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1.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 6(1)2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053627

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Autistic adults and children experience considerable health inequalities and have high rates of premature mortality, hospital admissions and emergency department visits. This is in part due to a lack of autism awareness in the healthcare and social care workforce. A new educational programme, Time for Autism (TfA), for medical students is being developed to address this challenge. This qualitative study was undertaken to support the development of the new programme in order to (1) understand the medical care experiences of parents of autistic children and (2) assess their views on the acceptability of the new TfA programme and willingness to be involved. METHODS: A convenience sample of 11 parents of autistic children were recruited across the South of England. The ages of the autistic children ranged from 3 to 17 years. Semistructured interviews were completed between October and December 2019. Interview transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three key themes were identified: diagnosis, experiences of doctors and TfA considerations. There was support for and willingness to take part in a dedicated autism education programme for medical students, and constructive feedback to inform and improve its delivery. CONCLUSION: The findings from this study provide insights into the medical care experiences of parents/carers of autistic children. Understanding how parents/carers of autistic children would like medical care to be improved can be used to develop TfA and other autism programmes. Parental/carer support for the development of and involvement in an autism medical education programme enhances the feasibility of the new programme.


Subject(s)
Autistic Disorder , Students, Medical , Adolescent , Adult , Autistic Disorder/diagnosis , Caregivers , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Parents , Qualitative Research
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(16): 5786-5792, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066153

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Rehabilitation of disabled children with autism has become a challenge for current rehabilitation centres. This study conducted psychological investigations on disabled children and analysed the symptoms and characteristics of autism in these children to develop more reasonable rehabilitation treatment plans that would help the children receive psychological counselling and effective rehabilitation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study investigated 107 disabled children from the Disabled Rehabilitation Research Centre of the South China Minority Autonomous Region. Using the PEP-3 scale as a research tool, a questionnaire was developed to investigate and collect data on the mental health of disabled children. The survey was conducted from 2017 to 2021, and 107 children's mental health data were collected in the form of questionnaires based on PEP-3 evaluation indicators. After cleaning the data, the questionnaire data were screened and processed. Descriptive statistical and correlation analysis tools were used for model analysis to understand the overall data distribution and the potential relationships among various data variables. RESULTS: The results of correlation analysis showed that cognition, language expression, language understanding, emotion, and social interaction in the subtest of developmental behaviour were the main indicators of the degree of autism in children. These indicators had a strong and significant correlation with the comprehensive score. Moreover, these indicators had a significant correlation with the individual self-care and adaptive behaviours reported by the children's caregivers. Small muscles, big muscles, and imitation (vision and movement) indicators had a significant correlation with problematic behaviours and physical fitness, and language and cognitive indicators also had a strong correlation with emotion and social interaction. CONCLUSIONS: Emphasis should be placed on the improvement of the language and cognitive abilities of disabled children with autism, and corresponding rehabilitation plans, and training can be formulated according to children with different degrees of illness to get a better rehabilitation outcome. Further, identification of key indicators of autism will be of help in aiding the development of rehabilitation treatment for disabled children with autism and formulation of long-term rehabilitation plans.


Subject(s)
Autistic Disorder , Disabled Children , Adaptation, Psychological , Caregivers , Child , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Mol Autism ; 13(1): 37, 2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123716

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Puberty is characterized by significant physical, hormonal, and psychological changes, which may be especially challenging for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although the etiology of ASD remains uncertain, studies suggest imbalances in hormones, such as testosterone, may modulate the autism phenotype. While differences in fetal and postnatal testosterone have been reported, there is limited literature regarding testosterone variations during adolescence in ASD. We investigated morning salivary testosterone levels in youth with ASD and typical development (TD) to explore hypothesized differences, expecting elevated hormonal levels in ASD compared to TD. METHODS: Youth with ASD (n = 140) and TD (n = 104), ages 10 to 13 years, were enrolled as part of a longitudinal study on pubertal development. Pubertal stage was determined by gold standard physical examination, and salivary testosterone was collected in the morning immediately upon waking and 30 min after waking and averaged across 3 days. Diagnostic (ASD/TD) and sex (male/female) differences, as well as interactions with age and puberty, were examined using robust linear mixed effect models. RESULTS: Youth with ASD showed significantly elevated testosterone concentrations compared to same-age TD peers. After the inclusion of natural cubic splines to account for nonlinearity in age, a significant age-by-sex interaction emerged with distinct developmental slopes for males and females. At younger ages, females had higher testosterone, until about 11.5 years of age, when levels began to plateau, while male testosterone concentrations continued to rapidly increase and surpass females. As expected, more advanced pubertal development was associated with elevated testosterone. In contrast, no significant effect of parent-reported social communication symptoms was observed. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include an unequal sex distribution, non-representative sample (e.g., cognition and race/ethnicity), and inability to examine afternoon/evening testosterone due to detection limits. CONCLUSIONS: Testosterone may play a unique role in the presentation of ASD, especially during periods of dynamic hormonal changes including puberty. Inherent developmental (age, puberty) and sex-based (male, female) factors play a more prominent role in changes in testosterone levels during adolescence. Even so, future research is warranted to determine the differential expression and impact of exposure to excess testosterone during the pubertal transition for youth with ASD.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Autism Spectrum Disorder/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Sexual Development , Testosterone
4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 393, 2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127337

ABSTRACT

Prior neuroimaging clinical trials investigating the neural effects of intranasal administration of the neuropeptide oxytocin demonstrated a key role of the amygdala in oxytocin's neuromodulatory effects. These studies mostly demonstrated the acute effects of single-dose administrations, examining task-dependent effects of oxytocin on brain activity elicited during explicit experimental tasks or stimuli presentations. The increased consideration of oxytocin as a potential ameliorating treatment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) requires a better understanding of how multiple-dose oxytocin administration affects intrinsic, task-free, amygdala function. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with between-subject design, 38 adult men with ASD underwent resting-state fMRI scanning before and after oxytocin or placebo treatment. Effects were assessed either after a single-dose administration, consisting of 24 international units, or after multiple-dose treatment, consisting of 4 weeks of once-daily nasal spray administrations. Compared to placebo, oxytocin induced a decrease in intrinsic resting-state BOLD signal amplitudes of the bilateral amygdala (fractional amplitudes of low-frequency fluctuations) and modulated cross-frequency interactions between adjacent BOLD frequency components. The right amygdala showed a pattern of reduced cross-frequency harmonicity, while the left amygdala showed a relative increase in harmonic cross-frequency interactions after oxytocin treatment. Notably, the direction and magnitude of BOLD spectral changes induced after a single-dose were qualitatively similar to treatment effects induced after multiple-dose treatment. Furthermore, the identified spectral changes in amygdalar BOLD amplitude and cross-frequency harmonicity were associated with improved feelings of tension, reflecting oxytocin's anxiolytic, stress-reducing neuromodulatory role. The observed effects of oxytocin on amygdalar BOLD spectral characteristics and associated behaviors contribute to a deeper mechanistic understanding of the intrinsic, task-free neuromodulatory dynamics that underlie single- and multiple-dose oxytocin treatment in ASD. European Clinical Trial Registry (Eudract 2014-000586-45).


Subject(s)
Anti-Anxiety Agents , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Neuropeptides , Adult , Amygdala/diagnostic imaging , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Autism Spectrum Disorder/diagnostic imaging , Autism Spectrum Disorder/drug therapy , Autistic Disorder/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Nasal Sprays , Oxytocin
5.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 41: e2021360, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102405

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of early exposure to agricultural pesticides and their relationship with autism spectrum disorder. DATA SOURCE: This systematic review was registered at PROSPERO as CRD42020204842. The subject was systematically analyzed on PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases until April 2021. Only studies with humans with early exposure to agricultural pesticides and diagnosis of autism were included. Exclusion criteria were studies on pesticides for domestic or veterinary use and late exposure. There were no language and time restriction. The quality analysis of the studies used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. DATA SYNTHESIS: Six case-control studies were included; three of them measured the route of exposure by maternal biomarkers and the others by the residence address. The studies had scores between moderate and high in the quality assessment tool. It was found high rates of association between early exposure to agricultural pesticides and autism and detection limit above the quantification for a sample of polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence concerning the exposure to agricultural pesticides in early life and the development of the autism spectrum disorder; however, more studies are required to better understand their possible association.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Pesticides , Polychlorinated Biphenyls , Autism Spectrum Disorder/chemically induced , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Pesticides/toxicity
6.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 4068-4071, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086078

ABSTRACT

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a combination of atypicalities in social cognition. Previous studies showed that people with autistic traits have atypicality in motion perception on a point-light display by measuring visual event-related potentials (ERPs). Although some studies have focused on the association between motion perception and autistic traits, visual ERPs to biological motion as large as actual person have not been investigated. Measuring brain activity in a real-life environment help us to understand the difficulties showed in daily life by people with autistic traits. In this study, we investigated the association between gait perception and autistic traits by measuring ERPs during video observation of approaching and receding life-sized point-light walkers (PLW s). ERPs were measured using an 8-channel EEG system in 22 adults. The multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess association between the Subthreshold Autism Trait Questionnaire (SATQ) score and the ERP amplitude or latency. As the results, we found that the higher SATQ score could be explained by the longer latency of N1 on the occipitotemporal area. These findings suggested that people with autistic traits have difficulty in perceiving the approach of others in daily life.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Motion Perception , Adult , Evoked Potentials/physiology , Gait , Humans , Motion Perception/physiology
7.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2022: 3414-3417, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086547

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a speech-based system for autism severity estimation combined with automatic speaker diarization. Speaker diarization was performed by two different methods. The first used acoustic features, which included Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) and pitch, and the second used x-vectors - embeddings extracted from Deep Neural Networks (DNN). The speaker diarization was trained using a Fully Connected Deep Neural Network (FCDNN) in both methods. We then trained a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to estimate the severity of autism based on 48 acoustic and prosodic features of speech. One hundred thirty-two young children were recorded in the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) examination room, using a distant microphone. Between the two diarization methods, the MFCC and Pitch achieved a better Diarization Error Rate (DER) of 26.91%. Using this diarization method, the severity estimation system achieved a correlation of 0.606 (Pearson) between the predicted and the actual autism severity scores (i.e., ADOS scores). Clinical Relevance- The presented system identifies children's speech segments and estimates their autism severity sc30:310ore.


Subject(s)
Autistic Disorder , Autistic Disorder/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Speech , Speech Recognition Software
8.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 17(1): 345, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel developmental mutations associated with disease are a continuous challenge in medicine. Clinical consequences caused by these mutations include neuron and cognitive alterations that can lead to epilepsy or autism spectrum disorders. Often, it is difficult to identify the physiological defects and the appropriate treatments. RESULTS: We have isolated and cultured primary cells from the skin of a patient with combined epilepsy and autism syndrome. A mutation in the potassium channel protein Kv10.2 was identified. We have characterised the alteration of the mutant channel and found that it causes loss of function (LOF). Primary cells from the skin displayed a very striking growth defect and increased differentiation. In vitro treatment with various carbonic anhydrase inhibitors with various degrees of specificity for potassium channels, (Brinzolamide, Acetazolamide, Retigabine) restored the activation capacity of the mutated channel. Interestingly, the drugs also recovered in vitro the expansion capacity of the mutated skin cells. Furthermore, treatment with Acetazolamide clearly improved the patient regarding epilepsy and cognitive skills. When the treatment was temporarily halted the syndrome worsened again. CONCLUSIONS: By in vitro studying primary cells from the patient and the activation capacity of the mutated protein, we could first, find a readout for the cellular defects and second, test pharmaceutical treatments that proved to be beneficial. The results show the involvement of a novel LOF mutation of a Potassium channel in autism syndrome with epilepsy and the great potential of in vitro cultures of primary cells in personalised medicine of rare diseases.


Subject(s)
Autistic Disorder , Epilepsy , Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated , Acetazolamide , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Epilepsy/genetics , Epilepsy/metabolism , Humans , Mutation/genetics , Potassium Channels/genetics , Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated/genetics
9.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 9350841, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36089974

ABSTRACT

Autism in children is a representative disease of pervasive developmental disorder, and there is currently no matching treatment. In the course of treatment, people generally use special education training, but this training mode cannot meet the comprehensive development of children. The traditional treatment mode cannot meet the changing new situation due to its poor adaptability. Martial arts routine movements are the soul of martial arts training, which can lay the foundation for movement training. Based on this, this article takes children with autism as research objects and aims to analyze the comprehensive intervention effect of martial arts routines on autism so as to provide some references for the treatment of children with autism. The article first analyzes the intervention forms of martial arts routine movements and realizes the combination of martial arts routine movements and children's autism intervention treatment from a theoretical point of view. Then, the article randomly divides the experimental subjects into the experimental group and the control group and conducts an evaluation and analysis of various indicators before and after the training of children with autism. Finally, the article falls back from the experimental results to related theories, aiming to provide a scientific basis for the comprehensive intervention treatment of children with autism. The experimental results showed that the scale evaluation results of the experimental group are different from those of the control group, and various indicators have been improved and improved, including language, perception, and social skills. Among them, the language and behavior of children with autism increased by 19.1%. The perception ability increased by 20.7%, and the social ability increased by 5.9%. The above experiments and analysis fully demonstrated that martial arts routines have a good effect in the intervention and treatment of children with autism, which can well improve the comprehensive quality of patients.


Subject(s)
Autistic Disorder , Martial Arts , Autistic Disorder/therapy , Child , Humans
10.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 6(1)2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053590

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This review aims to identify the mhealth apps delivering early intervention to support parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We aim to explore the concept, context and methodology of implementation that is, theoretical framework, feasibility, quality of evidence, for such apps. BACKGROUND: To improve outcomes for children with autism, early intervention has been found to be promising. Parental training, parent psychoeducation and parent-mediated intervention are regarded as the gold standard, to achieve early childhood development goals. Digital health technologies like tele-health, web-based services, have been used to deliver this at a reduced cost. There is little evidence about their use and efficacy in empowering parents of children with ASD. INCLUSION CRITERIA: The studies reporting the use of mhealth apps to support parents of children with ASD, in community settings, school settings, special schools, clinics, hospitals or child development centres. There will be no exclusion based on region, gender or sociocultural factors. The types of studies included will be quantitative, qualitative, mixed-methods study designs, case reports, grey literature, systematic reviews, clinical trials and studies reporting feasibility of digital mhealth applications. METHOD: Using the NICE Healthcare Databases Advanced Search, we will search the following databases: MEDLINE, PUBMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, EbscoHost, Sabinet, SAGE Journals, Directory of Open Access Journals, BioMed Central, Scopus, ScienceDirect. Furthermore, grey literature will be searched through Google Scholar, ShodhGanga, JSTOR, CORE, EBSCO, DOAJ, BASE. The searches will be limited to the age range of children between 2 and 6 years with ASD, and the date range is from the inception of the database to the current date. The terms for the ASD will be combined with terms for parent, early intervention and digital mhealth to identify eligible studies.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Telemedicine , Autism Spectrum Disorder/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Early Intervention, Educational/methods , Humans , Parents/education , Review Literature as Topic , Telemedicine/methods
11.
Mol Autism ; 13(1): 36, 2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36064612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the last decade, accumulative evidence has shown that oxytocin can modulate social perception in typically developed individuals and individuals diagnosed with autism. While several studies show that oxytocin (OT) modulates neural activation in social-related neural regions, the mechanism that underlies OT effects in ASD is not fully known yet. Despite evidence from animal studies on connections between the oxytocinergic system and excitation/inhibition neural balance, the influence of OT on oscillatory responses among individuals with ASD has been rarely examined. To bridge these gaps in knowledge, we investigated the effects of OT on both social and non-social stimuli while focusing on its specific influence on the neural connectivity between three socially related neural regions-the left and right fusiform and the medial frontal cortex. METHODS: Twenty-five adolescents with ASD participated in a wall-established social task during a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled MEG and OT administration study. Our main task was a social-related task that required the identification of social and non-social-related pictures. We hypothesized that OT would modulate the oscillatory connectivity between three pre-selected regions of interest to be more adaptive to social processing. Specifically, we focused on alpha and gamma bands which are known to play an important role in face processing and top-down/bottom-up balance. RESULTS: Compared to placebo, OT reduced the connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and the fusiform in the low gamma more for social stimuli than for non-social ones, a reduction that was correlated with individuals' performance in the task. Additionally, for both social and non-social stimuli, OT increased the connectivity in the alpha and beta bands. LIMITATIONS: Sample size was determined based on sample sizes previously reported in MEG in clinical populations, especially OT administration studies in combination with neuroimaging in ASD. We were limited in our capability to recruit for such a study, and as such, the sample size was not based on a priori power analysis. Additionally, we limited our analyses to specific neural bands and regions. To validate the current results, future studies may be needed to explore other parameters using whole-brain approaches in larger samples. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that OT influenced social perception by modifying the communication between frontal and posterior regions, an attenuation that potentially impacts both social and non-social early perception. We also show that OT influences differ between top-down and bottom-up processes, depending on the social context. Overall, by showing that OT influences both social-related perception and overall attention during early processing stages, we add new information to the existing understanding of the impact of OT on neural processing in ASD. Furthermore, by highlighting the influence of OT on early perception, we provide new directions for treatments for difficulties in early attentional phases in this population. Trial registration Registered on October 27, 2021-Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT05096676 (details on clinical registration can be found in www. CLINICALTRIAL: gov , unique identifier: NCT05096676 ).


Subject(s)
Autistic Disorder , Facial Recognition , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Autistic Disorder/diagnostic imaging , Autistic Disorder/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Facial Recognition/physiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Oxytocin/pharmacology , Social Perception
12.
Occup Ther Int ; 2022: 9693648, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36110198

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a research design for an integrated intervention using sensory integration training fused with social sports games for the treatment of children with autism. This study used a multiple baseline cross-subject design in a single-subject experiment, with structured play as the independent variable and expressive language skills of children with autism spectrum disorders as the dependent variable, with three phases of intervention: baseline, intervention period, and maintenance period. The expressive language ability was examined in terms of both oral expression and gestural expression, where the intervention effect of the oral expression was analyzed in terms of four components: the total number of words, the total number of sentences, average sentence length, and vocabulary complexity of oral expression, and the intervention effect of the gestural expression was analyzed in terms of changes in the frequency of children's gestural expression behaviors. For the categories classified by sensory integration ability, there are corresponding specific training programs that combine various physical exercises and play equipment to train the various abnormal functions of children with autism. Stereotyped behavior is a repetitive, self-imposed, and purposeless physical action, usually in the form of continuous and repetitive movements, sounds, and so on. 4 times a week, 25 minutes each time, the activity of recognizing pictures and familiar objects is carried out first, and then the children choose the structured game model and the initiative to build and take turns with the researchers to build. Stereotypic behaviors cause a great deal of distress in the lives of children with autism, and it is necessary to explore how to implement positive and effective interventions. Subjects' play abilities developed after receiving effective critical response training. The subjects' practice and symbolic play showed good immediate and maintenance intervention effectiveness; their associative and functional play showed no significant intervention effectiveness. The enhancement of the sensory integration skills of children with autism through sensory integration training resulted in a relative reduction of stereotypic behavior about the stimulus-seeking function, which had a positive effect on the intervention of stereotypic behavior.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Occupational Therapy , Autism Spectrum Disorder/therapy , Autistic Disorder/therapy , Child , Humans , Language , Occupational Therapy/methods
13.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(9): 3518-3530, 2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067514

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Little is known about the specific nature of language abilities of autistic adolescents and young adults with language impairment (LI), limiting our knowledge of developmental trajectories and ability to develop efficacious speech/language supports. An important first step is establishing proof of concept of identification of LI in this population, with considerations for feasibility of assessment. This research note describes such a study in a sample of autistic adolescents and young adults with LI. METHOD: Thirteen autistic adolescents and young adults completed an assessment protocol of age-referenced language and nonverbal cognitive assessments. Assessment took place once per year for 3 years; the first two assessments were conducted in person, and the final was conducted online due to the pandemic. All assessments included measures of overall language and morphosyntax; the third added measures of expressive and receptive vocabulary, verbal working memory, and nonverbal intelligence (NVIQ). Analysis included descriptives and comparison of individual performance with epidemiological criteria for LI. RESULTS: All participants qualified for LI, with overall receptive and expressive language scores persistently in the LI range. Other outcomes were variable. Some participants had nonword repetition and vocabulary abilities within age expectations, and some consistently showed adultlike morphosyntactic performance. NVIQ was variable, with no consistent associations with language outcomes. DISCUSSION: Our findings support the use of the current protocol, as implemented in person or online, to identify LI in autistic adolescents and young adults. This exploratory work is limited by a small sample and missing data. The findings contribute to our understanding of linguistic strengths and variability in the language skills of autistic young adults with LI.


Subject(s)
Autistic Disorder , Language Development Disorders , Adolescent , Autistic Disorder/complications , Humans , Language , Language Tests , Linguistics , Young Adult
14.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 2621476, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36105511

ABSTRACT

With the development of society, the number of autistic children in China is increasing, which not only makes the family's happiness very low, but also seriously affects the development of teenagers and society. Among the symptoms of autistic children, early childhood communication skills have received extensive attention. In traditional rehabilitation training, with a lack of parents' participation, most of the training cannot arouse the interest of autistic children, so the treatment effect is not obvious. Based on this, this paper proposes the application of family sports games to improve the early communication ability of autistic children. This article aims to investigate the role of family sports games in promoting the development of early communication skills in autistic children. This paper uses the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to score the comprehensive ability of family sports games. The experimental results of this paper show that before the experiment, the comprehensive scores of children's communication ability in the control group and the experimental group were 18.92 and 18, respectively, which were generally low, and there was no significant difference. This shows that the communication skills of the two groups of children before the experiment are relatively poor. After the test, the children's comprehensive score of communication ability in the experimental group increased by 35.8 points, and the difference was significant, indicating that family sports games have a great impact on the development of children's communication ability.


Subject(s)
Autistic Disorder , Sports , Adolescent , Autistic Disorder/diagnosis , Autistic Disorder/etiology , Autistic Disorder/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Communication , Humans
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15458, 2022 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104435

ABSTRACT

Discriminating between similar figures proves to be a remarkably demanding task due to the limited capacity of our visual cognitive processes. Here we examine how perceptual inference and decision-making are modulated by differences arising from neurodiversity. A large sample of autistic (n = 140) and typical (n = 147) participants completed two forced choice similarity judgement tasks online. Each task consisted of "match" (identical figures) and "mismatch" (subtle differences between figures) conditions. Signal detection theory analyses indicated a response bias by the autism group during conditions of uncertainty. More specifically, autistic participants were more likely to choose the "mismatch" option, thus leading to more hits on the "mismatch" condition, but also more false alarms on the "match" condition. These results suggest differences in response strategies during perceptual decision-making in autism.


Subject(s)
Autistic Disorder , Cognition , Decision Making/physiology , Humans , Judgment , Uncertainty
16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 608, 2022 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104779

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The public health measures enacted in order to control the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic have caused considerable changes to daily life. For autistic children and adolescents, adapting to the "new normal," including mask-wearing, may be difficult because of their restricted interest and repetitive behavior (RRB) characteristics. We aimed to examine the relationships between RRB characteristics and the impact of mask-wearing on their social communications during the pandemic. METHODS: We recruited participants with a clinical diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder based on DSM-5 diagnostic criteria from two outpatient clinics in Tokyo, Japan, between November 2020 and April 2021 using a convenience sampling methodology. As a result, the participants consisted of 102 children and adolescents (mean (SD) age = 11.6 (5.3)). We collected data on RRB characteristics frequency before and during the pandemic using the CoRonavIruS Health Impact Survey (CRISIS) - Adapted for Autism and Related Neurodevelopmental conditions (AFAR). We then conducted factor analyses to compute the RRB severity composite scores, which are divided into lower- (e.g., sensory seeking), and higher-order (e.g., restricted interest). We also investigated mask-wearing culture using a bespoke questionnaire, and using Spearman's rank correlation analyses, we examined the relationships between before pandemic RRB characteristics, and the impact of mask-wearing on social communications during the pandemic. RESULTS: We found that children and adolescents who exhibited lower-order RRB before the pandemic had difficulties in going-out with mask-wearing (rho = -0.25, q = .031), more challenges with mask-wearing (rho = - 0.34, q = .0018), and difficulty in referring to others' emotions while wearing masks (rho = - 0.36, q = .0016). We also found an association between higher-order RRB before the pandemic and an uncomfortable sensation (rho = - 0.42, q = .0002) and difficulties in referring to other's emotions while wearing masks (rho = - 0.25, q = .031). CONCLUSIONS: We revealed that various behaviors, such as sensory seeking, repetitive motor mannerisms and movements, and rituals and routines, undertaken before the pandemic could be important predictors of difficulties with mask-wearing and social communication for autistic children and adolescents during the pandemic. Caregivers and teachers wearing masks may need to provide extra support for social communication to autistic children and adolescents showing RRB characteristics frequently.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , Autistic Disorder/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Social Cognition , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi ; 39(9): 1001-1004, 2022 Sep 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36082574

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics and genetic etiology of a child with Helsmoortel-Van der Aa syndrome (HVDAS). METHODS: Genetic testing was carried out for the child and his parents, and the clinical phenotypes and genetic variants of reported cases were summarized through literature review. RESULTS: The child has featured peculiar facies, accompanied by autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability and motor retardation, and curving of the second toes, which was unreported previously. Genetic testing revealed that the child has harbored a heterozygous c.2157C>G (p.Tyr719*) variant of the ADNP gene, which was not found in either parent. Based on the guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, this variant was rated as pathogenic. Among 80 HVDAS cases described in the literature, most had various degrees of behavioral abnormalities, intellectual disability, language retardation and motor retardation, with common features involving the nervous system, gastrointestinal system and eye. Variants of the ADNP gene mainly included frameshift variants and nonsense variants, with the hotspot variants including p.Tyr719*, p.Asn832lysfs*81 and p.Arg730*. CONCLUSION: The clinical phenotype of the child is closely correlated with the heterozygous variant of the ADNP gene, which expanded the phenotypic spectrum of HVDAS. As HVDAS may involve multiple systems and have high phenotypic heterogeneity, genetic testing technology can facilitate accurately diagnose.


Subject(s)
Abnormalities, Multiple , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Intellectual Disability , Abnormalities, Multiple/genetics , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Autistic Disorder/genetics , Homeodomain Proteins/genetics , Humans , Intellectual Disability/complications , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Mutation , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Rare Diseases/complications
18.
J Neurodev Disord ; 14(1): 51, 2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109700

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intellectual disability affects approximately one third of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (autism). Yet, a major unresolved neurobiological question is what differentiates autistic individuals with and without intellectual disability. Intelligence quotients (IQs) are highly variable during childhood. We previously identified three subgroups of autistic children with different trajectories of intellectual development from early (2-3½ years) to middle childhood (9-12 years): (a) persistently high: individuals whose IQs remained in the normal range; (b) persistently low: individuals whose IQs remained in the range of intellectual disability (IQ < 70); and (c) changers: individuals whose IQs began in the range of intellectual disability but increased to the normal IQ range. The frontoparietal (FPN) and default mode (DMN) networks have established links to intellectual functioning. Here, we tested whether brain regions within the FPN and DMN differed volumetrically between these IQ trajectory groups in early childhood. METHODS: We conducted multivariate distance matrix regression to examine the brain regions within the FPN (11 regions x 2 hemispheres) and the DMN (12 regions x 2 hemispheres) in 48 persistently high (18 female), 108 persistently low (32 female), and 109 changers (39 female) using structural MRI acquired at baseline. FPN and DMN regions were defined using networks identified in Smith et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:13040-5, 2009). IQ trajectory groups were defined by IQ measurements from up to three time points spanning early to middle childhood (mean age time 1: 3.2 years; time 2: 5.4 years; time 3: 11.3 years). RESULTS: The changers group exhibited volumetric differences in the DMN compared to both the persistently low and persistently high groups at time 1. However, the persistently high group did not differ from the persistently low group, suggesting that DMN structure may be an early predictor for change in IQ trajectory. In contrast, the persistently high group exhibited differences in the FPN compared to both the persistently low and changers groups, suggesting differences related more to concurrent IQ and the absence of intellectual disability. CONCLUSIONS: Within autism, volumetric differences of brain regions within the DMN in early childhood may differentiate individuals with persistently low IQ from those with low IQ that improves through childhood. Structural differences in brain networks between these three IQ-based subgroups highlight distinct neural underpinnings of these autism sub-phenotypes.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Intellectual Disability , Autism Spectrum Disorder/complications , Autism Spectrum Disorder/diagnostic imaging , Autistic Disorder/diagnostic imaging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain Mapping , Female , Humans , Intellectual Disability/complications
19.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 32(7): 390-399, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112116

ABSTRACT

Objective: Evaluate the long-term improvement and safety of aripiprazole in treating irritability in Asian children and adolescents (6-17 years) with autistic disorder. Methods: A 52-week, open-label, flexibly dosed (2-15 mg/day) study on the improvement and safety of aripiprazole in patients with autistic disorder who had completed an antecedent 12-week open-label study. The evaluation of efficacy was conducted using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale, Child Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS), Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS), and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF). Safety and tolerability measurements included adverse events, vital signs, electrocardiography, laboratory tests, body weight, and extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs). Results: During the 52-week treatment, all effectiveness variables, including ABC, CGI, CY-BOCS, VABS, and PSI-SF scores, showed improvement. Regarding safety, the proportion of patients who experienced any treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) was 58.62% (34/58 subjects, 75 cases). The most common TEAE was nasopharyngitis reported in 20.69% (15/58 subjects, 15 cases) and the other TEAE with an incidence of ≥10% was weight increases in 18.97% (11/58 subjects, 11 cases). Of them, 27.59% (16/58 subjects, 28 cases) experienced adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The most common ADR was weight increase reported in 15.52% (9/58 subjects, nine cases). The incidence of serious adverse events (SAEs) was 5.17% (3/58 subjects, three cases), which were epiphysiolysis, seizure, and a suicide attempt, but these were not ADRs. There were no clinically significant changes found in the evaluation of EPSs. Conclusions: Aripiprazole showed improvement for behavioral problems and adaptive functioning and was well tolerated in patients with autistic disorder until nearly a year after drug use. The Clinical Trial Registration number: NCT02069977.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , Autistic Disorder , Basal Ganglia Diseases , Adolescent , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , Aripiprazole/adverse effects , Autistic Disorder/drug therapy , Basal Ganglia Diseases/chemically induced , Child , Humans , Irritable Mood , Weight Gain
20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: With remote work becoming more common across industries, employees with autism may experience different work support needs from neurotypical peers. However, the specific remote work needs of this group of employees are underexplored in the literature. We aim to propose ways to assess workplace digital adaptation needs for individuals with autism and a framework for communicating these needs to employers. METHODS: This qualitative study included interviews with 13 Polish business professionals, including coworkers and/or supervisors of employees with autism (n = 9) and female employees with autism (n = 4), about their remote work support needs. Participants responded to semi-structured interview questions identifying advantages and risk factors associated with remote work for this specific group of employees. RESULTS: Participants reported advantages of remote work, such as limiting sensory overload and intensive interpersonal contacts, indirect interpersonal communications, flexible work hours, and eliminating the need to travel to work. Participants also reported challenges of remote work, such as reducing wanted or helpful social contacts, engaging in direct electronic communications, limiting opportunities to learn from other employees, and managing work-life balance. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a need for an autism-inclusive digitalized remote work design customized to the unique needs of employees on the autism spectrum. Business managers would be key partners in the design of autism-inclusive digitalized remote work systems. Additional research is needed with larger and more diverse samples of employees with autism.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Autism Spectrum Disorder/therapy , Autistic Disorder/therapy , Female , Humans , Poland , Qualitative Research , Workplace
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