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1.
Elife ; 122024 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949865

ABSTRACT

Spatial and temporal associations between sympatric species underpin biotic interactions, structure ecological assemblages, and sustain ecosystem functioning and stability. However, the resilience of interspecific spatiotemporal associations to human activity remains poorly understood, particularly in mountain forests where anthropogenic impacts are often pervasive. Here, we applied context-dependent Joint Species Distribution Models to a systematic camera-trap survey dataset from a global biodiversity hotspot in eastern Himalayas to understand how prominent human activities in mountain forests influence species associations within terrestrial mammal communities. We obtained 10,388 independent detections of 17 focal species (12 carnivores and five ungulates) from 322 stations over 43,163 camera days of effort. We identified a higher incidence of positive associations in habitats with higher levels of human modification (87%) and human presence (83%) compared to those located in habitats with lower human modification (64%) and human presence (65%) levels. We also detected a significant reduction of pairwise encounter time at increasing levels of human disturbance, corresponding to more frequent encounters between pairs of species. Our findings indicate that human activities can push mammals together into more frequent encounters and associations, which likely influences the coexistence and persistence of wildlife, with potential far-ranging ecological consequences.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Forests , Human Activities , Mammals , Animals , Humans , Ecosystem , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
2.
PeerJ ; 12: e17305, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38952984

ABSTRACT

Juan Fernández and Desventuradas are two oceanic archipelagos located in the southeastern Pacific Ocean far off the Chilean coast that received protected status as marine parks in 2016. Remoteness and access difficulty contributed to historically poor biodiversity sampling and limited associated research. This is particularly noticeable for bivalves, with most prior regional publications focused on single taxa or un-illustrated checklists. This study investigates marine bivalves collected between the intertidal and 415 m depth during (1) the 1997 IOC97 expedition aboard the M/V Carlos Porter, with special focus on scuba-collected micro-mollusks of both archipelagos, (2) two expeditions by the R/V Anton Bruun (Cruise 12/1965 and Cruise 17/1966), and (3) Cruise 21 of USNS Eltanin under the United States Antarctic Program, which sampled at Juan Fernández in 1965. Also, relevant historical material of the British H.M.S. Challenger Expedition (1873-1876), the Swedish Pacific Expedition (1916-1917), and by German zoologist Ludwig H. Plate (1893-1895) is critically revised. A total of 48 species are recognized and illustrated, including 19 new species (described herein) and six other potentially new species. The presence of two species mentioned in the literature for the region (Aulacomya atra and Saccella cuneata) could not be confirmed. The genera Verticipronus and Halonympha are reported for the first time from the Eastern Pacific, as are Anadara and Condylocardia from Chilean waters. Lectotypes are designated for Arca (Barbatia) platei and Mytilus algosus. These findings double the number of extant bivalve species known from the Juan Fernández and Desventuradas archipelagos, highlighting the lack of attention these islands groups have received in the past. A high percentage of species endemic to one or both archipelagos are recognized herein, accounting for almost 78% of the total. The newly recognized level of bivalve endemism supports the consideration of Juan Fernández and Desventuradas as two different biogeographic units (Provinces or Ecoregions) of the Eastern Pacific Ocean.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Bivalvia , Animals , Pacific Ocean , Bivalvia/classification , Bivalvia/anatomy & histology , Chile , Islands
3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2026): 20240778, 2024 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955231

ABSTRACT

Mammals influence nearly all aspects of energy flow and habitat structure in modern terrestrial ecosystems. However, anthropogenic effects have probably altered mammalian community structure, raising the question of how past perturbations have done so. We used functional diversity (FD) to describe how the structure of North American mammal palaeocommunities changed over the past 66 Ma, an interval spanning the radiation following the K/Pg and several subsequent environmental disruptions including the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), the expansion of grassland, and the onset of Pleistocene glaciation. For 264 fossil communities, we examined three aspects of ecological function: functional evenness, functional richness and functional divergence. We found that shifts in FD were associated with major ecological and environmental transitions. All three measures of FD increased immediately following the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs, suggesting that high degrees of ecological disturbance can lead to synchronous responses both locally and continentally. Otherwise, the components of FD were decoupled and responded differently to environmental changes over the last ~56 Myr.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Fossils , Mammals , Animals , Mammals/physiology , North America , Ecosystem , Biological Evolution
4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2026): 20240868, 2024 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955327

ABSTRACT

Biotic interactions play a critical role in shaping patterns of global biodiversity. While several macroecological studies provide evidence for stronger predation in tropical regions compared with higher latitudes, results are variable even within the tropics, and the drivers of this variability are not well understood. We conducted two complementary standardized experiments on communities of sessile marine invertebrate prey and their associated predators to test for spatial and seasonal differences in predation across the tropical Atlantic and Pacific coastlines of Panama. We further tested the prediction that higher predator diversity contributes to stronger impacts of predation, using both direct observations of predators and data from extensive reef surveys. Our results revealed substantially higher predation rates and stronger effects of predators on prey in the Pacific than in the Atlantic, demonstrating striking variation within tropical regions. While regional predator diversity was high in the Atlantic, functional diversity at local scales was markedly low. Peak predation strength in the Pacific occurred during the wet, non-upwelling season when ocean temperatures were warmer and predator communities were more functionally diverse. Our results highlight the importance of regional biotic and abiotic drivers that shape interaction strength and the maintenance of tropical communities, which are experiencing rapid environmental change.


Subject(s)
Food Chain , Predatory Behavior , Seasons , Tropical Climate , Animals , Biodiversity , Panama , Atlantic Ocean , Pacific Ocean , Invertebrates/physiology
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(8): 691, 2024 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38960930

ABSTRACT

Urban forests face multiple human-mediated pressures leading to compromised ecosystem structure and functioning. Therefore, understanding ecosystem structure in response to ongoing pressures is crucial for sustaining ecological integrity and human well-being. We aim to assess the disturbance and its effects on the vegetation structure of urban forests in Chandigarh using a combination of remote sensing techniques and vegetation surveys. The disturbance was evaluated as a change in NDVI (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index) from 2001 to 2021 by applying the BFAST (Breaks For Additive Season and Trend) algorithm to the MODIS satellite imagery data. A vegetation survey was conducted to compare the species composition, taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity as measures of forest vegetational structure. While signals of disturbance were evident, the changes in vegetation structure were not well established from our study. Further, this analysis indicated no significant differences in vegetation composition due to disturbance (F1,12 = 0.91, p = 0.575). However, the phylogenetic diversity was substantially lower for disturbed plots than undisturbed plots, though the taxonomic diversity was similar among the disturbed and undisturbed plots. Our results confirmed that disturbance effects are more prominent on the phylogenetic than taxonomic diversity. These findings can be considered early signals of disturbance and its impact on the vegetation structure of urban forests and contribute to the knowledge base on urban ecosystems. Our study has implications for facilitating evidence-based decision-making and the development of sustainable management strategies for urban forest ecosystems.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Environmental Monitoring , Forests , Environmental Monitoring/methods , India , Cities , Ecosystem , Satellite Imagery , Remote Sensing Technology , Conservation of Natural Resources , Trees , Phylogeny
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 96(3): e20220870, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38958359

ABSTRACT

The littoral zone is an essential compartment for lake biota because of its high productivity and diversity. Moreover, phytoplankton is expected to have non-equilibrium dynamics on it. The study's aimed to explore phytoplankton in the littoral zone of a shallow lake over a short-term scale. Daily sampling was conducted for 25 consecutive summer days in 2016, at two marginal points of a continuously warm, polymictic, and oligo-mesotrophic subtropical lake (Lake Mangueira, Brazil). Cyanobacteria and Chlorophyta contributed 86% of total biomass. We observed high variability in phytoplankton structure, with species turnover over diel cycles. Redundancy analysis indicated spatial differentiation for phytoplankton structure in relation to abiotic conditions. Nutrient dynamics and humic substances were significant drivers for phytoplankton variability. Phytoplankton was positively correlated with SRP and negatively with humic substances. Our results showed a non- equilibrium state for the littoral phytoplankton of Lake Mangueira, given the high variability of abiotic conditions, even at short distances. Due to its high temporal and spatial variability, the littoralzone seems to contribute to the recruitment and maintenance of phytoplankton biodiversity in shallow lakes. Further studies should consider the functional attributes of species and the complex biological interactions of phytoplankton and macrophytes along the littoral zone.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Lakes , Phytoplankton , Seasons , Phytoplankton/classification , Brazil , Biodiversity , Cyanobacteria/classification , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Chlorophyta/classification
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(8): 688, 2024 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38958799

ABSTRACT

Rivers are vital and complex natural systems that provide a wide range of ecosystem services. This study presents a methodology for assessing the riverine provisioning and supporting ecosystem services, whose applicability has been demonstrated over the Budhabalanga River Basin of India. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to generate streamflow time series at various ungauged sites, and then the streamflow is characterized for the evaluation of provisioning services. Further, the diversity and abundance of macroinvertebrates, along with the Lotic-invertebrate Index for Flow Evaluation (LIFE), is used to study the riverine supporting ecosystem services. The streams show intermittent behavior and strong seasonality for low flows, which limits the water availability, particularly during pre-monsoon season. The Baseflow Index (BFI) is greater than 0.6, indicating that groundwater contributes more than 60% of the total streamflow. Interestingly, despite the high BFI, the streams did not conform to the prevailing opinion that a greater baseflow contribution results in a later commencement of the low-flow period in the hydrological year. Furthermore, the study depicts significant variations in the diversity and abundance of the macroinvertebrates across the various sampling sites. However, the LIFE score across the sites remained consistent within a narrow range, i.e., 8 to 9, suggesting a steady supply of supporting ecosystem services. The results of the study can help the policymakers towards an informed decision making and the simplistic methodology proposed in this study can be replicated in other river basins for identifying vulnerable watersheds and prioritizing management actions.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring , Hydrology , Rivers , India , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Animals , Invertebrates , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Biodiversity , Groundwater
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(8): 694, 2024 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38963575

ABSTRACT

Human activities at sea can produce pressures and cumulative effects on ecosystem components that need to be monitored and assessed in a cost-effective manner. Five Horizon European projects have joined forces to collaboratively increase our knowledge and skills to monitor and assess the ocean in an innovative way, assisting managers and policy-makers in taking decisions to maintain sustainable activities at sea. Here, we present and discuss the status of some methods revised during a summer school, aiming at better management of coasts and seas. We include novel methods to monitor the coastal and ocean waters (e.g. environmental DNA, drones, imaging and artificial intelligence, climate modelling and spatial planning) and innovative tools to assess the status (e.g. cumulative impacts assessment, multiple pressures, Nested Environmental status Assessment Tool (NEAT), ecosystem services assessment or a new unifying approach). As a concluding remark, some of the most important challenges ahead are assessing the pros and cons of novel methods, comparing them with benchmark technologies and integrating these into long-standing time series for data continuity. This requires transition periods and careful planning, which can be covered through an intense collaboration of current and future European projects on marine biodiversity and ecosystem health.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Conservation of Natural Resources , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Humans , Oceans and Seas , Human Activities
9.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 239, 2024 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38961321

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota significantly influences the health and growth of red-spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara), a well-known commercial marine fish from Fujian Province in southern China. However, variations in survival strategies and seasons can impact the stability of gut microbiota data, rendering it inaccurate in reflecting the state of gut microbiota. Which impedes the effective enhancement of aquaculture health through a nuanced understanding of gut microbiota. Inspired by this, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the gut microbiota of wild and captive E. akaara in four seasons. RESULTS: Seventy-two E. akaara samples were collected from wild and captive populations in Dongshan city, during four different seasons. Four sections of the gut were collected to obtain comprehensive information on the gut microbial composition and sequenced using 16S rRNA next-generation Illumina MiSeq. We observed the highest gut microbial diversity in both captive and wild E. akaara during the winter season, and identified strong correlations with water temperature using Mantel analysis. Compared to wild E. akaara, we found a more complex microbial network in captive E. akaara, as evidenced by increased abundance of Bacillaceae, Moraxellaceae and Enterobacteriaceae. In contrast, Vibrionaceae, Clostridiaceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Rhodobacteraceae were found to be more active in wild E. akaara. However, some core microorganisms, such as Firmicutes and Photobacterium, showed similar distribution patterns in both wild and captive groups. Moreover, we found the common community composition and distribution characteristics of top 10 core microbes from foregut to hindgut in E. akaara. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the study provides relatively more comprehensive description of the gut microbiota in E. akaara, taking into account survival strategies and temporal dimensions, which yields valuable insights into the gut microbiota of E. akaara and provides a valuable reference to its aquaculture.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Seasons , Animals , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , China , Ecosystem , Phylogeny , Aquaculture , Bass/microbiology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Sequence Analysis, DNA , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Biodiversity
10.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 24(1): 91, 2024 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965473

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thyasirid bivalves are often recorded as a dominant component of macrobenthic infaunal communities in depositional environments such as fjord basins. Fjord basins comprise patchy soft-bottom habitats bounded by steep walls and sills; however, little is known how this semi-isolated nature of fjords affects benthic populations. Accordingly, data on the composition and population connectivity of thyasirids can provide valuable information on the ecology of these ecosystems. RESULTS: The species composition of thyasirid bivalves has been studied in the basins of three sub-Arctic fjords (Nordland, Northern Norway). Overall, six thyasirid species were recorded: Parathyasira equalis, Parathyasira dunbari, Mendicula ferruginosa, Genaxinus eumyarius, Thyasira sarsii, and Thyasira obsoleta. The species composition remained stable within the basins during the sampling period (2013-2020) and suggested the importance of local reproduction over advection of individuals for population dynamics. Only one species, Parathyasira equalis, was common in all fjords. We have further investigated the population genetics of this species by combining two types of genetic markers: a 579 bp fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and 4043 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) generated by genotyping-by-sequencing. The latter provided a more in-depth resolution on the population genetics of this species and revealed a weak but significant differentiation of populations within fjords, further indicating limited connectivity between basins. CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, we conclude that limited dispersal between the basin communities results in weakly connected populations and might be an important structuring factor for macrobenthic communities.


Subject(s)
Bivalvia , Animals , Bivalvia/genetics , Bivalvia/classification , Norway , Ecosystem , Arctic Regions , Phylogeny , Biodiversity , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics
11.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 146: 283-297, 2024 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969457

ABSTRACT

The Arctic, an essential ecosystem on Earth, is subject to pronounced anthropogenic pressures, most notable being the climate change and risks of crude oil pollution. As crucial elements of Arctic environments, benthic microbiomes are involved in climate-relevant biogeochemical cycles and hold the potential to remediate upcoming contamination. Yet, the Arctic benthic microbiomes are among the least explored biomes on the planet. Here we combined geochemical analyses, incubation experiments, and microbial community profiling to detail the biogeography and biodegradation potential of Arctic sedimentary microbiomes in the northern Barents Sea. The results revealed a predominance of bacterial and archaea phyla typically found in the deep marine biosphere, such as Chloroflexi, Atribacteria, and Bathyarcheaota. The topmost benthic communities were spatially structured by sedimentary organic carbon, lacking a clear distinction among geographic regions. With increasing sediment depth, the community structure exhibited stratigraphic variability that could be correlated to redox geochemistry of sediments. The benthic microbiomes harbored multiple taxa capable of oxidizing hydrocarbons using aerobic and anaerobic pathways. Incubation of surface sediments with crude oil led to proliferation of several genera from the so-called rare biosphere. These include Alkalimarinus and Halioglobus, previously unrecognized as hydrocarbon-degrading genera, both harboring the full genetic potential for aerobic alkane oxidation. These findings increase our understanding of the taxonomic inventory and functional potential of unstudied benthic microbiomes in the Arctic.


Subject(s)
Biodegradation, Environmental , Geologic Sediments , Microbiota , Geologic Sediments/microbiology , Geologic Sediments/chemistry , Arctic Regions , Petroleum/metabolism , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/metabolism , Bacteria/genetics , Archaea/metabolism , Archaea/classification , Archaea/genetics , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/metabolism , Biodiversity
12.
Microb Ecol ; 87(1): 90, 2024 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38958675

ABSTRACT

Endophytes play an important role in plant development, survival, and establishment, but their temporal dynamics in young conifer plants are still largely unknown. In this study, the bacterial community was determined by metabarcoding of the 16S rRNA gene in the rhizoplane, roots, and aerial parts of 1- and 5-month-old seedlings of natural populations of Abies religiosa (Kunth) Schltdl. & Cham. In 1-month-old seedlings, Pseudomonas dominated aerial parts (relative abundance 71.6%) and roots (37.9%). However, the roots exhibited significantly higher bacterial species richness than the aerial parts, with the dissimilarity between these plant sections mostly explained by the loss of bacterial amplification sequence variants. After 5 months, Mucilaginibacter dominated in the rhizoplane (9.0%), Streptomyces in the roots (12.2%), and Pseudomonas in the aerial parts (18.1%). The bacterial richness and community structure differed significantly between the plant sections, and these variations were explained mostly by 1-for-1 substitution. The relative abundance of putative metabolic pathways significantly differed between the plant sections at both 1 and 5 months. All the dominant bacterial genera (e.g., Pseudomonas and Burkholderia-Caballeronia-Paraburkholderia) have been reported to have plant growth-promoting capacities and/or antagonism against pathogens, but what defines their role for plant development has still to be determined. This investigation improves our understanding of the early plant-bacteria interactions essential for natural regeneration of A. religiosa forest.


Subject(s)
Abies , Bacteria , Endophytes , Plant Roots , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Seedlings , Seedlings/microbiology , Seedlings/growth & development , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Endophytes/classification , Endophytes/isolation & purification , Endophytes/physiology , Endophytes/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Abies/microbiology , Plant Roots/microbiology , Soil Microbiology , Biodiversity , Microbiota , DNA, Bacterial/genetics
13.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 120, 2024 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Functional redundancy (FR) is widely present, but there is no consensus on its formation process and influencing factors. Taxonomically distinct microorganisms possessing genes for the same function in a community lead to within-community FR, and distinct assemblies of microorganisms in different communities playing the same functional roles are termed between-community FR. We proposed two formulas to respectively quantify the degree of functional redundancy within and between communities and analyzed the FR degrees of carbohydrate degradation functions in global environment samples using the genetic information of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) encoded by prokaryotes. RESULTS: Our results revealed that GHs are each encoded by multiple taxonomically distinct prokaryotes within a community, and the enzyme-encoding prokaryotes are further distinct between almost any community pairs. The within- and between-FR degrees are primarily affected by the alpha and beta community diversities, respectively, and are also affected by environmental factors (e.g., pH, temperature, and salinity). The FR degree of the prokaryotic community is determined by deterministic factors. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the functional redundancy of GHs is a stabilized community characteristic. This study helps to determine the FR formation process and influencing factors and provides new insights into the relationships between prokaryotic community biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Video Abstract.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Biodiversity , Glycoside Hydrolases , Polysaccharides , Glycoside Hydrolases/metabolism , Glycoside Hydrolases/genetics , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/metabolism , Ecosystem , Microbiota , Prokaryotic Cells/metabolism , Prokaryotic Cells/classification , Phylogeny , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
14.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5641, 2024 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969636

ABSTRACT

On a global scale, biodiversity is geographically structured into regions of biotic similarity. Delineating these regions has been mostly targeted for tetrapods and plants, but those for hyperdiverse groups such as insects are relatively unknown. Insects may have higher biogeographic congruence with plants than tetrapods due to their tight ecological and evolutionary links with the former, but it remains untested. Here, we develop a global regionalization for a major and widespread insect group, ants, based on the most comprehensive distributional and phylogenetic information to date, and examine its similarity to regionalizations for tetrapods and vascular plants. Our ant regionalization supports the newly proposed Madagascan and Sino-Japanese realms based on tetrapod delineations, and it recovers clusters observed in plants but not in tetrapods, such as the Holarctic and Indo-Pacific realms. Quantitative comparison suggests strong associations among different groups-plants showed a higher congruence with ants than with tetrapods. These results underscore the wide congruence of diverse distribution patterns across the tree of life and the similarities shared by insects and plants that are not captured by tetrapod groups. Our analysis highlights the importance of developing global biogeographic maps for insect groups to obtain a more comprehensive geographic picture of life on Earth.


Subject(s)
Ants , Biodiversity , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Plants , Animals , Ants/physiology , Plants/classification , Biological Evolution
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15509, 2024 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969683

ABSTRACT

Polyploidization plays an important role in plant evolution and biodiversity. However, intraspecific polyploidy compared to interspecific polyploidy received less attention. Clintonia udensis (Liliaceae) possess diploid (2n = 2x = 14) and autotetraploid (2n = 4x = 28) cytotypes. In the Hualongshan Mountains, the autotetraploids grew on the northern slope, while the diploids grew on the southern slopes. The clonal growth characteristics and clonal architecture were measured and analyzed by field observations and morphological methods. The diversity level and differentiation patterns for two different cytotypes were investigated using SSR markers. The results showed that the clonal growth parameters, such as the bud numbers of each rhizome node and the ratio of rhizome branches in the autotetraploids were higher than those in the diploids. Both the diploids and autotetraploids appeared phalanx clonal architectures with short internodes between ramets. However, the ramets or genets of the diploids had a relatively scattered distribution, while those of the autotetraploids were relatively clumping. The diploids and autotetraploids all allocated more biomass to their vegetative growth. The diploids had a higher allocation to reproductive organs than that of autotetraploids, which indicated that the tetraploids invested more resources in clonal reproduction than diploids. The clone diversity and genetic diversity of the autotetraploids were higher than that of the diploids. Significant genetic differentiation between two different cytotypes was observed (P < 0.01). During establishment and evolution, C. udensis autotetraploids employed more clumping phalanx clonal architecture and exhibited more genetic variation than the diploids.


Subject(s)
Diploidy , Genetic Variation , Tetraploidy , China , Biodiversity , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15465, 2024 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965394

ABSTRACT

Cliffs contain one of the least known plant communities, which has been overlooked in biodiversity assessments due to the inherent inaccessibility. Our study adopted the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with the telephoto camera to remotely clarify floristic variability across unreachable cliffs. Studied cliffs comprised 17 coastal and 13 inland cliffs in Gageodo of South Korea, among which 9 and 5 cliffs were grazed by the introduced cliff-dwelling goats. The UAV telephotography showed 154 and 166 plant species from coastal and inland cliffs, respectively. Inland cliffs contained more vascular plant species (P < 0.001), increased proportions of fern and woody species (P < 0.05), and decreased proportion of herbaceous species (P < 0.001) than coastal cliffs. It was also found that coastal and inland cliffs differed in the species composition (P < 0.001) rather than taxonomic beta diversity (P = 0.29). Furthermore, grazed coastal cliffs featured the elevated proportions of alien and annual herb species than ungrazed coastal cliffs (P < 0.05). This suggests that coastal cliffs might not be totally immune to grazing if the introduced herbivores are able to access cliff microhabitats; therefore, such anthropogenic introduction of cliff-dwelling herbivores should be excluded to conserve the native cliff plant communities.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Plants , Animals , Republic of Korea , Islands , Unmanned Aerial Devices , Herbivory , Goats , Ecosystem
17.
BMC Biol ; 22(1): 148, 2024 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38965531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microbiomes are generally characterized by high diversity of coexisting microbial species and strains, and microbiome composition typically remains stable across a broad range of conditions. However, under fixed conditions, microbial ecology conforms with the exclusion principle under which two populations competing for the same resource within the same niche cannot coexist because the less fit population inevitably goes extinct. Therefore, the long-term persistence of microbiome diversity calls for an explanation. RESULTS: To explore the conditions for stabilization of microbial diversity, we developed a simple mathematical model consisting of two competing populations that could exchange a single gene allele via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). We found that, although in a fixed environment, with unbiased HGT, the system obeyed the exclusion principle, in an oscillating environment, within large regions of the phase space bounded by the rates of reproduction and HGT, the two populations coexist. Moreover, depending on the parameter combination, all three major types of symbiosis were obtained, namely, pure competition, host-parasite relationship, and mutualism. In each of these regimes, certain parameter combinations provided for synergy, that is, a greater total abundance of both populations compared to the abundance of the winning population in the fixed environment. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this modeling study show that basic phenomena that are universal in microbial communities, namely, environmental variation and HGT, provide for stabilization and persistence of microbial diversity, and emergence of ecological complexity.


Subject(s)
Gene Transfer, Horizontal , Microbiota , Microbiota/genetics , Biodiversity , Symbiosis/genetics , Models, Theoretical , Models, Biological
18.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0306580, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968184

ABSTRACT

Monitoring trends in wildlife communities is integral to making informed land management decisions and applying conservation strategies. Birds inhabit most niches in every environment and because of this they are widely accepted as an indicator species for environmental health. Traditionally, point counts are the common method to survey bird populations, however, passive acoustic monitoring approaches using autonomous recording units have been shown to be cost-effective alternatives to point count surveys. Advancements in automatic acoustic classification technologies, such as BirdNET, can aid in these efforts by quickly processing large volumes of acoustic recordings to identify bird species. While the utility of BirdNET has been demonstrated in several applications, there is little understanding of its effectiveness in surveying declining grassland birds. We conducted a study to evaluate the performance of BirdNET to survey grassland bird communities in Nebraska by comparing this automated approach to point count surveys. We deployed ten autonomous recording units from March through September 2022: five recorders in row-crop fields and five recorders in perennial grassland fields. During this study period, we visited each site three times to conduct point count surveys. We compared focal grassland bird species richness between point count surveys and the autonomous recording units at two different temporal scales and at six different confidence thresholds. Total species richness (focal and non-focal) for both methods was also compared at five different confidence thresholds using species accumulation curves. The results from this study demonstrate the usefulness of BirdNET at estimating long-term grassland bird species richness at default confidence scores, however, obtaining accurate abundance estimates for uncommon bird species may require validation with traditional methods.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Birds , Grassland , Animals , Nebraska , Birds/physiology , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Biodiversity
19.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0306568, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968235

ABSTRACT

Exploring the relationship between soil properties and species diversity in typical forest stands in Liaoning Xianrendong National Nature Reserve will help maintain the stability of forest communities in the transition zone between flora in Changbai and North China. Based on the plant-soil feedback theory, community sample data from nine typical forest stands in the study area and experimental test data from 54 soil samples, we selected indexes of soil physical and chemical properties based on the minimum data set (temperature, compactness, capillary pore space, bulk weight, capillary water holding capacity, drainage capacity, soil water storage, conductivity, pH, organic matter, Ca, Fe, K, N and P). We adopt the research method of classical statistical analysis. The soil properties of nine typical stands in Xianrendong National Nature Reserve of Liaoning Province were systematically analyzed. The relationship between soil properties and forest stands' species diversity was quantified using correlation and redundancy analyses. The Pearson correlation analysis results showed significant positive correlations between the Gleason abundance index (arbors) with conductivity, pH, organic matter, Ca, N and P; Pielou's evenness index (arbors) with bulk weight and Fe. Significant negative correlations between the Gleason abundance index (arbors) with capillary pore space, bulk weight, drainage capacity, soil water storage and capillary water holding capacity; Simpson dominance index and Shannon-Wiener diversity index with capillary water holding capacity, drainage capacity and soil water storage; Pielou's evenness index (arbors) with Ca and N. The natural moisture content and clay particles are neutral feedback. The results showed that the feedback mechanism of soil physicochemical properties on stand species diversity was complex, which was conducive to species coexistence and community stability.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Forests , Soil , Soil/chemistry , China , Plants/classification , Trees
20.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0304664, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968225

ABSTRACT

The Yamuna River in India and the Mississippi River in the United States hold significant commercial, cultural, and ecological importance. This preliminary survey compares the bacterial communities sampled in surface waters at 11 sites (Yamuna headwaters, Mississippi headwaters, Yamuna River Yamunotri Town, Mississippi River at Winona, Tons River, Yamuna River at Paonta Sahib, Yamuna River Delhi-1, Yamuna River Delhi-2, Yamuna River before Sangam, Sangam, Ganga River before Sangam). Bacterial 16S rDNA analyses demonstrate dominance of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla. Actinobacteria were also dominant at sites near Sangam in India and sites in Minnesota. A dominance of Epsilonbacteraeota were found in Delhi, India. Principal component analysis (PCA) using unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) resulted in the identification of 3 groups that included the Yamuna River locations in Delhi (Delhi locations), Yamuna headwaters and Yamuna River at Yamunotri (Yamuna River locations below the Glacier) and Mississippi, Ganga, Tons, and other Yamuna River locations. Diversity indices were significantly higher at the Yamuna River locations below the Glacier (Simpson D = 0.986 and Shannon H = 5.06) as compared (p value <0.001) to the Delhi locations (D = 0.951 and H = 4.23) and as compared (p value < 0.001) to Mississippi, Ganga, Tons, and other Yamuna River locations (D = 0.943 and H = 3.96). To our knowledge, this is the first survey to compare Mississippi and Yamuna River bacterial communities. We demonstrate higher diversity in the bacterial communities below the Yamunotri glacier in India.


Subject(s)
Rivers , Rivers/microbiology , India , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/isolation & purification , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Ice Cover/microbiology , United States , Biodiversity , Phylogeny , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Principal Component Analysis
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