 2022, more hospitalizations due to influenza were recorded, which may have correlated with the use of more sensitive molecular diagnostic testing and a change in seasonality, with more cases observed in the spring. In 2019, influenza A predominated in lower respiratory tract infections, while in 2022, cases of influenza A and B were similar, with more extra-pulmonary forms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Hospitalization , Hospitals
16.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(3): e202310081, jun. 2024. tab, fig
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1554613

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Uno de los principales desafíos para la primera infancia es brindar cuidados adecuados que reduzcan desigualdades y promuevan desarrollo infantil temprano (DIT). El objetivo del trabajo fue describir relaciones entre los cuidados que reciben niños y niñas de 3 y 4 años, según el marco para el cuidado cariñoso y sensible (NC, por sus siglas en inglés), y sus niveles de DIT en Argentina, considerando región y quintiles de riqueza. Población y métodos. Estudio analítico observacional de corte transversal, a partir de las bases de datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Niñas, Niños y Adolescentes (MICS) Argentina 2019-2020. Se seleccionaron 11 indicadores de NC y se estimó el nivel de DIT utilizando el Índice de Desarrollo Infantil Temprano (ECDI) para un análisis estadístico descriptivo. Resultados. En 2638 niños y niñas de 3 y 4 años evaluados, el promedio de acceso a indicadores de cuidados fue del 79,1 %; el acceso fue alto en 7 indicadores (entre el 84,2 % y el 97,9 %) y medio en 4 (entre el 46,9 % y el 65,1 %); la mayor frecuencia fue contar con registro de nacimiento (97,9 %) y la menor, la cobertura de seguro de salud (46,9 %). El 87,9 % alcanzó niveles adecuados de ECDI. Los resultados registran diferencias según quintiles de riqueza y regiones. Conclusiones. Los resultados evidencian desigualdades de acceso a cuidados y en DIT adecuado de niños y niñas de 3 y 4 años de áreas urbanas de Argentina según la región donde viven y el nivel de riqueza de sus hogares.


Introduction. One of the main challenges for early childhood is to provide adequate care to reduce inequalities and promote an early childhood development (ECD). The objective of this study was to describe the relationship between the care provided to children aged 3 and 4 years according to the nurturing care (NC) framework and their ECD levels in Argentina, considering the region and wealth quintiles. Population and methods. This was an observational, cross-sectional analytical study based on data from the National Survey of Children and Adolescents (MICS) of Argentina 2019­2020. A total of 11 NC indicators were selected; the level of ECD was estimated using the Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI) for a descriptive, statistical analysis. Results. In 2638 children aged 3 and 4 years assessed, the average access to care indicators was 79.1%; access was high for 7 indicators (between 84.2% and 97.9%) and middle for 4 indicators (between 46.9% and 65.1%); the highest and lowest frequency corresponded to having a birth certificate (97.9%) and health insurance coverage (46.9%), respectively. Adequate ECDI levels were observed in 87.9%. Results show differences by wealth quintile and region. Conclusions. The results evidence inequalities in terms of access to care and an adequate ECD of children aged 3 and 4 years from urban areas of Argentina, depending on the region where they live and their household wealth level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Research Design , Healthcare Disparities , Argentina , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies
17.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(3): e202310204, jun. 2024. tab, gráf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1554934

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El descenso de las coberturas de vacunación fue muy significativo en la última década. Los pediatras son una pieza fundamental para recuperar coberturas y aumentar la confianza en la vacunación. Objetivos. Describir la percepción de los pediatras acerca del conocimiento y prácticas sobre vacunas, e identificar barreras en el acceso. Métodos. Estudio analítico observacional, mediante encuesta en línea. Se incluyeron variables del perfil del profesional, capacitación y barreras en inmunizaciones. Resultados. Participaron 1696 pediatras (tasa de respuesta: 10,7 %), media de 50,4 años. El 78,7 % fueron mujeres. El 78,2 % contaba con ≥10 años de ejercicio profesional. El 78,4 % realizaba atención ambulatoria y el 56,0 % en el subsector privado. El 72,5 % realizó una capacitación en los últimos 2 años. Se manifestaron "capacitados" para transmitir a sus pacientes los beneficios de las vacunas: 97,2 %; objetivos de campañas: 87,7 %; contraindicaciones: 82,4 %; efectos adversos: 78,9 %; recupero de esquemas: 71,2 %; notificación de ESAVI: 59,5 %. La proporción fue estadísticamente superior, en todos los aspectos, en pediatras con ≥10 años de ejercicio y en aquellos con capacitación reciente (p ≤ 0,01). Barreras identificadas en el acceso a la vacunación: falsas contraindicaciones (62,3 %); falta temporaria de vacunas (46,4 %); motivos culturales (41,4 %); horario restringido del vacunatorio (40,6 %). Conclusiones. La percepción del grado de capacitación fue variable según el aspecto de la vacunación. Aquellos con mayor tiempo de ejercicio profesional y con actualización reciente se manifestaron con mayor grado de capacidad. Se identificaron múltiples barreras frecuentes asociadas al acceso en la vacunación.


Introduction. The decline in vaccination coverage has been very significant in the past decade. Pediatriciansplay a key role in catching-up coverage and increasing confidence in vaccination. Objectives. To describe pediatricians' perceptions of vaccine knowledge and practices and to identify barriers to access. Methods. Observational, analytical study using an online survey. Variables related to professional profile, training and barriers to vaccination were included. Results. A total of 1696 pediatricians participated (response rate: 10.7%). Their mean age was 50.4 years; 78.7% were women; 78.2% had ≥ 10 years of experience; 78.4% provided outpatient care and 56.0%, in the private subsector; and 72.5% received training in the past 2 years. Respondents described themselves as "trained" in convey the following aspects to their patients: benefits of vaccines: 97.2%; campaign objectives: 87.7%; contraindications: 82.4%; adverse effects: 78.9%; catchup vaccination: 71.2%; reporting of events supposedly attributable to vaccination or immunization: 59.5%. The proportion was statistically higher in all aspects, among pediatricians with ≥ 10 years of experience and those who received training recently (p ≤ 0.01). The barriers identified in access to vaccination were false contraindications (62.3%), temporary vaccine shortage (46.4%), cultural reasons (41.4%), and restricted vaccination center hours (40.6%). Conclusions. The perception of the level of training varied depending on the vaccination-related aspect. Pediatricians with more years of professional experience and those who received recent updates perceivedthemselves as more trained. Multiple barriers associated with access to vaccination were identified.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Vaccines , Vaccination , Perception , Argentina , Surveys and Questionnaires , Pediatricians
19.
Hipertens. riesgo vasc ; 41(2): 78-86, abr.-jun2024. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-232393

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La hipertensión arterial (HTA) representa el principal factor de riesgo individual, con mayor carga a nivel mundial de enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV). En nuestro país, algunos trabajos epidemiológicos han mostrado marcadas diferencias en las prevalencias de estos factores de riesgo de acuerdo con la población evaluada. Sin embargo, no hay estudios epidemiológicos de evaluación de factores de riesgo cardiovascular exclusivos referentes a barrios vulnerables con muy bajos recursos económicos, socioculturales y poca accesibilidad a los sistemas de salud. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional de corte transversal multicéntrico en habitantes de comunas vulnerables de muy bajos recursos, como asentamientos populares y barrios carenciados con muestreo aleatorizado simple de casas. Se realizaron tomas de presión arterial (PA), medidas antropométricas, así como cuestionarios epidemiológicos, económicos y socioculturales. Se describen los hallazgos: prevalencia, conocimiento y control de la PA en las distintas regiones. Se efectuó una regresión logística para determinar las variables independientes a los resultados principales. Resultados: Se analizaron 989 participantes. La prevalencia de HTA global fue de 48,2%. Un total de 82% tenía un índice de masa corporal (IMC) >25 kg/m2. De estos pacientes, 45,3% tenían menos de seis años de educación. Este último aspecto se asoció a mayor prevalencia de HTA de forma independiente. De los hipertensos, 44% desconocían su padecimiento y solo en 17,2% estaba controlado, asociándose esto a tener obra social (OS) y mayor nivel educativo. Únicamente 24% estaban bajo tratamiento combinado. Conclusión: La prevalencia de HTA en barrios vulnerables es elevada, superando a la de otros estratos sociales con niveles de conocimiento, tratamiento y control de la HTA bajos, similar a otras poblaciones. Se detectó un uso insuficiente de la terapia combinada.


Introduction: Hypertension (HTN) represents the primary individual risk factor, contributing significantly to the global burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In our country, epidemiological research has highlighted substantial variations in the prevalence of these risk factors across different populations. However, there is a lack of epidemiological studies assessing exclusive cardiovascular risk factors within vulnerable neighborhoods characterized by extremely limited economic resources, sociocultural challenges, and inadequate healthcare access. Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional observational study was conducted among individuals residing in economically deprived and marginalized communities, including informal settlements and underprivileged neighborhoods. Simple random sampling of households was employed. Blood pressure measurements, anthropometric assessments, and epidemiological, economic, and sociocultural questionnaires were administered. Results encompass prevalence rates, awareness levels, and blood pressure control across diverse regions. Logistic regression was utilized to identify independent variables influencing primary outcomes. Results: A total of 989 participants were analyzed. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 48.2%. About 82% had a body mass index (BMI) >25. Approximately 45.3% had less than 6 years of formal education. Independent association was established between education levels below 6 years and higher hypertension prevalence Among hypertensive individuals, 44% were unaware of their condition, with only 17.2% achieving control, correlated with having health insurance and a higher educational background. Merely 24% were receiving combined therapy. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension within vulnerable neighborhoods is alarmingly high, surpassing rates in other social strata. Knowledge, treatment, and control levels of hypertension are suboptimal, comparable to other populations... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Sciences , Epidemiology , Hypertension , Social Determinants of Health , Prevalence , Knowledge , Argentina
20.
Res Vet Sci ; 174: 105312, 2024 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38810472

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to develop the first life tables for the dog population of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires by constructing life expectancy tables. Data on canines received for final disposal at the Luis Pasteur Zoonosis Institute of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires from January 2018 to December 2021 were used to prepare the life tables. Of the 11,429 dogs that died in that period, the overall life expectancy at birth was 11.88 years (95% CI = 11.37-12.39). There was no difference in life expectancy at birth by sex or by pure versus cross breeds. According to neuter status, life expectancy at birth in neutered (13.98 years) was significantly higher than in entire (11.46 years) (p-value = 0.00001). Life tables varied according to the breed studied, with the Pekingese having the highest life expectancy at birth 16.42 years (95% CI: 15.87-16.98), and the Pit bull having the lowest life expectancy at birth 10.13 years (95% CI: 9.58-10.68). The current study provides useful information for veterinary professionals and pet owners and is a valuable tool for planning and developing effective health policies.


Subject(s)
Life Expectancy , Animals , Dogs , Argentina/epidemiology , Male , Female , Life Tables
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