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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249664, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345558

ABSTRACT

Abstract The impact of antibiotics on growth, cocoon production was assessed in addition to isolation and characterization of bacteria associated with silkworm gut of infected larvae. Larval rearing was maintained at recommended conditions of temperature and humidity. Silkworm larvae showing abnormal symptoms were collected from the control group and dissected for gut collection. Bacteria were isolated from the gut content by spreading on agar plates and incubated at 37 °C for 48 hrs. Bacterial identification and phylogenetic analysis were carried out by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolated bacteria were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test (disc diffusion methods) by using Penicillin (10 µg/mL), Tetracycline (30 µg/mL), Amoxicillin (25 µg/mL), Ampicillin (10 µg/mL), and Erythromycin (15 µg/mL). All isolated strains showed positive results for the catalase test. We isolated and identified bacterial strains (n = 06) from the gut of healthy and diseased silkworm larvae. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, isolated bacteria showed close relation with Serratia, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas spp. Notably, 83.3% of strains were resistant to Penicillin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, and Erythromycin but 16.6% showed antibiotic susceptibility to the above-mentioned commonly used antibiotics. Silkworm larvae fed on penicillin-treated leaves showed significant improvement in larval weight, larval length, and cocoon production. Significantly higher larval weight (6.88g), larval length (5.84cm), and cocoon weight (1.33g) were recorded for larvae fed on leaves treated with penicillin as compared to other antibiotics. Isolated bacterial strains showed close relation with Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp.


Resumo O impacto dos antibióticos no crescimento e na produção do casulo foi avaliado, além do isolamento e caracterização das bactérias associadas ao intestino de larvas infectadas do bicho-da-seda. A criação das larvas foi mantida nas condições recomendadas de temperatura e umidade. As larvas do bicho-da-seda com sintomas anormais foram coletadas do grupo controle e dissecadas para coleta do intestino. As bactérias foram isoladas do conteúdo intestinal por espalhamento em placas de ágar e incubadas a 37° C durante 48 horas. A identificação bacteriana e a análise filogenética foram realizadas pelo sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA. As bactérias isoladas foram submetidas a teste de sensibilidade antimicrobiana (métodos de difusão em disco) com penicilina (10 µg / mL), tetraciclina (30 µg / mL), amoxicilina (25 µg / mL), ampicilina (10 µg / mL) e eritromicina (15 µg / mL). Todas as cepas isoladas apresentaram resultados positivos para o teste da catalase. Isolamos e identificamos cepas bacterianas (n = 06) do intestino de larvas de bicho-da-seda saudáveis e doentes. Com base na sequência do gene 16S rRNA, as bactérias isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia, Bacillus e Pseudomonas spp. Notavelmente, 83,3% das cepas eram resistentes a penicilina, tetraciclina, amoxicilina, ampicilina e eritromicina, mas 16,6% mostraram suscetibilidade aos antibióticos comumente usados mencionados acima. As larvas do bicho-da-seda alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina apresentaram melhora significativa no peso larval, comprimento larval e produção de casulo. Peso larval significativamente maior (6,88g), comprimento larval (5,84cm) e peso do casulo (1,33g) foram registrados para larvas alimentadas com folhas tratadas com penicilina, em comparação com outros antibióticos. Cepas bacterianas isoladas mostraram estreita relação com Serratia spp., Bacillus spp. e Pseudomonas spp.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bombyx , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Bacteria/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Larva
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251747, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355878

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fish is the main source of animal protein for human diet. The aim of this study was to find out prevalence of pathogenic bacteria of two selected economically important fish of Pakistan namely Mahseer (Tor putitora) and Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Live fish samples from hatcheries and dead fish samples from different markets of study area were randomly collected. The fish samples were analyzed for isolation, identification and prevalence of bacteria. The isolated bacteria from study fish were identified through biochemical test and about 10 species of pathogenic bacteria were identified including the pathogenic bacteria to human and fish namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus iniae, Serratia spp. Citrobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas spp. Bacillus spp. and Salmonella spp. The bacterial percentage frequency of occurrence in Silver carp and Mahseer fish showed Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21.42%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 17.85%, Escherichia coli 11.90%, Staphylococcus aureus 9.52%, Citrobacter spp. 9.52%, Serratia spp. 8.33%, Streptococcus iniae 7.14%, Stenotrophomonas spp. 5.95%, Bacillus spp. 4.76% and Salmonella spp. 3.57%. The study revealed that Fish samples of Mahseer and Silver carp that were collected from markets have found more isolates (10 bacterial species) than did the fresh fish pond samples (03 bacterial species) of hatcheries. The occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in study fish showed risk factor for public health consumers.


Resumo O peixe é a principal fonte de proteína animal para a alimentação humana. O objetivo deste estudo foi descobrir a prevalência de bactérias patogênicas de dois peixes economicamente importantes selecionados do Paquistão, nomeadamente Mahseer (Tor putitora) e carpa prateada (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). Amostras de peixes vivos de incubatórios e amostras de peixes mortos de diferentes mercados da área de estudo foram coletadas aleatoriamente. As amostras de peixes foram analisadas quanto ao isolamento, identificação e prevalência de bactérias. As bactérias isoladas dos peixes do estudo foram identificadas através de testes bioquímicos e cerca de 10 espécies de bactérias patogênicas foram identificadas incluindo as bactérias patogênicas para humanos e peixes, nomeadamente, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus iniae, Serratia spp. Citrobacter spp. Stenotrophomonas spp. Bacillus spp. e Salmonella spp. A porcentagem de freqüência de ocorrência bacteriana em carpa prateada e peixes Mahseer mostrou Pseudomonas aeruginosa 21,42%, Staphylococcus epidermidis 17,85%, Escherichia coli 11,90%, Staphylococcus aureus 9,52%, Citrobacter spp. 9,52%, Serratia spp. 8,33%, Streptococcus iniae 7,14%, Stenotrophomonas spp. 5,95%, Bacillus spp. 4,76% e Salmonella spp. 3,57%. O estudo revelou que as amostras de peixes de Mahseer e carpa prateada coletadas nos mercados encontraram mais isolados (10 espécies bacterianas) do que as amostras de peixes frescos (03 espécies bacterianas) de incubatórios. A ocorrência de bactérias patogênicas nos peixes do estudo apresentou fator de risco para consumidores de saúde pública.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Carps , Pakistan , Bacteria , Ponds , Incidence
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246038, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339397

ABSTRACT

Abstract Isla Arena is located in the coordinate 20° 70´ N - 90° 45´ W, from Campeche, Mexico. In these estuaries, the ocean mixes with fresh water, and ecosystems are concentrated where petenes and pink flamingos proliferate. Crustaceans and mollusks abound in the sea. Despite its enormous marine wealth, there are no studies carried out on which halophilic microorganisms are present in these waters. In this work, the diversity and structure of the microbial community was investigated through a metagenomics approach and corroborated for sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. It was found that the phylum Fimicutes predominates with more than 50%, in almost the same proportion of the class Bacilli and with almost 41% of relative abundance of the order Bacillales. The sequencing results showed that one of the samples presented a high percentage of similarity (99.75%) using the Nucleotide BLAST program with a peculiar microorganism: Bacillus subtilis. This microorganism is one of the best characterized bacteria among the gram-positive ones. Our results demonstrate that B. subtilis can be an efficient source of proteases, lipases and cellulases, from halophilic microbial communities located in poorly explored areas.


Resumo Isla Arena está localizada na coordenada 20°70'N - 90°45'W, de Campeche, México. Nesses estuários, o oceano se mistura com a água doce e os ecossistemas se concentram onde proliferam petenos e flamingos rosa. Crustáceos e moluscos abundam no mar. Apesar de sua enorme riqueza marinha, não há estudos realizados sobre a presença de microrganismos halofílicos nessas águas. Neste trabalho, a diversidade e estrutura da comunidade microbiana foram investigadas através de uma abordagem metagenômica e corroboradas para o sequenciamento de genes 16S rRNA. Verificou-se que o filo Fimicutes predomina com mais de 50%, quase na mesma proporção da classe Bacilli e com quase 41% de abundância relativa da ordem Bacillales. Os resultados do sequenciamento mostraram que uma das amostras apresentou alto percentual de similaridade (99,75%) pelo programa Nucleotide BLAST com um microrganismo peculiar: Bacillus subtilis. Nossos resultados demonstram que B. subtilis pode ser uma fonte eficiente de proteases, lipases e celulases, provenientes de comunidades microbianas halofílicas localizadas em áreas pouco exploradas.


Subject(s)
Archaea , Microbiota , Phylogeny , Bacteria/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Mexico
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242536, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339356

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chromium (VI) a highly toxic metal, a major constituent of industrial waste. It is continuously release in soil and water, causes environmental and health related issues, which is increasing public concern in developing countries like Pakistan. The basic aim of this study was isolation and screening of chromium resistant bacteria from industrial waste collected from Korangi and Lyari, Karachi (24˚52ʹ46.0ʺN 66˚59ʹ25.7ʺE and 24˚48ʹ37.5ʺN 67˚06ʹ52.6ʺE). Among total of 53 isolated strains, seven bacterial strains were selected through selective enrichment and identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics. These strains were designated as S11, S13, S17, S18, S30, S35 and S48, resistance was determined against varying concentrations of chromium (100-1500 mg/l). Two bacterial strains S35 and S48 showed maximum resistance to chromium (1600 mg/l). Bacterial strains S35 and S48 were identified through 16S rRNA sequence and showed 99% similarity to Bacillus paranthracis and Bacillus paramycoides. Furthermore, growth condition including temperature and pH were optimized for both bacterial strains, showed maximum growth at temperature 30ºC and at optimum pH 7.5 and 6.5 respectively. It is concluded that indigenous bacterial strains isolated from metal contaminated industrial effluent use their innate ability to transform toxic heavy metals to less or nontoxic form and can offer an effective tool for monitoring heavy metal contamination in the environment.


Resumo O cromo (VI), metal altamente tóxico, é um dos principais constituintes dos resíduos industriais. É liberado no solo e na água, causa problemas ambientais e de saúde de crescente preocupação pública em países em desenvolvimento como o Paquistão. O objetivo básico deste estudo foi o isolamento e a triagem de bactérias resistentes ao cromo de resíduos industriais coletados em Korangi e Lyari, Karachi (24˚52'46,0"N 66˚59'25,7"E e 24˚48'37,5"N 67˚06'52,6"E). Do total de 53 cepas isoladas, sete cepas bacterianas foram selecionadas por enriquecimento seletivo e identificadas com base em características morfológicas e bioquímicas. Essas cepas foram designadas como S11, S13, S17, S18, S30, S35 e S48, apresentaram alta resistência aos metais contra concentrações variáveis (100-1500 mg / l) de cromo. Já as cepas S35 e S48 foram identificadas por meio da sequência 16S rRNA e apresentaram 99% de similaridade com Bacillus paranthracis e Bacillus paramycoides. Além disso, as condições de crescimento incluindo temperatura e pH foram otimizadas e ambas as cepas bacterianas apresentaram crescimento máximo na temperatura de 30 ºC, enquanto seu pH ótimo foi observado em 7,5 e 6,5, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o potencial de resistência dessas bactérias resistentes ao cromo pode ser efetivamente utilizado na remoção de cromo de efluentes industriais contaminados. Técnicas de base biológica usando bactérias ajudarão a fornecer métodos mais baratos e ecológicos de remoção, recuperação e desintoxicação de cromo.


Subject(s)
Chromium , Metals, Heavy , Bacillus , Bacteria/genetics , Biodegradation, Environmental , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Industrial Waste/analysis
5.
J Nat Prod ; 85(3): 479-484, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196451

ABSTRACT

Bacteria use small molecules to impose strict regulation over the acquisition, uptake, and sequestration of transition metal ions. Low-abundance nutrient metals, such as Fe(III), need to be scavenged from the environment by high-affinity chelating molecules called siderophores. Conversely, metal ions that become toxic at high concentrations need to be sequestered and detoxified. Often, bacteria produce a suite of compounds that bind various metal ions at different affinities in order to maintain homeostasis. Turnerbactin, a triscatecholate siderophore isolated from the intracellular shipworm symbiont Teredinibacter turnerae T7901, is responsible for iron regulation and uptake. Herein, another series of compounds are described that complex with iron, copper, and molybdenum in solution. Teredinibactins belong to a class of metal-binding molecules that utilize a phenolate-thiazoline moiety in the coordination of metal ions. In contrast to other compounds in this class, such as yersiniabactin, the phenyl ring is decorated with a 2,4-dihydroxy-3-halo substitution pattern. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy based titration experiments with CuCl2 show the formation of an intermediate complex at substoichiometric concentrations and conversion to a copper-bound complex at 1:1 molar equiv.


Subject(s)
Ferric Compounds , Siderophores , Bacteria/metabolism , Biological Transport , Iron/metabolism , Siderophores/chemistry
6.
Environ Entomol ; 51(1): 94-107, 2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34864906

ABSTRACT

Insects harbor bacterial endosymbionts that provide their hosts with nutritional benefit or with protection against natural enemies, plant defenses, insecticides, or abiotic stresses. We used directed sequencing of 16S rDNA to identify and compare endosymbionts of Bactericera maculipennis (Crawford) and the western, central, and northwestern haplotypes of B. cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Triozidae). Both species are native to North America, are known to harbor the plant pathogen 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' and develop on shared host plants within the Convolvulaceae. The Old-World species Heterotrioza chenopodii (Reuter) (Psylloidea: Triozidae), now found in North America, was included as an outgroup. 16S sequencing confirmed that both Bactericera species harbor 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' and revealed that both species harbor unique strains of Wolbachia and Sodalis. However, the presence of Wolbachia and Sodalis varied among haplotypes of B. cockerelli. The central and western haplotypes harbored the same strains of Wolbachia, which was confirmed by Sanger sequencing of the wsp and ftsZ genes. Wolbachia was also detected in very low abundance from the northwestern haplotype by high-throughput sequencing of 16S but was not detected from this haplotype by PCR screening. The northwestern and central haplotypes also harbored Sodalis, which was not detected in the western haplotype. Heterotrioza chenopodii harbored an entirely different community of potential endosymbionts compared with the Bactericera spp. that included Rickettsia and an unidentified bacterium in the Enterobacteriaceae. Results of this study provide a foundation for further research on the interactions between psyllids and their bacterial endosymbionts.


Subject(s)
Hemiptera , Rhizobiaceae , Solanum tuberosum , Animals , Bacteria/genetics , Haplotypes , Hemiptera/microbiology , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Solanum tuberosum/microbiology
7.
J Oleo Sci ; 71(5): 701-708, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491095

ABSTRACT

The use of bacteria in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) emerges as an ecofriendly and exciting approach. In the present study, we reported the biosynthesis of AgNPs by using culture supernatant of the bacteria Bacillus licheniformis (MN900686). The biogenically synthesized AgNPs were confirmed by the change in the color of the culture filtrate from yellow to brown after the addition of AgNO3. Further characterization performed by means of UV vis-spectroscopy showed absorption peak at 414 nm which confirmed the formation of AgNPs. Fourier Transfer infrared (FTIR) confirmed the involvement of biological molecules in the formation of nanoparticles (NPs). The SEM revealed that the NPs have approximately 38 nm size. The agar well diffusion assay was used to determine antibacterial activity while tube dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The human pathogenic bacterial strains i.e., P. aeruginosa (MN900691) and B. subtilis (MN900684), were used as test strains. The anti-bacterial assay against test strains revealed that these NPs showed concentration dependent increased zone of inhibition (ZOI). The maximum ZOI at 25 µL of AgNPs was 20 mm against B. subtilis after 24 hours of incubation. One-way ANOVA test showed significant ZOI (p ≤ 0.05) against B. subtilis. The MIC was ranged from 4.3-6.6 µg/mL while MBC ranged from 8.3 to 6.6 µg/mL. Overall, this study suggested that the biogenically synthesized NPs are an effective alternative source of antimicrobials against pathogenic bacteria.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Bacillus licheniformis , Metal Nanoparticles , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Silver/chemistry , Silver/pharmacology
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 853213, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493464

ABSTRACT

Recent transcriptomics and metagenomics studies showed that tissue-infiltrating immune cells and bacteria interact with cancer cells to shape oncogenesis. This interaction and its effects remain to be elucidated. However, it is technically difficult to co-quantify immune cells and bacteria in their respective microenvironments. To address this challenge, we herein report the development of a complete a bioinformatics pipeline, which accurately estimates the number of infiltrating immune cells using a novel Particle Swarming Optimized Support Vector Regression (PSO-SVR) algorithm, and the number of infiltrating bacterial using foreign read remapping and the GRAMMy algorithm. It also performs systematic differential abundance analyses between tumor-normal pairs. We applied the pipeline to a collection of paired liver cancer tumor and normal samples, and we identified bacteria and immune cell species that were significantly different between tissues in terms of health status. Our analysis showed that this dual model of microbial and immune cell abundance had a better differentiation (84%) between healthy and diseased tissue. Caldatribacterium sp., Acidaminococcaceae sp., Planctopirus sp., Desulfobulbaceae sp.,Nocardia farcinica as well as regulatory T cells (Tregs), resting mast cells, monocytes, M2 macrophases, neutrophils were identified as significantly different (Mann Whitney Test, FDR< 0.05). Our open-source software is freely available from GitHub at https://github.com/gutmicrobes/PSO-SVR.git.


Subject(s)
Liver Neoplasms , Transcriptome , Algorithms , Bacteria/genetics , Computational Biology , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Software , Tumor Microenvironment/genetics
9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 846063, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493727

ABSTRACT

Viruses are increasingly viewed as vital components of the human gut microbiota, while their roles in health and diseases remain incompletely understood. Here, we first sequenced and analyzed the 37 metagenomic and 18 host metabolomic samples related to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and found that some shifted viruses between IBS and controls covaried with shifted bacteria and metabolites. Especially, phages that infect beneficial lactic acid bacteria depleted in IBS covaried with their hosts. We also retrieved public whole-genome metagenomic datasets of another four diseases (type 2 diabetes, Crohn's disease, colorectal cancer, and liver cirrhosis), totaling 438 samples including IBS, and performed uniform analysis of the gut viruses in diseases. By constructing disease-specific co-occurrence networks, we found viruses actively interacting with bacteria, negatively correlated with possible dysbiosis-related and inflammation-mediating bacteria, increasing the connectivity between bacteria modules, and contributing to the robustness of the networks. Functional enrichment analysis showed that phages interact with bacteria through predation or expressing genes involved in the transporter and secretion system, metabolic enzymes, etc. We further built a viral database to facilitate systematic functional classification and explored the functions of viral genes on interacting with bacteria. Our analyses provided a systematic view of the gut virome in the disease-related microbial community and suggested possible positive roles of viruses concerning gut health.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Microbiota , Viruses , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteriophages/genetics , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Humans , Virome/genetics , Viruses/genetics
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 17: 1851-1864, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502235

ABSTRACT

Nano silver is one of the most widely used engineering nanomaterials with antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. However, the widespread application of nano silver preparations in daily life raises concerns about public health. Although several review articles have described the toxicity of nano silver to specific major organs, an updated comprehensive review that clearly and systematically outlines the harmful effects of nano silver is lacking. This review begins with the routes of exposure to nano silver and its distribution in vivo. The toxic reactions are then discussed on three levels, from the organ to the cellular and subcellular levels. This review also provides new insights on adjusting the toxicity of nano silver by changing their size and surface functionalization and their combination with other materials to form a composite formulation. Finally, future development, challenges, and research directions are discussed.


Subject(s)
Metal Nanoparticles , Nanostructures , Bacteria , Metal Nanoparticles/toxicity
11.
Microb Genom ; 8(5)2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503723

ABSTRACT

Metagenomics has become a prominent technology to study the functional potential of all organisms in a microbial community. Most studies focus on the bacterial content of these communities, while ignoring eukaryotic microbes. Indeed, many metagenomics analysis pipelines silently assume that all contigs in a metagenome are prokaryotic, likely resulting in less accurate annotation of eukaryotes in metagenomes. Early detection of eukaryotic contigs allows for eukaryote-specific gene prediction and functional annotation. Here, we developed a classifier that distinguishes eukaryotic from prokaryotic contigs based on foundational differences between these taxa in terms of gene structure. We first developed Whokaryote, a random forest classifier that uses intergenic distance, gene density and gene length as the most important features. We show that, with an estimated recall, precision and accuracy of 94, 96 and 95 %, respectively, this classifier with features grounded in biology can perform almost as well as the classifiers EukRep and Tiara, which use k-mer frequencies as features. By retraining our classifier with Tiara predictions as an additional feature, the weaknesses of both types of classifiers are compensated; the result is Whokaryote+Tiara, an enhanced classifier that outperforms all individual classifiers, with an F1 score of 0.99 for both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, while still being fast. In a reanalysis of metagenome data from a disease-suppressive plant endospheric microbial community, we show how using Whokaryote+Tiara to select contigs for eukaryotic gene prediction facilitates the discovery of several biosynthetic gene clusters that were missed in the original study. Whokaryote (+Tiara) is wrapped in an easily installable package and is freely available from https://github.com/LottePronk/whokaryote.


Subject(s)
Metagenome , Microbiota , Bacteria/genetics , Eukaryota/genetics , Metagenomics/methods , Microbiota/genetics
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2451: 631-669, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505039

ABSTRACT

The emergence of microbial resistance to antimicrobials among several common pathogenic microbial strains is an increasing problem worldwide. Thus, it is urgent to develop not only new antimicrobial therapeutics to fight microbial infections, but also new effective, rapid, and inexpensive methods to monitor the efficacy of these new therapeutics. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) and antimicrobial blue light (aBL) therapy are receiving considerable attention for their antimicrobial potential and represent realistic alternatives to antibiotics. To monitor the photoinactivation process provided by aPDT and aBL, faster and more effective methods are required instead of laborious conventional plating and overnight incubation procedures. Bioluminescent microbial models are very interesting in this context. Light emission from bioluminescent microorganisms is a highly sensitive indication of their metabolic activity and can be used to monitor, in real time, the effects of antimicrobial agents and therapeutics. This chapter reviews the efforts of the scientific community concerning the development of in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo bioluminescent bacterial models and their potential to evaluate the efficiency of aPDT and aBL in the inactivation of bacteria.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Photochemotherapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria , Immunologic Tests , Photochemotherapy/methods
13.
J Adv Res ; 37: 197-208, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499044

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Gut microbiota has been implicated in the pharmacological activities of many natural products. As an effective hypolipidemic agent, berberine (BBR)'s clinical application is greatly impeded by the obvious inter-individual response variation. To date, little evidence exists on the causality between gut microbes and its therapeutic effects, and the linkage of bacteria alterations to the inter-individual response variation. Objectives: This study aims to confirm the causal role of the gut microbiota in BBR's anti-hyperlipidemic effect and identify key bacteria that can predict its effectiveness. Methods: The correlation between gut microbiota and BBR's inter-individual response variation was studied in hyperlipidemic patients. The causal role of gut microbes in BBR's anti-hyperlipidemic effects was subsequently assessed by altered administration routes, co-treatment with antibiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and metagenomic analysis. Results: Three-month clinical study showed that BBR was effectively to decrease serum lipids but displayed an obvious response variation. The cholesterol-lowering but not triglyceride-decreasing effect of BBR was closely related to its modulation on gut microbiota. Interestingly, the baseline levels of Alistipes and Blautia could accurately predict its anti-hypercholesterolemic efficiency in the following treatment. Causality experiments in mice further confirmed that the gut microbiome is both necessary and sufficient to mediate the lipid-lowering effect of BBR. The absence of Blautia substantially abolished BBR's cholesterol-decreasing efficacy. Conclusion: The gut microbiota is necessary and sufficient for BBR's hyperlipidemia-ameliorating effect. The baseline composition of gut microbes can be an effective predictor for its pharmacotherapeutic efficacy, providing a novel way to achieve personalized therapy.


Subject(s)
Berberine , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Hyperlipidemias , Animals , Bacteria , Berberine/pharmacology , Berberine/therapeutic use , Cholesterol/pharmacology , Humans , Hyperlipidemias/drug therapy , Mice
14.
J Adv Res ; 37: 19-31, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499050

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The functional relevance of intra-species diversity in natural microbial communities remains largely unexplored. The guts of two closely related honey bee species, Apis cerana and A. mellifera, are colonised by a similar set of core bacterial species composed of host-specific strains, thereby providing a good model for an intra-species diversity study. Objectives: We aim to assess the functional relevance of intra-species diversity of A. cerana and A. mellifera gut microbiota. Methods: Honey bee workers were collected from four regions of China. Their gut microbiomes were investigated by shotgun metagenomic sequencing, and the bacterial compositions were compared at the species level. A cross-species colonisation assay was conducted, with the gut metabolomes being characterised by LC-MS/MS. Results: Comparative analysis showed that the strain composition of the core bacterial species was host-specific. These core bacterial species presented distinctive functional profiles between the hosts. However, the overall functional profiles of the A. cerana and A. mellifera gut microbiomes were similar; this was further supported by the consistency of the honey bees' gut metabolome, as the gut microbiota of different honey bee species showed rather similar metabolic profiles in the cross-species colonisation assay. Moreover, this experiment also demonstrated that the gut microbiota of A. cerana and A. mellifera could cross colonise between the two honey bee species. Conclusion: Our findings revealed functional differences in most core gut bacteria between the guts of A. cerana and A. mellifera, which may be associated with their inter-species diversity. However, the functional profiles of the overall gut microbiomes between the two honey bee species converge, probably as a result of the overlapping ecological niches of the two species. Our findings provide critical insights into the evolution and functional roles of the mutualistic microbiota of honey bees and reveal that functional redundancy could stabilise the gene content diversity at the strain-level within the gut community.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Animals , Bacteria/genetics , Bees/genetics , Chromatography, Liquid , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Metagenome , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
15.
Extremophiles ; 26(2): 17, 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511349

ABSTRACT

Here, we analysed the genomic evolution in extremophilic bacteria using long simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Frequencies of occurrence, relative abundance (RA) and relative density (RD) of long SSRs were analysed in the genomes of extremophilic bacteria. Thermus aquaticus had the most RA and RD of long SSRs in its coding sequences (110.6 and 1408.3), followed by Rhodoferax antarcticus (77.0 and 1187.4). A positive correlation was observed between G + C content and the RA-RD of long SSRs. Geobacillus kaustophilus, Geobacillus thermoleovorans, Halothermothrix orenii, R. antarcticus, and T. aquaticus preferred trinucleotide repeats within their genomes, whereas others preferred a higher number of tetranucleotide repeats. Gene enrichment showed the presence of these long SSRs in metabolic enzyme encoding genes related to stress tolerance. To analyse the functional implications of SSR insertions, three-dimensional protein structure modelling of SSR containing diguanylate cyclase (DGC) gene encoding protein was carried out. Removal of SSR sequence led to an inappropriate folding and instability of the modelled protein structure.


Subject(s)
Extremophiles , Bacteria/genetics , Base Composition , Extremophiles/genetics , Gain of Function Mutation , Microsatellite Repeats
16.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0258176, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511785

ABSTRACT

The rumen is a complex ecosystem that plays a critical role in our efforts to improve feed efficiency of cattle and reduce their environmental impacts. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene provides a powerful tool to survey the bacterial and some archaeal. Oral stomach tubing a cow to collect a rumen sample is a rapid, cost-effective alternative to rumen cannulation for acquiring rumen samples. In this study, we determined how sampling method (oral stomach tubing vs cannulated grab sample), as well as rumen fraction type (liquid vs solid), bias the bacterial and archaeal communities observed. Liquid samples were further divided into liquid strained through cheesecloth and unstrained. Fecal samples were also collected to determine how these differed from the rumen sample types. The abundance of major archaeal communities was not different at the family level in samples acquired via rumen cannula or stomach tube. In contrast to the stable archaeal communities across sample type, the bacterial order WCHB1-41 (phylum Kiritimatiellaeota) was enriched in both liquid strained and unstrained samples as well as the family Prevotellaceae as compared to grab samples. However, these liquid samples had significantly lower abundance of Lachnospiraceae compared with grab samples. Solid samples strained of rumen liquid most closely resembled the grab samples containing both rumen liquid and solid particles obtained directly from the rumen cannula; therefore, inclusion of particulate matter is important for an accurate representation of the rumen bacteria. Stomach tube samples were the most variable and were most representative of the liquid phase. In comparison with a grab sample, stomach tube samples had significantly lower abundance of Lachnospiraceae, Fibrobacter and Treponema. Fecal samples did not reflect the community composition of the rumen, as fecal samples had significantly higher relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae and significantly lower relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae compared with grab samples.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Rumen , Animal Feed/analysis , Animals , Archaea/genetics , Bacteria/genetics , Cattle , Diet/veterinary , Female , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Rumen/microbiology
17.
Science ; 376(6593): 581-582, 2022 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511986

ABSTRACT

Competition is prevalent and could be harnessed as an alternative to antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteria , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria/genetics
18.
Mil Med ; 187(Supplement_2): 42-51, 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512375

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, increased incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms, as well as polymicrobial wounds and infections, complicated the management of combat trauma-related infections. Multidrug resistance and wound microbiology are a research focus of the Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study (TIDOS), an Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University, research protocol. To conduct comprehensive microbiological research with the goal of improving the understanding of the complicated etiology of wound infections, the TIDOS MDR and Virulent Organisms Trauma Infections Initiative (MDR/VO Initiative) was established as a collaborative effort with the Brooke Army Medical Center, Naval Medical Research Center, U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research, and Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. We provide a review of the TIDOS MDR/VO Initiative and summarize published findings. METHODS: Antagonism and biofilm formation of commonly isolated wound bacteria (e.g., ESKAPE pathogens-Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.), antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and clinical outcomes are being examined. Isolates collected from admission surveillance swabs, as part of infection control policy, and clinical infection workups were retained in the TIDOS Microbiological Repository and associated clinical data in the TIDOS database. RESULTS: Over the TIDOS study period (June 2009 to December 2014), more than 8,300 colonizing and infecting isolates were collected from military personnel injured with nearly one-third of isolates classified as MDR. At admission to participating U.S. military hospitals, 12% of wounded warriors were colonized with MDR Gram-negative bacilli. Furthermore, 27% of 913 combat casualties with ≥1 infection during their trauma hospitalization had MDR Gram-negative bacterial infections. Among 335 confirmed combat-related extremity wound infections (2009-2012), 61% were polymicrobial and comprised various combinations of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, fungi, and anaerobes. Escherichia coli was the most common Gram-negative bacilli isolated from clinical workups, as well as the most common colonizing MDR secondary to extended-spectrum ß-lactamase resistance. Assessment of 479 E. coli isolates collected from wounded warriors found 188 pulsed-field types (PFTs) from colonizing isolates and 54 PFTs from infecting isolates without significant overlap across combat theaters, military hospitals, and study years. A minority of patients with colonizing E. coli isolates developed subsequent infections with the same E. coli strain. Enterococcus spp. were most commonly isolated from polymicrobial wound infections (53% of 204 polymicrobial cultures). Patients with Enterococcus infections were severely injured with a high proportion of lower extremity amputations and genitourinary injuries. Approximately 65% of polymicrobial Enterococcus infections had other ESKAPE organisms isolated. As biofilms have been suggested as a cause of delayed wound healing, wound infections with persistent recovery of bacteria (isolates of same organism collected ≥14 days apart) and nonrecurrent bacterial isolates were assessed. Biofilm production was significantly associated with recurrent bacteria isolation (97% vs. 59% with nonrecurrent isolates; P < 0.001); however, further analysis is needed to confirm biofilm formation as a predictor of persistent wound infections. CONCLUSIONS: The TIDOS MDR/VO Initiative provides comprehensive and detailed data of major microbial threats associated with combat-related wound infections to further the understanding of wound etiology and potentially identify infectious disease countermeasures, which may lead to improvements in combat casualty care.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Communicable Diseases , Wound Infection , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterococcus , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Hospitals, Military , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , United States/epidemiology , Wound Infection/drug therapy
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7347, 2022 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513386

ABSTRACT

In this study, the pit mud used in manufacturing Taorong-type Baijiu was collected from the upper, middle, lower and bottom layers of pits at Henan Yangshao Liquor Co., LTD. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology was used to analyze the microbial community structure of the pit mud. In addition, the volatile compounds in the pit mud were subjected to preliminary qualitative analysis through headspace-solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The HTS results demonstrated that there were 5, 3, 5 and 5 dominant bacterial phyla (including 11, 11, 9 and 8 dominant bacterial genera) and 3, 3, 3 and 3 dominant fungal phyla (including 4, 7, 7 and 5 dominant fungal genera) in the pit mud from the F-S (upper), G-Z (middle), H-X (lower) and I-D (bottom) layers, respectively. In the qualitative analysis of the volatile compounds, a total of 77types of volatile compounds were detected in the pit mud, including 46, 45, 39 and 49 types in the pit mud from layers F-S, G-Z, H-X and I-D, respectively. Esters and acids were the two main components of the pit mud. The correlation between the microorganisms present and the main volatile compounds in the pit mud was analyzed. Lentimicrobium, Syner-01 and Blvii28_wastewater-sludge groups were found for the first time in pit mud used for manufacturing Taorong-type Baijiu. The findings of this study could provide a theoretical foundation for improving the quality of pit mud and the flavor of Taorong-type Baijiu.


Subject(s)
Microbiota , Volatile Organic Compounds , Alcoholic Beverages/analysis , Bacteria/genetics , Fermentation , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Microbiota/genetics , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
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