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1.
J Transl Med ; 22(1): 536, 2024 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The challenge of addressing obesity persists in healthcare, necessitating nuanced approaches and personalized strategies. This study aims to evaluate the effects of diverse therapeutic interventions on anthropometric and biochemical parameters in individuals with overweight and obesity within a real-world clinical context. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 192 patients (141 females, 51 males) aged 18 to 75, with a BMI ranging from 25 to 30 (14.1%) and BMI ≥ 30 (85.9%), observed over a 12-month period at our Endocrinology Unit. Treatment cohorts comprised individuals following different regimens: Mediterranean Diet (MD), with an approximate daily intake of 1500 kcal for women and 1800 kcal for men (71% patients); Ketogenic Diet (KD), utilizing the VLCKD protocol characterized by a highly hypocaloric dietary regimen < 800 kcal/day (14% patients); metformin, administered using the oral formulation (5% patients); pharmacological intervention with GLP1-RA administered via subcutaneous injection with incremental dosage (10% patients). Supply constraints limited the efficacy of Liraglutide, whereas Semaglutide was excluded from comparisons due to its unavailability for obesity without diabetes. Blood tests were conducted to assess lipid profile, glycemic profile, and anthropometric parameters, including BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio. RESULTS: Significant BMI changes were observed from baseline to 6 months across MD, KD, and Liraglutide groups (p < 0.05). KD exhibited notable reductions in waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio within the initial quarter (p < 0.05), with a significant triglyceride decrease after 6 months (p < 0.05), indicating its efficacy over MD. Liraglutide demonstrated a substantial reduction in HbA1c levels in the first quarter (p < 0.05). During the first three months, the ANOVA test on fasting blood glucose showed a statistically significant impact of the time variable (p < 0.05) rather than the specific treatments themselves (Liraglutide and KD), suggesting that adherence during the early stages of therapy may be more critical than treatment choice. CONCLUSIONS: Positive outcomes from targeted interventions, whether pharmacological or dietary should encourage the exploration of innovative, long-term strategies that include personalized treatment alternation. The absence of standardized protocols underscores the importance of careful and tailored planning in managing obesity as a chronic condition.


Subject(s)
Obesity , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Adult , Aged , Adolescent , Young Adult , Obesity Management/methods , Diet, Mediterranean , Body Mass Index , Retrospective Studies
2.
Clin Transl Sci ; 17(6): e13853, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847347

ABSTRACT

The evidence of rivaroxaban's pharmacokinetics in obese compared with non-obese populations remains inconclusive. We aimed to compare the pharmacokinetic profile of rivaroxaban between obese and non-obese populations under fed state. Participants who met the study's eligibility criteria were assigned into one of two groups: obese (body mass index ≥35 kg/m2) or non-obese (body mass index 18.5-24.9 kg/m2). A single dose of rivaroxaban 20 mg was orally administered to each participant. Nine blood samples over 48 h, and multiple urine samples over 18 h were collected and analyzed for rivaroxaban concentration using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass detector. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined using WinNonlin software. Thirty-six participants were recruited into the study. No significant changes were observed between obese and non-obese participants in peak plasma concentration, time to reach peak plasma concentration, area under the plasma concentration-time curve over 48 h or to infinity, elimination rate constant, half-life, apparent volume of distribution, apparent clearance, and fraction of drug excreted unchanged in urine over 18 h. Rivaroxaban's exposure was similar between the obese and non-obese subjects, and there were no significant differences in other pharmacokinetic parameters between the two groups. These results suggest that dose adjustment for rivaroxaban is probably unwarranted in the obese population.


Subject(s)
Factor Xa Inhibitors , Obesity , Rivaroxaban , Humans , Rivaroxaban/pharmacokinetics , Rivaroxaban/administration & dosage , Rivaroxaban/blood , Male , Female , Adult , Factor Xa Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Factor Xa Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Factor Xa Inhibitors/blood , Middle Aged , Administration, Oral , Body Mass Index , Area Under Curve , Half-Life , Young Adult
6.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 53(3): 368-395, 2024 May.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839579

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influencing factors of body weight retention in woman at 1 year postpartum, and to construct and evaluate a nomogram prediction model for postpartum 1-year weight retention. METHODS: From September 2010 to February 2011, 468 pregnant women in the third trimester were recruited from Yuexiu District and Baiyun District Maternal and Child Health Hospital in Guangzhou, and followed up to 1 year postpartum. The basic demographic information of pregnant women was collected by self-made questionnaire. Dietary intake in the third trimester was investigated by 3-day 24-hour dietary review. The weight of women before delivery and one year after delivery were measured. According to whether the weight retention at 1 year postpartum is greater than 0 kg, the study subjects were divided into the 1-year postpartum weight retention group and weight recovery group. Logistic regression analysis were used to screen the influencing factors of weight retention at 1 year postpartum. R 4.2.3 software was used to construct the nomogram prediction model. The subject working characteristic curve, calibration curve, Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test and clinical decision curve were used to evaluate the model's differentiation, accuracy and clinical applicability. RESULTS: Among 329 subjects in the model training set, the 1-year postpartum weight retention was 68.09%, and the median and quartile levels of retained body weight were 5.0(3.0, 10.0)kg. After Logistic analysis, a nomogram prediction model was constructed based on five factors: pre-pregnancy body mass index(BMI), pregnancy weight gain, parity, gravitity, 0-6 months postpartum feeding pattern. The model had good discrimination(AUC_(training)=0.778, AUC_(testing)=0.767) and accuracy(Hosmer-Lemeshow test: P_(training)=0.946, P_(testing)=0.891). CONCLUSION: The 1-year postnatal weight retention nomogram model based on women's pre-pregnancy BMI, pregnancy weight gain, parity, gravitity, 0-6 months postpartum feeding pattern has good differentiation, accuracy and clinical applicability.


Subject(s)
Nomograms , Postpartum Period , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Postpartum Period/physiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Weight Gain , China , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Gestational Weight Gain
7.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 53(3): 375-381, 2024 May.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839592

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the growth trajectory of body mass index for age Z score(BAZ) in children aged 0 to 3 years and to explore the association between gestational weight gain and BAZ growth trajectory. METHODS: Based on a prospective cohort study, we recruited pregnant women in their early pregnancy into this study from 2013 to 2017 in Taicang of Jiangsu Province, tracked their weight changes until they gave birth, and calculated and evaluated their gestational weight gain(GWG) as appropriate, inadequate or excessive GWG based on Chinese GWG standard. Children's height/length and weight were measured at birth, 1, 3, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months of age, and their BAZ scores were calculated. Group-based trajectory modeling(GBTM) was used for fitting BAZ trajectories. Multilevel Logistic regression was used to analyze the association between the level of GWG and BAZ growth trajectories. RESULTS: There were 1864 mother-child pairs in the study, and three groups of BAZ trajectories were fitted including slow growth trajectory(34.07%), appropriate growth trajectory(48.23%), and fast growth trajectory(17.70%). In univariate analysis, compared with children whose mothers had appropriate GWG, the children whose mothers had inadequate GWG were more likely in the group of slow growth trajectory(OR = 1.95, 95%CI 1.28-2.96), and the children whose mothers had excessive GWG were more likely in the group of fast growth trajectory(OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.19-2.07). After adjusting for maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index(BMI) and parity, and the child's gender and birth weight, the children whose mothers gained in adequate GWG were more likely in the group of slow growth trajectory(OR = 1.84, 95%CI 1.19-2.84), while the association between excessive GWG and fast growth trajectory was not statistically significant(OR = 1.26, 95%CI 0.94-1.68). CONCLUSION: The BAZ trajectories of children aged 0-3 years can be categorized into slow, appropriate, and fast growth groups, and children's slow growth was associated with maternal inadequate GWG.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Gestational Weight Gain , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant , Child, Preschool , Prospective Studies , Male , Infant, Newborn , China , Child Development , Cohort Studies , Adult , Weight Gain
8.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 34(6): 654-658, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840346

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacies of common therapeutic regimens and their combinations, used in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) to improve fertility in reproductive-age women. STUDY DESIGN: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Obstetric Gynaecologist, Medicare Cardiac and General Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from November 2022 to July 2023. METHODOLOGY: Out of 300 patients with the symptoms of menstrual irregularities and infertility, 152 were diagnosed as PCOS patients based on the ultrasound and hormonal assays and selected for study purpose. They were divided according to their therapeutic regimen into four treatment groups, treated by different therapeutic agents. Group A received metformin 500 mg/day (n = 38); Group B received metformin + myo-inositol 1g (n = 49); Group C received metformin + letrozole 2.5 mg (n = 36), and Group D received metformin + letrozole + myo-inositol (n = 29), orally for three months. All continuous variables, such as body mass index (BMI), FSH, LH, FT4, and FSI were analysed by applying t-test to all therapeutic groups, keeping p ≤0.05 as the level of significance. RESULTS: HCG-positive was found as 86% (n = 33) in Group A, 63% (n = 31) in Group B, 52% (n = 19) in Group C, and 27% (n = 08) in Group D. There were statistically significant (p <0.001) changes in BMI, FSH, LH, FT4, and FSI as well. Metformin alone and metformin plus myo-inositol came out to be more effective than other regimens. CONCLUSION: Metformin alone and myo-inositol plus metformin are effective therapeutic options in PCOS-induced infertility problems. KEY WORDS: Polycystic ovarian syndrome, Infertility, Metformin, Myo-inositol, Letrozole, Menstrual irregularities.


Subject(s)
Drug Therapy, Combination , Infertility, Female , Inositol , Letrozole , Metformin , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Humans , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/drug therapy , Female , Metformin/therapeutic use , Inositol/therapeutic use , Letrozole/therapeutic use , Letrozole/administration & dosage , Adult , Infertility, Female/drug therapy , Infertility, Female/etiology , Pakistan , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Young Adult , Treatment Outcome , Body Mass Index
9.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 8(1)2024 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early identification of overweight and obesity with the help of simple anthropometric tests can prevent from development of metabolic complications in these children. Body mass index (BMI) is the most commonly used parameter but, measurements such as waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and wrist circumference (WrC) have also been studied and found to have a better correlation with visceral fat. OBJECTIVE: To correlate WC, WHtR and WrC with BMI among overweight and obese children. The secondary objective was to estimate the proportion of metabolic syndrome among obese and overweight children. METHODS: A single-centre, cross-sectional study involving 80 overweight and obese children aged 3-15 years. Anthropometric measures such as WC, WHtR and WrC of the study subjects were correlated with BMI and investigated for metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: Statistically significant and moderate positive correlation was found between BMI and WC, r (80)=0.45 and p<0.001 with WC explaining 20% of the variation of BMI. There was a statistically significant, moderate positive correlation between WHtR and BMI r (80)=0.34 and p<0.001 with 11% of the variation in BMI. There was a statistically significant strong positive correlation between WC and WrC (80)=0.61 and p<0.001, and WrC explains 37.2% of the variation in WC. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between BMI and WrC. Metabolic syndrome was found in 13 (16.25%) children. CONCLUSION: Alternative anthropometric measurements such as WC and WHtR have a significant correlation with BMI and may be of help in defining overweight and obesity in children. There was a statistically significant strong positive correlation between WC and WrC among obese children. Metabolic syndrome is common in these children.


Subject(s)
Anthropometry , Body Mass Index , Metabolic Syndrome , Overweight , Pediatric Obesity , Waist Circumference , Humans , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Child , Male , Female , Adolescent , Child, Preschool , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Anthropometry/methods , Overweight/epidemiology , Waist-Height Ratio
10.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 8(1)2024 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite parental concern, few studies have investigated children's experiences with school-based screening of growth deviations. This study aimed to explore perceptions of height and weight screening and associations with body size dissatisfaction (BSD) among third-grade children aged 8-9 years in central Norway. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study between November 2021 and April 2022, perceptions of height and weight screening and BSD were assessed individually among 209 children (49% girls) through researcher-assisted interviews. RESULTS: Most children indicated satisfaction with the screening by selecting a happy emoji, whereas only 1% indicated dissatisfaction, by selecting an unhappy emoji. However, 23%-30% selected a neutral emoji, indicating either neutrality or a response between satisfaction and dissatisfaction. No difference in the perception of height and weight screening was found between genders or body mass index (BMI). Children with parents from non-Western countries had a higher risk of being less satisfied with the height screening (OR=3.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 7.3) than those from Western origin, and children attending schools with lower socioeconomic status (SES) had increased risk of being less satisfied with both height (OR=5.5, 95% CI 2.2 to 13.5) and weight screening (OR=4.0, 95% CI 1.7 to 9.3), compared with children from schools with medium-high SES. Twenty-three percent reported BSD, in which 14% and 9% desired a thinner or larger body, respectively, independent of gender and BMI. No association was found between BSD and the perception of weighing (OR=1.1, 95% CI 0.6 to 2.4), however, BSD was associated with being more satisfied with height screening (OR=0.3, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.8). CONCLUSION: In the present sample, most children indicated satisfaction with school-based height and weight screening, with no differences between gender or BMI category. However, more children of non-Western origin and from areas with low SES reported less satisfaction with the screening, independent of BSD.


Subject(s)
Body Height , Body Image , Body Weight , Humans , Child , Female , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , Body Image/psychology , Norway , Schools , Mass Screening , Personal Satisfaction , Body Mass Index , Growth Disorders/epidemiology , Growth Disorders/psychology , Growth Disorders/diagnosis
11.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304987, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857269

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Body image distortion and/or dissatisfaction may occur primarily due to body fat accumulation and/or distribution. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of body image perception and (dis)satisfaction categories in adult men and women according to the adiposity classification. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study (n = 514; 33-79 years; 265 women) that is part of a prospective cohort (Pró-Saúde study). Adiposity measurements were determined by two methods: anthropometry, used to calculate the body mass index (BMI) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), to estimate body fat percentage. Participants were grouped as "no excess adiposity" and "excess adiposity", considering BMI and body fat percentage (>30% for men, >40% for women). Perception and (dis)satisfaction with body image were evaluated using the Kakeshita scale, composed by 15 silhouettes, developed for the Brazilian population. Degree of distortion (perceived BMI - real BMI) and dissatisfaction (perceived BMI - desired BMI) were calculated. RESULTS: A high proportion of men (58.6%; 74.3%), and especially of women (82.6%; 86.8%), presented body size overestimation and dissatisfaction due to excess weight, respectively. A relevant fraction of the women (32.6%) and men (30.8%) who were dissatisfied due to excess weight did not present excess adiposity, especially if classified by DXA. Variability in degree of distortion was hardly explained by anthropometric and DXA variables in women (<5%) and men (∼22%). Both anthropometric and DXA measurements accounted for ∼30% and ∼50% of the variability in degree of dissatisfaction among women and men, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a high frequency of body image distortion in Brazilian adult individuals, as well as dissatisfaction with excess weight, especially among women with excess adiposity. The findings indicate that anthropometric measurements explain much of the variability in degree of body image dissatisfaction in men, with no apparent advantage of the use of more refined DXA measurements.


Subject(s)
Absorptiometry, Photon , Adiposity , Body Image , Body Mass Index , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Adult , Adiposity/physiology , Body Image/psychology , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Personal Satisfaction , Brazil/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Body Dissatisfaction/psychology
12.
Neurology ; 103(1): e209431, 2024 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38861688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity is hypothesized to induce a hypercoagulable state that increases stroke risk. The molecular mechanisms underlying this association are largely uncharacterized. We aimed to apply mendelian randomization to identify whether the association of genetically proxied body mass index (BMI) with cardioembolic stroke risk is mediated by changes in levels of circulating coagulation factors. METHODS: Genetic proxies for BMI and levels of circulating coagulation factors were obtained, respectively, from the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits consortium (n = 694,649) and deCODE cohort (n = 35,559). Genetic associations with cardioembolic stroke risk were obtained from the GIGASTROKE consortium (10,804 cases and 1,234,804 controls). We performed a two-sample mendelian randomization analysis testing the association of genetically proxied BMI with cardioembolic stroke risk, genetically proxied BMI with levels of coagulation factors, and genetically proxied levels of coagulation factors with cardioembolic stroke risk. These estimates were carried forward to mediation and sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: A 1-SD increase in genetically proxied BMI associated with increased cardioembolic stroke risk (OR of cardioembolic stroke per 1-SD of BMI 1.20, 95% CI 1.08-1.33, p = 8.65 × 10-4) with similar findings in statistical sensitivity analyses more robust to the inclusion of pleiotropic variants. Genetically proxied BMI was further associated with increased levels of Factor VII, Factor Xa, Factor XI, and Protein S (all p < 5.9 × 10-6). Of these factors, genetically proxied levels of Factor XI were associated with cardioembolic stroke risk (OR of cardioembolic stroke per 1-SD increase in Factor XI levels 1.32, 1.19-1.46, p = 6.18 × 10-8). The mediated effect of genetically proxied BMI through Factor XI accounted for 26% (6%-49%) of the total effect of BMI on cardioembolic stroke. DISCUSSION: Human genetic data support increased levels of Factor XI as a mechanistic explanation for how obesity increases cardioembolic stroke risk. The clinical relevance of this association warrants further investigation within ongoing clinical trials of Factor XI inhibition.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Obesity , Thrombophilia , Humans , Obesity/genetics , Obesity/complications , Obesity/blood , Obesity/epidemiology , Thrombophilia/genetics , Thrombophilia/blood , Stroke/genetics , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/blood , Female , Blood Coagulation Factors/genetics , Male , Risk Factors , Embolic Stroke/genetics , Embolic Stroke/epidemiology
13.
Chron Respir Dis ; 21: 14799731241259749, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38863283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the cardiorespiratory fitness of hospitalized and obese patients are of utmost relevance. This study aimed to analyze how hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stay together with body mass index affect cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: 251 participants (males, n = 118; females, n = 133) were assigned to four groups: non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients (n = 65, age: 45.3 years), hospitalized COVID-19 patients (n = 63, age: 57.6 years), COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU (n = 61, age: 56.9 years), and control group (n = 62, age: 49.8 years). An incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed between 3 and 6 weeks after medical discharge from hospital. RESULTS: Higher peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), ventilatory efficiency and power output were found in ICU patients with normal weight (NW) than in overweight (OW) (Mean difference: 0.1 L·min-1, -5.5, 29.0 W, respectively) and obese (OB) ICU patients (Mean difference: 0.1 L·min-1, -5.0, 26.2 W, respectively) (p < .05). In NW, OW and OB participants, higher VO2peak and power output were observed in control group compared with non-hospitalized (Mean difference: NW: 0.2 L·min-1, 83.3 W; OW: 0.2 L·min-1, 60.0 W; OB: 0.2 L·min-1, 70.9 W, respectively), hospitalized (Mean difference: NW: 0.2 L·min-1, 72.9 W; OW: 0.1 L·min-1, 58.3 W; OB: 0.2 L•min-1, 91.1 W, respectively) and ICU patients (Mean difference: NW: 0.1 L·min-1, 70.9 W; OW: 0.2 L·min-1, 91.1 W; OB: 0.3 L·min-1; 65.0 W, respectively) (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The degree of severity of COVID-19, especially identified by hospitalization and ICU stay, together with obesity and overweight were key factors in reducing cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Cardiorespiratory Fitness , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Obesity , Humans , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Male , Middle Aged , Cardiorespiratory Fitness/physiology , Obesity/physiopathology , Obesity/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Exercise Test , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Adult , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Overweight/physiopathology , Overweight/epidemiology
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13141, 2024 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849441

ABSTRACT

Obesity and food addiction are associated with distinct brain signatures related to reward processing, and early life adversity (ELA) also increases alterations in these same reward regions. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the effect of early life adversity on food addiction are unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the interactions between ELA, food addiction, and brain morphometry in individuals with obesity. 114 participants with high body mass index (BMI) underwent structural MRIs, and completed several questionnaires (e.g., Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), Brief Resilience Scale (BRS), Early Traumatic Inventory (ETI)). Freesurfer 6 was applied to generate the morphometry of brain regions. A multivariate pattern analysis was used to derive brain morphometry patterns associated with food addiction. General linear modeling and mediation analyses were conducted to examine the effects of ELA and resilience on food addiction in individuals with obesity. Statistical significance was determined at a level of p < 0.05. High levels of ELA showed a strong association between reward control brain signatures and food addiction (p = 0.03). Resilience positively mediated the effect of ELA on food addiction (B = 0.02, p = 0.038). Our findings suggest that food addiction is associated with brain signatures in motivation and reward processing regions indicative of dopaminergic dysregulation and inhibition of cognitive control regions. These mechanistic variabilities along with early life adversity suggest increased vulnerability to develop food addiction and obesity in adulthood, which can buffer by the neuroprotective effects of resilience, highlighting the value of incorporating cognitive appraisal into obesity therapeutic regimens.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Brain , Food Addiction , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Obesity , Humans , Female , Male , Food Addiction/psychology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , Brain/physiopathology , Adult , Obesity/psychology , Obesity/pathology , Adverse Childhood Experiences/psychology , Reward , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Resilience, Psychological
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13101, 2024 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849465

ABSTRACT

Currently, a comprehensive assessment of the relationship between ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) indicators and cataract risk is lacking. Life's Essential 8 (LE8) is the latest concept proposed by the American Heart Association to comprehensively reflect CVH status. LE8 includes four health behaviors (diet, physical activity, smoking, and sleep) and four health factors (blood lipid, blood sugar, blood pressure, and body mass index). This study tried to evaluate the association between LE8 and cataract using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008, a continuous research program which aims to monitor and evaluate the health and nutrition status of the US population. A cross-sectional study of 2720 non-cataract participants and 602 cataract participants. All participants were assigned to the poor, intermediate, and ideal CVH status groups based on LE8 score. Weighted multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the correlation between the LE8 score and cataract, as well as the correlation between each of the eight subitems and cataract, with potential confounding variables being adjusted. Then, restricted cubic spline analysis was used to further explore whether there was a nonlinear relationship between LE8 score and cataract. The proportion of cataract participants was 14.1%, 18.2%, and 20.6% in the ideal, intermediate, and poor CVH groups, respectively (P < 0.05). LE8 score was inversely associated with cataract risk, with each 10-point increase in LE8 score associated with a 14% reduction in cataract risk [odds ratio (OR) = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-0.93, P < 0.01]. Among all the LE8 subitems, physical activity, sleep, and blood glucose were significantly associated with cataract risk (all P < 0.05). Better CVH, defined by a higher LE8 score, is associated with a lower cataract risk. Efforts to improve LE8 score (especially when it comes to physical activity, sleep, and blood glucose) may serve as a novel strategy to help reduce the risk of cataract.


Subject(s)
Cataract , Nutrition Surveys , Humans , Cataract/epidemiology , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , United States/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Risk Factors , Exercise , Body Mass Index , Health Behavior , Diet , Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/metabolism
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13171, 2024 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849492

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is closely related to cardiometabolic risk factors and atherosclerosis. This study aims to investigate whether the insertion/deletion (I/D) variant of ACE gene impacts cardiometabolic risk factors, premature coronary artery disease (PCAD), and severity of coronary lesions. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Central, CINAHL, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched until December 22, 2023. 94,270 individuals were included for the analysis. Carriers of DD genotype had higher levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) than carriers of II or ID genotypes. In addition, carriers of DD genotype were at high risk of PCAD and multiple vessel lesions. The impacts of ACE I/D variant on lipid levels were significant in American individuals but stronger in male individuals. In contrast, the impacts of ACE I/D variant on PCAD and severity of coronary lesions were primarily significant in Caucasian individuals. This study indicates that the ACE I/D variant has a slight but significant impact on cardiometabolic risk factors, PCAD, and severity of coronary lesions. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) may benefit high-risk populations with ACE DD genotype to prevent PCAD and multiple vessel lesions.PROSPERO registration number: CRD42023426732.


Subject(s)
Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Coronary Artery Disease , INDEL Mutation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Male , Female , Blood Pressure , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Severity of Illness Index , Middle Aged , Genotype , Body Mass Index , Risk Factors , Triglycerides/blood , Adult
17.
Eat Weight Disord ; 29(1): 42, 2024 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38850379

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26) is a screening tool for eating disorders (EDs) in clinical and non-clinical samples. The cut-off score was suggested to be varied according to target population. However, no studies have examined the appropriateness of the originally proposed score of 20 for screening DSM-5 eating disorders in Japan. This study aimed to identify an appropriate cut-off score to better differentiate clinical and non-clinical samples in Japan for EDs. METHODS: The participants consisted of 54 patients with anorexia nervosa restricting type, 58 patients with anorexia nervosa binge-eating/purging type, 37 patients with bulimia nervosa diagnosed according to DSM-5 criteria, and 190 healthy controls (HCs). Welch's t test was used to assess differences in age, body mass index (BMI), and total EAT-26 scores between HCs and patients with EDs. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted to identify the optimal cut-off score. RESULTS: The HCs had significantly higher BMI and lower total EAT-26 mean scores than patients with EDs. The area under the ROC curve was 0.925, indicating that EAT-26 had excellent performance in discriminating patients with EDs from HCs. An optimal cut-off score of 17 was identified, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.866 and 0.868, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The result supports the suggestions that optimal cut-off score should be different according to target populations. The newly identified cut-off score of 17 would enable the identification of patients with EDs who have been previously classified as non-clinical samples in the EAT-26 test. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III: evidence obtained from case-control analytic study.


Subject(s)
Feeding and Eating Disorders , Humans , Female , Japan , Adult , Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , Young Adult , Adolescent , Male , ROC Curve , Surveys and Questionnaires , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnosis , Anorexia Nervosa/psychology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Body Mass Index , Mass Screening/methods , Attitude , Case-Control Studies , Bulimia Nervosa/diagnosis , Bulimia Nervosa/psychology
18.
Lipids Health Dis ; 23(1): 176, 2024 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851714

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remnant cholesterol (RC) is an important marker for assessing the risk of metabolic syndrome. However, the correlation between RC and hyperuricemia (HUA) remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the correlation between RC and HUA in American adults. METHODS: A total of 9089 participants from the 2013-2020 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were investigated. The correlation between RC and the odds of HUA was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The nonlinear correlation was described using fitted smoothed curves. The correlation in subgroups was analyzed based on race, gender, alcohol consumption, age, body mass index, waist circumference, diabetes and moderate physical activities. RESULTS: RC was correlated with uric acid (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.208 in males and 0.215 in females; all P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated a positive correlation between RC and the risk of HUA (odds ratio = 1.022 in males and 1.031 in females; all P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed that the correlation was stronger in females, participants aged < 50 years, and those without diabetes. Furthermore, the generalized smooth curve fitting demonstrated a linear correlation between RC and HUA, without threshold or saturation effects. CONCLUSION: Elevated RC significantly and positively correlated with HUA in American adults. This correlation was stronger among females, participants aged < 50 years, and those without diabetes.


Subject(s)
Cholesterol , Hyperuricemia , Nutrition Surveys , Uric Acid , Humans , Male , Female , Hyperuricemia/blood , Hyperuricemia/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Adult , Cholesterol/blood , Uric Acid/blood , United States/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Logistic Models , Aged , Body Mass Index , Waist Circumference , Odds Ratio , Triglycerides/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology
19.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1389330, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854691

ABSTRACT

Objectives: A single measurement of adiposity indices could predict the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD); nonetheless their long-term pattern and its association with incident CVD are rarely studied. This study aimed to determine distinct trajectories of adiposity indices among participants of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) and their association with incident CVD. Furthermore, this study aimed to investigate whether this association differed among individuals according to their menopausal status. Method: A total of 6840 women participated in TLGS, aged 20 years and older were included in this study; they were followed for a median of 16 years. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), conicity index (CI) and body roundness index (BRI) were included in the analysis as adiposity indices. The cohort outcome panel of medical specialists identified the CVD outcomes. Trajectory analyses were used to identify homogeneous distinct clusters of adiposity indices trajectories. The association between the trajectory group membership and incident CVD were explored by Cox proportional hazard models, with unadjusted and adjusted model for baseline age, physical activity, smoking status, menopause and family history of CVD. Results: Three BMI trajectory groups of low, medium, and high and two trajectories for WC, BRI and CI were identified. Adjusted cox proportional hazard models revealed significant associations between the hazard of CVD experience and the high trajectory group of the BMI (HR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.38-3.07), WC (HR: 2.71, 95% CI: 1.98-3.70), CI (HR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.26-2.77) and BRI (HR: 1.55-95% CI: 1.12-2.15), compared to the low trajectory group. Subgroup analysis based on the menopausal status of participants showed that the HR of CVD incidences for all of trajectories adiposity indices, except BMI, was statistically significant. Adjusted cox proportional hazard models, in those women not reached menopause during study, revealed that the HR (95% CI) of CVD incidences for high trajectory of BMI, WC, CI and BRI were 2.80 (1.86-7.05); 2.09 (1.40-6.16); 1.72 (1.42-5.61), and 3.09 (1.06-9.01), respectively. These values for those were menopause at the initiation of the study were 1.40 (1.11, 2.53); 1.65 (1.04-2.75); 1.69 (1.01-2.87), and 1.61 (0.98-2.65), respectively. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that adiposity trajectories, particularly central adiposity index of CI, could precisely predict the CVD risk. Consequently, preventive strategies should be tailored accordingly.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases , Menopause , Waist Circumference , Humans , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Adiposity/physiology , Middle Aged , Menopause/physiology , Adult , Cohort Studies , Iran/epidemiology , Incidence , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Aged , Young Adult
20.
Transpl Int ; 37: 12735, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38855426

ABSTRACT

Obesity and related comorbidities heighten risks for complications in kidney transplant settings. While pre-transplant patients often have access to nutrition counseling and health support, literature is limited on patients' perceptions of weight and motivation to lose weight prior to transplantation. We conducted a survey among ≥18-year-old patients on the kidney transplant waitlist at a single center. Questions addressed weight perception, motivation for weight loss, available resources, and engagement in physical activity. Medical records provided demographic and clinical data. Statistical tests analyzed quantitative data, while free-text responses were thematically grouped and described. Of 1055 patients, 291 responded and were matched with demographic data. Perceived weight changes correlated with actual changes in body mass index (BMI) (<24.9) were more receptive to weight center resources (<30 kg/m2) are most interested in weight loss resources and demonstrate motivation. Furthermore, pre-transplant nutrition counseling correlates with healthier behaviors. Integrating patients' perspectives enhances pre-transplant protocols by encouraging active involvement in health decisions.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Kidney Transplantation , Motivation , Weight Loss , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Adult , Obesity/complications , Obesity/surgery , Waiting Lists , Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Counseling , Exercise
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