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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 978590, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36304246

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) reduces the risk of transmission of infectious agents significantly among healthcare workers (HCWs). The study aimed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of PPE-related adverse skin reactions among HCWs working at the main COVID-19 isolation center in Barbados. Methods: A cross-sectional web-based online survey was conducted during April to June 2021 which recorded demographic information, details of PPE use and adverse skin reactions including severity and duration of onset of symptoms. Results: Most of the respondents used PPE for consecutive days (77.9%), 1-6 h/day (59.2%), and more than a year (62.5%). Fewer than half of the participants (45.6%) experienced adverse skin reactions from the use of PPE. The reactions were mostly observed in the cheeks (40.4%) and nose bridges (35.6%). Females had more reactions than their male counterparts (p = 0.003). The use of N95 masks and a combination of surgical and N95 masks produced adverse effects predominantly in the ears (60%) and cheeks (56.4%). Binary logistic regression showed that female HCWs (OR = 5.720 95% CI: 1.631, 20.063), doctors (OR = 5.215 95% CI: 0.877, 31.002), and longer duration of PPE use (>1 year) (OR = 2.902 95% CI: 0.958, 8.787) caused a significantly higher prevalence of adverse skin reactions. Conclusion: The PPE-related skin reactions were common among HCWs which mainly occurred due to prolonged use. Preventive measures inclusive of appropriate training of HCWs on the use of PPE are recommended to minimize these adverse events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Personal Protective Equipment , Male , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Barbados/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Personnel
2.
Bridgetown; PAHO; 2022-10-28. (PAHO/ECC/22-0001).
Non-conventional in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-56337

ABSTRACT

In 2022 the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is celebrating its 120th anniversary. Operating as the independent specialized health agency of the inter-American system, PAHO provides technical cooperation to its Member States to address communicable and noncommunicable diseases and their causes, strengthen health systems, and respond to emergencies and disasters throughout the Americas. In addition, in its capacity as the World Health Organization’s Regional Office for the Americas, PAHO participates in the United Nations Country Team, collaborating with other United Nations agencies, funds, and programs to contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at country level. At the subregional level, PAHO works with integration mechanisms to position health and its determinants on the political agenda. The 2021 Country Annual Reports reflect PAHO’s technical cooperation in countries and territories in implementing the Country Cooperation Strategies, responding to their needs and priorities, and operating within the framework of PAHO’s regional and global mandates and the SDGs. Under the overarching theme of Responding to COVID-19 and Preparing for the Future, they highlight PAHO’s actions on the COVID-19 pandemic and its continuing efforts in priority areas such as health emergencies, health systems and services, communicable diseases, noncommunicable diseases and mental health, health throughout the life course, and health equity. They also provide a financial summary for the biennium 2020-2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergencies , Health Systems , Health Services , Noncommunicable Diseases , Equity , Gender Equity , Cultural Diversity , Technical Cooperation , Caribbean Region , Barbados
3.
Trop Doct ; 52(4): 495-502, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062730

ABSTRACT

Endometrial cancer data amongst Barbadian women was collected, to inform screening and management in this under-studied population. We analysed all recorded primary cases between January 1st 2008, and December 31st, 2017. Age-specific incidence, and crude mortality rates were calculated. Descriptive statistics characterized demographics, risk factors, prescription data and histopathology. Log-rank tests assessed simple group differences by EC type. Survival analysis based on tumour type was plotted using Kaplein-Meir curves. There were 270 recorded cases of EC, averaging 66 (8.8) years old (SD 8.75), with parity of 3.60 (2.3). Cases were postmenopausal with 257 (95%) experiencing postmenopausal bleeding. Of the 270 cases, 113 (42%) had type 1 tumours and 157(58%) had type 2 tumours. Weak evidence suggests the latter imparted worse survival (log rank test = 0.02). Estimated crude incidence rate was 18.64 per 100,000 women. Crude mortality rate from EC between January 1st, 2008 and December 31st, 2019 was 27%.


Subject(s)
Endometrial Neoplasms , Barbados/epidemiology , Child , Endometrial Neoplasms/complications , Endometrial Neoplasms/diagnosis , Endometrial Neoplasms/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Uterine Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Uterine Hemorrhage/etiology , Uterine Hemorrhage/pathology
4.
J Law Med Ethics ; 50(2): 304-311, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35894561

ABSTRACT

This chapter explores the tension between public health protection and the freedom of commercial expression from a Commonwealth Caribbean perspective, using Barbados and Jamaica as case studies. First, it assesses the scope of the right to freedom of expression. Second, it discusses the extent to which public health protection may be invoked to restrict the right. The authors conclude that Commonwealth Caribbean states can justifiably restrict commercial speech about tobacco products and unhealthy food and beverages.


Subject(s)
Freedom , Public Health , Barbados , Caribbean Region , Humans , Jamaica
5.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 18: 387-395, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35668835

ABSTRACT

Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a risk factor for amputation and systemic atherosclerotic disease. Barbados has a high diabetes prevalence, and 89% of diabetes-related hospital admissions are for foot problems. Foot examination is infrequent in Barbados primary care. The prevalence and potential risk factors for PAD in people with diabetes in Barbados were studied. Methods: Multistage probability sampling was used to select a representative population sample of people ≥25 years of age with known diabetes or fasting blood glucose ≥7 mmol/L or HbA1c ≥6.5%. We administered the Edinburgh claudication questionnaire and assessed the ankle brachial pressure index (ABI) and Doppler waveform in both dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial arteries. Participants were classified into categories based on ABI as follows: PAD ≤0.90 in any leg; borderline 0.91 to 0.99 in one leg and the other not ≤0.90 or >0.4; normal 1.00 to 1.40 in both legs; and non-compressible >1.40 in one leg and the other not ≤0.9. Waveforms crossing the zero-flow baseline were categorised as normal. Multivariable logistic regression assessed the associations of potential risk factors with PAD. Results: Of 236 participants (74% response rate, 33% male, median age 58.6 years), 51% had previously diagnosed diabetes. Of nine people with symptoms of definite or atypical claudication, four had PAD and one had non-compressible arteries. ABI prevalence (95% CI) was PAD 18.6% (13.8, 24.6), borderline 21.9% (16.6, 28.4), normal 55.5% (49.4, 61.5) and non-compressible 3.9% (1.6, 9.3). Increasing age and female gender were independently associated with PAD. Over 80% of normal legs (ABI 1.00 to 1.40) had normal posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis waveforms, while only 23% legs with PAD (ABI ≤0.90) had normal waveforms in both arteries (Kappa = 0.43). Conclusion: Asymptomatic PAD is common in people with diabetes and requires ABI screening to detect it. Female gender is associated with PAD.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Peripheral Arterial Disease , Ankle Brachial Index , Barbados/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnosis , Peripheral Arterial Disease/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors
6.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268964, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35704591

ABSTRACT

A molecular genetic and morphometric investigation revealed the supposedly widespread Caribbean and Western Atlantic intertidal oribatid mite species Fortuynia atlantica to comprise at least two different species. Although there are no distinct morphological differences separating these taxa, COI and 18S sequence divergence data, as well as different species delimitation analyses, clearly identify the two species. Fortuynia atlantica is distributed in the northern Caribbean and the Western Atlantic and the new Fortuynia antillea sp. nov. is presently endemic to Barbados. Vicariance is supposed to be responsible for their genetic diversification and stabilizing selection caused by the extreme intertidal environment is suggested to be the reason for the found morphological stasis. The genetic structure of Fortuynia atlantica indicates that Bermudian populations are derived from the northern Caribbean and thus support the theory of dispersal by drifting on the Gulf Stream. Haplotype network data suggest that Bermudian and Bahamian populations were largely shaped by colonization, expansion and extinction events caused by dramatic sea level changes during the Pleistocene. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis based on 18S gene sequences indicates that the globally distributed genus Fortuynia may be a monophyletic group, whereas Caribbean and Western Atlantic members are distinctly separated from the Indo-Pacific and Western Pacific species.


Subject(s)
Mites , Animals , Barbados , Caribbean Region , Haplotypes , Mites/anatomy & histology , Mites/genetics , Phylogeny
8.
Cancer Causes Control ; 33(6): 831-841, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35384527

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive breast cancer subtype that disproportionately affects women of African ancestry (WAA) and is often associated with poor survival. Although there is a high prevalence of TNBC across West Africa and in women of the African diaspora, there has been no comprehensive genomics study to investigate the mutational profile of ancestrally related women across the Caribbean and West Africa. METHODS: This multisite cross-sectional study used 31 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from Barbadian and Nigerian TNBC participants. High-resolution whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed on the Barbadian and Nigerian TNBC samples to identify their mutational profiles and comparisons were made to African American, European American and Asian American sequencing data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Whole exome sequencing was conducted on tumors with an average of 382 × coverage and 4335 × coverage for pooled germline non-tumor samples. RESULTS: Variants detected at high frequency in our WAA cohorts were found in the following genes NBPF12, PLIN4, TP53 and BRCA1. In the TCGA TNBC cases, these genes had a lower mutation rate, except for TP53 (32% in our cohort; 63% in TCGA-African American; 67% in TCGA-European American; 63% in TCGA-Asian). For all altered genes, there were no differences in frequency of mutations between WAA TNBC groups including the TCGA-African American cohort. For copy number variants, high frequency alterations were observed in PIK3CA, TP53, FGFR2 and HIF1AN genes. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel insights into the underlying genomic alterations in WAA TNBC samples and shines light on the importance of inclusion of under-represented populations in cancer genomics and biomarker studies.


Subject(s)
Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms , Barbados , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Genomics , Humans , Mutation , Nigeria/epidemiology , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/pathology
9.
Article in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55891

ABSTRACT

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To establish whether there was any difference in disease stage in patients with screening-detected colorectal cancer (CRC) in a Caribbean country. Methods. The mode of presentation (elective vs. emergent), method of diagnosis (screening vs. symptomatic), and disease stage were retrospectively compared in all consecutive patients who had resections for CRC over a five-year period. Early CRC was defined as disease that could be completely resected with no involvement of adjacent organs, lymph nodes, or distant sites. Locally advanced CRC was disease that involved contiguous organs without distant metastases that was still amenable to curative resection. Results. There were 97 patients at a mean age of 64.9 ± 12.2 years treated for CRC, and only 21 (21.6%) had their diagnoses made through screening. Significantly more screening-detected lesions were early-stage CRCs (21.7% vs. 9.3%; p < 0.001). At the time of diagnosis, patients who did not have screening-detected lesions had a greater proportion of locally advanced (42.3% vs. 0) and metastatic (26.8% vs. 0) CRC. Those who did not have screening-detected lesions had a greater incidence of emergency presentations at diagnosis (26.8% vs. 0). Conclusions. The incidence of screening-detected CRC in this Caribbean nation was low. Consequently, most patients presented with locally advanced or metastatic CRC, for which there is less opportunity to achieve a cure. Significantly more screening-detected lesions were early-stage CRCs. It is time for policymakers to develop a national CRC screening program.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Determinar las diferencias en el estadio de la enfermedad en pacientes con cáncer colorrectal diagnosticado mediante un programa de detección sistemática en un país del Caribe. Métodos. Se realizó una comparación en retrospectiva de la modalidad de presentación (programada o de urgencia), el método de diagnóstico (por detección sistemática o por síntomas) y el estadio de la enfermedad en todos los pacientes consecutivos con resecciones por cáncer colorrectal en un período de cinco años. Se definió el cáncer colorrectal en fase inicial o incipiente como una enfermedad que puede extirparse completamente sin la afectación de los órganos adyacentes, los ganglios linfáticos o focos distantes. Se consideró el cáncer colorrectal localmente avanzado como una enfermedad que afecta a los órganos contiguos sin metástasis a distancia y aún susceptible de resección curativa. Resultados. Hubo 97 pacientes de una media de edad de 64,9 ± 12,2 años en tratamiento por cáncer colorrectal y únicamente 21 (21,6%) habían recibido un diagnóstico mediante un programa de detección sistemática. Un número significativamente mayor de los diagnósticos dados por detección sistemática se trató de cáncer colorrectal de fase inicial (21,7 % frente a 9,3 %; p < 0,001). En el momento del diagnóstico, se registró una mayor proporción de cáncer colorrectal localmente avanzado (42,3 % frente a 0) y metastásico (26,8 % frente a 0) en los pacientes sin lesiones diagnosticadas en un programa de detección sistemática. Los pacientes cuyas lesiones no fueron diagnosticadas mediante la detección sistemática registraron una mayor incidencia de presentaciones de urgencia en el momento del diagnóstico (26,8 % frente a 0). Conclusiones. La incidencia de cáncer colorrectal diagnosticado mediante detección sistemática en este país del Caribe fue baja. En consecuencia, la mayoría de los pacientes presentó cáncer colorrectal localmente avanzado o metastásico, cuya oportunidad de cura es menor. Un número significativamente mayor de lesiones diagnosticadas mediante detección sistemática se trató de cáncer colorrectal de fase inicial. Ha llegado el momento de que las personas responsables de las políticas elaboren un programa nacional de detección sistemática de cáncer colorrectal.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Determinar se houve diferença no estágio da doença detectada no exame de prevenção de câncer colorretal em um país do Caribe. Métodos. Fatores como tipo de apresentação (eletiva vs. de emergência), método de diagnóstico (prevenção vs. detecção sintomática) e estágio da doença foram comparados retrospectivamente em todos os pacientes consecutivos submetidos a cirurgia de ressecção de câncer colorretal em um período de cinco anos. Definiu-se doença em estágio inicial como o tumor passível de ressecção total sem o envolvimento de órgãos adjacentes, gânglios linfáticos ou sítios a distância, e doença localmente avançada como o tumor envolvendo órgãos contíguos, sem metástase a distância, mas passível de resseção curativa. Resultados. Noventa e sete pacientes com média de idade de 64,9 ± 12,2 anos foram tratados devido ao câncer colorretal e apenas 21 (21,6%) tiveram a doença diagnosticada no exame de prevenção. Um percentual significativamente maior de lesões detectadas no exame de prevenção estava em estágio inicial (21,7% vs. 9,3%; p < 0.001). No momento do diagnóstico, os pacientes cujas lesões de câncer colorretal não foram detectadas com o exame de prevenção apresentaram um maior percentual de doença localmente avançada (42,3% vs. 0) ou metastática (26,8% vs. 0). Houve também, entre esses pacientes, uma maior incidência de apresentação em caráter de emergência (26,8% vs. 0). Conclusões. Observou-se uma baixa incidência de câncer colorretal na população deste país do Caribe. Porém, a maioria dos pacientes apresentou doença localmente avançada ou metastática no diagnóstico – uma situação associada a uma menor chance de cura. O percentual de lesões detectadas em estágio inicial com o exame de prevenção foi significativamente maior. As autoridades de saúde devem aproveitar a oportunidade e instituir um programa nacional de prevenção do câncer colorretal.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Barbados , Caribbean Region , Colorectal Neoplasms , Caribbean Region , Colorectal Neoplasms , Caribbean Region
10.
Med Anthropol Q ; 36(3): 350-366, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262224

ABSTRACT

From 2005 to 2015, up to five support groups for people living with HIV (PLHIV) operated in Barbados. However, by early 2020, all but one had disappeared. What caused the demise of these groups and why? What does this demise tell us about the HIV response in Barbados, and more particularly, everyday life for PLHIV? More generally, what does it tell us about "viral socialities" (ties formed between groups of people as they confront the lived effects of infection and discrimination attributable to HIV) and the effects of "project time" (a time frame delimited through the priorities of global HIV/AIDS agencies) on these socialities? Through ethnographic and archival research methods, this article reveals how multiple, unstable project times create and transform viral socialities of Barbadian PLHIV with anachronic effects for some-i.e., a sense of alienation or being "out of time" in relation to the priorities of the global HIV response.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV Infections , Anthropology, Medical , Barbados , Humans , Self-Help Groups
12.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992079

ABSTRACT

Over the past decade, the Caribbean region has been challenged by compound climate and health hazards, including tropical storms, extreme heat and droughts and overlapping epidemics of mosquito-borne diseases, including dengue, chikungunya and Zika. Early warning systems (EWS) are a key climate change adaptation strategy for the health sector. An EWS can integrate climate information in forecasting models to predict the risk of disease outbreaks several weeks or months in advance. In this article, we share our experiences of co-learning during the process of co-creating a dengue EWS for the health sector in Barbados, and we discuss barriers to implementation as well as key opportunities. This process has involved bringing together health and climate practitioners with transdisciplinary researchers to jointly identify needs and priorities, assess available data, co-create an early warning tool, gather feedback via national and regional consultations and conduct trainings. Implementation is ongoing and our team continues to be committed to a long-term process of collaboration. Developing strong partnerships, particularly between the climate and health sectors in Barbados, has been a critical part of the research and development. In many countries, the national climate and health sectors have not worked together in a sustained or formal manner. This collaborative process has purposefully pushed us out of our comfort zone, challenging us to venture beyond our institutional and disciplinary silos. Through the co-creation of the EWS, we anticipate that the Barbados health system will be better able to mainstream climate information into decision-making processes using tailored tools, such as epidemic forecast reports, risk maps and climate-health bulletins, ultimately increasing the resilience of the health system.


Subject(s)
Dengue , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Animals , Barbados , Dengue/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
14.
Zootaxa ; 5052(4): 451-485, 2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810860

ABSTRACT

Considering the growing threats to the biodiversity of small Caribbean islands (e.g., habitat loss and fragmentation, overexploitation, invasive species, and climate change), it is important to establish biodiversity inventories that serve as baselines for monitoring and evaluation of conservation efforts. In Barbados (West Indies), the most recent comprehensive taxonomic account of brachyuran crabs came from Rathbun (1921) reporting the specimens collected by the University of Iowa Barbados-Antigua Expedition in 1918. The present study fills the 100-year gap in knowledge by providing an updated taxonomic checklist of brachyuran crabs associated with semi-terrestrial and estuarine habitats in Barbados. A total of 245 specimens representing three superfamilies, six families, nine genera, and 13 species were collected over a period of 425 search-hours in twenty-seven sampling locations in semi-terrestrial and estuarine habitats of Barbados between September 2018 and November 2020. The families with the highest numbers of species identified were Gecarcinidae (3) and Portunidae (3), followed by Grapsidae (2), Sesarmidae (2), Ocypodidae (2), and Varunidae (1). The species Armases ricordi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853), Cyclograpsus integer H. Milne Edwards, 1837, and Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896, are recorded here for the first time for Barbados.


Subject(s)
Brachyura , Lice Infestations , Animals , Barbados , Ecosystem , West Indies
15.
Bridgetown; PAHO; 2021-10-19. (PAHO/ECC/21-0001).
Non-conventional in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-55054

ABSTRACT

Founded in 1902 as the independent specialized health agency of the inter-American system, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has developed recognized competence and expertise, providing technical cooperation to its Member States to fight communicable and noncommunicable diseases and their causes, to strengthen health systems, and to respond to emergencies and disasters throughout the Region of the Americas. In addition, acting in its capacity as the World Health Organization’s Regional Office, PAHO participates actively in the United Nations Country Team, collaborating with other agencies, the funds and programs of the United Nations system to contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at country level. This 2020 annual report reflects PAHO’s technical cooperation in the countries for the period, implementing the Multi-Country Cooperation Strategy, responding to the needs and priorities of the countries, and operating within the framework of the Organization’s regional and global mandates and the SDGs. Under the overarching theme of Universal Health and the Pandemic – Resilient Health Systems, it highlights PAHO’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic as well as its continuing efforts in priority areas such as communicable diseases, noncommunicable diseases, mental health, health throughout the life course, and health emergencies. It also provides a financial summary for the year under review.


Subject(s)
Technical Cooperation , Health Priorities , Health Systems , National Health Programs , Health Policy , Universal Health Coverage , Communicable Diseases , Noncommunicable Diseases , Risk Factors , Risk Management , Financial Management , Mental Health , Socioeconomic Factors , COVID-19 , Caribbean Region , Barbados
16.
Article in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54916

ABSTRACT

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To identify key indicators that will allow empirical measurement of a health system’s responsiveness to older people. Methods. We conducted a series of consultations with experts to develop a relevant list of indicators. Concept mapping was used to devise the list, including the steps of preparation, brainstorming and structuring. Additionally, four countries were used as national case studies to test the feasibility of measuring health system responsiveness with readily available national-level data (Barbados, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico). Results. Our study resulted in a list of 25 indicators scored with high usefulness for informing public policy, 10 of which were also categorized as being of high availability. National case studies were useful to assess the feasibility of measuring health system responsiveness in different settings. Conclusions. Responsiveness can be comprehensively assessed by (i) approaching the intrinsic features of the system via its inputs, outputs, and outcomes, and (ii) measuring the impact of the system on meeting the needs of older people in terms of their health, financial protection, and expectations. Further consensus is needed to develop a list of core indicators that could be used as a baseline for measuring a health system’s responsiveness to the needs of older people.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Determinar qué indicadores clave permitirán la medición empírica de la capacidad de respuesta de un sistema de salud a las personas mayores. Métodos. Se llevó a cabo una serie de consultas con expertos para elaborar una lista de indicadores pertinentes. Para elaborar la lista se usó un mapeo conceptual, que incluyó los pasos de preparación, tormenta de ideas y estructuración. Además, se emplearon cuatro países en estudios de casos nacionales para evaluar la viabilidad de medir la capacidad de respuesta del sistema de salud con datos fácilmente disponibles a nivel de país (Barbados, Brasil, Chile y México). Resultados. Se obtuvo una lista de 25 indicadores que se clasificaron como de alta utilidad para la fundamentación de políticas públicas, diez de los cuales también se categorizaron como de alta disponibilidad. Los estudios de casos nacionales fueron útiles para evaluar la viabilidad de medir la capacidad de respuesta del sistema de salud en diferentes entornos. Conclusiones. La capacidad de respuesta se puede evaluar de manera integral a) abordando las características intrínsecas del sistema mediante sus insumos, resultados inmediatos y resultados intermedios, y b) determinando el efecto del sistema en la satisfacción de las necesidades de las personas mayores en cuanto a su salud, protección financiera y expectativas. Es necesario un mayor consenso para elaborar una lista de indicadores centrales que puedan usarse como línea de base para medir la capacidad de respuesta de un sistema de salud ante las necesidades de las personas mayores.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Identificar os principais indicadores que permitem medir de forma empírica a resposta de um sistema de saúde às pessoas idosas. Métodos. Realizamos uma série de consultas com especialistas para desenvolver uma lista relevante de indicadores. O mapeamento de conceitos foi utilizado para criar a lista, incluindo as etapas de preparação, discussão de ideias e estruturação. Além disso, quatro países foram usados como estudos de casos nacionais para verificar a viabilidade de medir a capacidade de resposta do sistema de saúde com dados de nível nacional prontamente disponíveis (Barbados, Brasil, Chile e México). Resultados. Nosso estudo resultou em uma lista de 25 indicadores pontuados como de grande utilidade para a informação para políticas públicas, 10 dos quais foram também classificados como de alta disponibilidade. Os estudos de casos nacionais foram úteis para avaliar a viabilidade de medir a capacidade de resposta do sistema de saúde em diferentes meios. Conclusões. A capacidade de resposta pode ser avaliada integralmente por meio de (i) abordagem das características intrínsecas do sistema por meio de seus insumos, resultados e desfechos, e (ii) medição do impacto do sistema na resposta às necessidades das pessoas idosas em termos de saúde, proteção financeira e expectativas. É necessário maior consenso para desenvolver uma lista de indicadores básicos que possam ser usados como linha de base para medir a capacidade de resposta de um sistema de saúde às necessidades das pessoas idosas.


Subject(s)
Health Information Systems , Health Systems , Indicators of Health Services , Aged , Aging , Healthy Aging , Health of the Elderly , Health Services for the Aged , Barbados , Brazil , Chile , Mexico , Health Information Systems , Health Systems , Indicators of Health Services , Aged , Health of the Elderly , Health Services for the Aged , Aging , Healthy Aging , Brazil , Mexico , Health Information Systems , Health Systems , Indicators of Health Services , Aged , Health of the Elderly , Health Services for the Aged , Aging , Healthy Aging
17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400464

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) cut-offs associated with hyperglycemia may differ by ethnicity. We investigated the optimal BMI and WC cut-offs for identifying hyperglycemia in the predominantly Afro-Caribbean population of Barbados. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 865 individuals aged ≥25 years without known diabetes or cardiovascular disease was conducted. Hyperglycemia was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥5.6 mmol/L or hemoglobin A1c ≥5.7% (39 mmol/mol). The Youden index was used to identify the optimal cut-offs from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Further ROC analysis and multivariable log binomial regression were used to compare standard and data-derived cut-offs. RESULTS: The prevalence of hyperglycemia was 58.9% (95% CI 54.7% to 63.0%). In women, optimal BMI and WC cut-offs (27 kg/m2 and 87 cm, respectively) performed similarly to standard cut-offs. In men, sensitivities of the optimal cut-offs of BMI ≥24 kg/m2 (72.0%) and WC ≥86 cm (74.0%) were higher than those for standard BMI and WC obesity cut-offs (30.0% and 25%-46%, respectively), although with lower specificity. Hyperglycemia was 70% higher in men above the data-derived WC cut-off (prevalence ratio 95% CI 1.2 to 2.3). CONCLUSIONS: While BMI and WC cut-offs in Afro-Caribbean women approximate international standards, our findings, consistent with other studies, suggest lowering cut-offs in men may be warranted to improve detection of hyperglycemia. Our findings do, however, require replication in a new data set.


Subject(s)
Ethnicity , Hyperglycemia , Barbados , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Male , Risk Factors
18.
J Nutr Sci ; 10: e29, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34094510

ABSTRACT

Our objective was to describe, for the first time in an English-speaking Caribbean country, the contribution of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) to nutrients linked to non-communicable disease. Using a cross-sectional study design, dietary data were collected from two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Recorded food items were then classified according to their degree of processing by the NOVA system. The present study took place in Barbados (2012-13). A representative population-based sample of 364 adult Barbadians (161 males and 203 females) aged 25-64 years participated in the study. UPFs represented 40⋅5 % (838 kcal/d; 95 % CI 791, 885) of mean energy intake. Sugar-sweetened beverages made the largest contribution to energy within the UPF category. Younger persons (25-44 years) consumed a significantly higher proportion of calories from UPF (NOVA group 4) compared with older persons (45-64 years). The mean energy shares of UPF ranged from 22⋅0 to 58⋅9 % for those in the lowest tertile to highest tertile. Within each tertile, the energy contribution was significantly higher in the younger age group (25-44 years) compared with the older (45-64 years). One-quarter of persons consume ≥50 % of their daily calories from UPF, this being significantly higher in younger persons. The ultra-processed diet fraction contained about six times the mean of free sugars and about 0⋅8 times the dietary fibre of the non-ultra-processed fraction (NOVA groups 1-3). Targeted interventions to decrease the consumption of UPF especially in younger persons is thus of high priority to improve the diet quality of Barbadians.


Subject(s)
Diet , Fast Foods , Adult , Barbados , Cross-Sectional Studies , Energy Intake , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages
19.
Trop Doct ; 51(4): 532-534, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080910

ABSTRACT

Barbados is a Caribbean island with a high incidence of colorectal cancer. This study collected epidemiologic data from Barbadian patients with colorectal cancer. There was an opportunity for targeted screening in patients actively enrolled in clinics for management of chronic diseases, accounting for 72% of cases. We also identified areas of high incidence where resources should be directed in a screening programme.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Mass Screening , Barbados/epidemiology , Colorectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 343, 2021 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic of 2015/2016 spread throughout numerous countries. It emerged in mainland Latin America and spread to neighboring islands, including the Caribbean island of Barbados. Recent studies have indicated that the virus must have already been circulating in local mosquito populations in Brazil for almost 2 years before it was identified by the World Health Organization in 2015. Metagenomic detection assays have the potential to detect emerging pathogens without prior knowledge of their genomic nucleic acid sequence. Yet their applicability as vector surveillance tools has been widely limited by the complexity of DNA populations from field-collected mosquito preparations. The aim of this study was to investigate local vector biology and characterize metagenomic arbovirus diversity in Aedes mosquitoes during the ongoing 2015/2016 ZIKV epidemic. METHODS: We performed a short-term vector screening study on the island of Barbados during the ongoing 2015/2016 ZIKV epidemic, where we sampled local Aedes mosquitoes. We reanalyzed mosquito viral microbiome data derived from standard Illumina MiSeq sequencing to detect arbovirus sequences. Additionally, we employed deep sequencing techniques (Illumina HiSeq) and designed a novel bait capture enrichment assay to increase sequencing efficiency for arbovirus sequences from complex DNA samples. RESULTS: We found that Aedes aegypti seemed to be the most likely vector of ZIKV, although it prevailed at a low density during the observed time period. The number of detected viruses increased with sequencing depth. Arbovirus sequence enrichment of metagenomic DNA preparations allowed the detection of arbovirus sequences of two different ZIKV genotypes, including a novel one. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the S3116W mutation in the NS5 gene region of ZIKV polyprotein. CONCLUSIONS: The metagenomic arbovirus detection approach presented here may serve as a useful tool for the identification of epidemic-causing arboviruses with the additional benefit of enabling the collection of phylogenetic information on the source. Apart from detecting more than 88 viruses using this approach, we also found evidence of novel ZIKV variants circulating in the local mosquito population during the observed time period.


Subject(s)
Aedes/virology , Genetic Variation , Metagenomics , Zika Virus/genetics , Animals , Barbados , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data , Mosquito Vectors/virology , Phylogeny , Zika Virus/classification , Zika Virus Infection/transmission
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