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1.
J. Health NPEPS ; 6(1)jun. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147344

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a letalidade da COVID-19 por sexo e idade entre os profissionais de saúde do Estado Pará, Brasil. Método: estudo epidemiológico e observacional, com utilização de dados secundários públicos sobre casos e óbitos acumulados por COVID-19 e dados demográficos, entre março e outubro de 2020. O número de casos e óbitos por COVID-19 ocorridos entre profissionais de saúde foram comparados em relação à idade e ao sexo pelo teste qui-quadrado, seguido por regressão logística pelo método Backward Stepwise de Wald. Resultados: entre os 15.332 casos confirmados de COVID-19, 70,3% eram do sexo feminino e 61,3% com idade entre 30 a 49 anos (39,2±11,6 anos). Registraram-se 97 óbitos, com uma taxa de letalidade de 0,6%. A probabilidade de óbito foi 52,8 vezes (20,7-134,5) e 4,0 vezes (2,5-6,2) maior entre jovens e homens quando comparados às demais notificações. Conclusão: a taxa de letalidade entre os profissionais de saúde é alta, especialmente entre homens jovens. Este é um alerta sobre os impactos da doença entre os trabalhadores da saúde e suscita ao poder público, especificamente ao setor saúde melhores condições de trabalho e políticas de saúde do trabalhador.(AU)


Objective: to analyze the lethality of COVID-19 by sex and age among health professionals in the state of Pará, Brazil. Method: epidemiological and observational study, using public secondary data on cases and deaths accumulated by COVID-19 and demographic data, between March and October 2020. The number of cases and deaths by COVID-19 that occurred among health professionals were compared in relation to age and sex using the chi-square test, followed by logistic regression using Wald's Backward Stepwise method. Results: among the 15,332 confirmed cases of COVID-19, 70.3% were female and 61.3% aged between 30 and 49 years (39.2 ± 11.6 years). 97 deaths were recorded, with a fatality rate of 0.6%. The probability of death was 52.8 times (20.7-134.5) and 4.0 times (2.5-6.2) higher among young men and men when compared to other reports. Conclusion: the lethality rate among health professionals is high, especially among young men. This is an alert about the impacts of the disease among health workers and raises the public authorities, specifically the health sector, better working conditions and worker health policies.(AU)


Objetivo: analizar la letalidad de COVID-19 por sexo y edad en profesionales de la salud en el estado de Pará, Brasil. Método: estudio epidemiológico y observacional, utilizando datos secundarios públicos sobre casos y defunciones acumulados por COVID-19 y datos demográficos, entre marzo y octubre de 2020. Se comparó el número de casos y defunciones por COVID-19 ocurridos entre profesionales de la salud en relación con edad y sexo usando la prueba de chi-cuadrado, seguida de regresión logística usando el método de Wald Backward Stepwise. Resultados: entre los 15.332 casos confirmados de COVID-19, el 70,3% eran mujeres y el 61,3% tenían entre 30 y 49 años (39,2 ± 11,6 años). Se registraron 97 muertes, con una tasa de letalidad del 0,6%. La probabilidad de muerte fue 52,8 veces (20,7-134,5) y 4,0 veces (2,5-6,2) más grande entre hombres y jóvenes en comparación con otros informes. Conclusión: la tasa de letalidad entre los profesionales de la salud es alta, especialmente entre los hombres jóvenes. Se trata de una alerta sobre los impactos de la enfermedad entre los trabajadores de la salud y plantea a las autoridades públicas, específicamente al sector salud, mejores condiciones laborales y políticas de salud laboral.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Occupational Health , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Health Policy , Brazil , Epidemiologic Studies
2.
Internet resource in Portuguese | LIS -Health Information Locator | ID: lis-48179

ABSTRACT

A Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) participou nesta segunda-feira (12) do lançamento da campanha de vacinação contra a gripe no Brasil. O Ministério da Saúde do país vai distribuir 80 milhões de doses da vacina influenza trivalente, produzida pelo Instituto Butantan, para imunizar um público-alvo de 79,7 milhões de pessoas. A campanha vai até o dia 9 de julho.


Subject(s)
Immunization Programs , Vaccination , Brazil , Influenza Vaccines/immunology
3.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05007, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791096

ABSTRACT

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza are prevalent seasonal community viruses. Although not completely understood, SARS-CoV-2 may have the same means of transmission. Preventive social measures aimed at preventing SARS-CoV-2 spread could impact transmission of other respiratory viruses as well. The aim of this study is to report the detection of RSV and influenza during the period of social distancing due to COVID-19 pandemic in a heavily affected community. Methods: Prospective study with pediatric and adult populations seeking care for COVID-19-like symptoms during the fall and winter of 2020 at two hospitals in Southern Brazil. RT-PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2, influenza A (Flu A), influenza B (Flu B) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was performed for all participants. Results: 1435 suspected COVID-19 participants (1137 adults, and 298 children). were included between May and August. Median age was 37.7 years (IQR = 29.6-47.7), and 4.92 years (IQR = 1.96-9.53), for the adult and child cohorts, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 was positive in 469 (32.7%) while influenza and RSV were not detected at all. Conclusions: Measures to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission likely exerted a huge impact in the spread of alternate respiratory pathogens. These findings contribute to the knowledge about the dynamics of virus spread. Further, it may be considered for guiding therapeutic choices for these other viruses.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , /epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/transmission , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/transmission , Seasons , Young Adult
4.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(5): e11177, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825779

ABSTRACT

Women have always played an important role in the development of toxicology all over the world. Specifically in Brazil, toxicology has had greater female representation than other countries, but women's participation at high hierarchical levels is low. Although more than 62% of the members of the Brazilian Society of Toxicology are women, only 7 out of the 22 presidents have been women throughout its 48 years of existence. This article aims to celebrate women in the field of toxicology in Brazil, based on interviews with five of these scientists who have changed the field of toxicology in Brazil as we know it today, each in their specific sub-areas. These women are: Dr. Ester de Camargo Fonseca Moraes, Dr. Silvia Berlanga de Moraes Barros, Dr. Alice Aparecida da Matta Chasin, Dr. Gisela de Aragão Umbuzeiro, and Dr. Tania Marcourakis. They are not only pioneers but they are also examples of admirable persistence in fighting the adversities presented to them. They broke the glass ceiling and opened doors for future generations of women in science. We hope that this article helps inspire women in their careers in toxicology.


Subject(s)
Toxicology , Brazil , Female , Humans , Toxicology/trends
5.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249822, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836024

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the discourses of patients who were diagnosed with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, the perception of why they acquired this health condition and barriers to seeking care in a priority city in Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was an exploratory qualitative study, which used the theoretical-methodological framework of the Discourse Analysis of French matrix, guided by the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research. The study was conducted in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Seven participants were interviewed who were undergoing treatment at the time of the interview. The analysis of the participants' discourses allowed the emergence of four discursive blocks: (1) impact of the social determinants in the development of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, (2) barriers to seeking care and difficulties accessing health services, (3) perceptions of the side effects and their impact on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment, and (4) tuberculosis and COVID-19: a necessary dialogue. Through discursive formations, these revealed the determinants of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Considering the complexity involved in the dynamics of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, advancing in terms of equity in health, that is, in reducing unjust differences, is a challenge for public policies, especially at the current moment in Brazil, which is of accentuated economic, political and social crisis. The importance of psychosocial stressors and the lack of social support should also be highlighted as intermediary determinants of health. The study has also shown the situation of COVID-19, which consists of an important barrier for patients seeking care. Many patients reported fear, insecurity and worry with regard to returning to medical appointments, which might contribute to the worsening of tuberculosis in the scenario under study.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/therapy , Young Adult
6.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852709

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is the organ dysfunction resulting from an infection associated with an unregulated host inflammatory response, which generates high mortality rates in Brazil. The aim of this stydy was to analyze the trend of early, late and post-neonatal mortality rates due to sepsis in Brazilian regions, from 2009 to 2018. This is an ecological study of time series. The trend of infant mortality from sepsis was analyzed using the International Classification of Diseases (ICD10) according to the place of residence (North, Northeast, Southeast, South and Midwest). Death Certificate data were collected from the Mortality Information System database. The temporal trend was analyzed using the Prais-Winsten estimate, interpreted as increasing, decreasing or stable, through the dependent variable (logarithm of mortality rates) and interdependent variables (years of the historical series). The Stata 14.0 statistical software was used. There were 39,867 infant deaths due to sepsis (78.67% for unspecified bacterial sepsis of the neonate ). Most of the children were male, had mixed ethnicity (black and white) , were born preterm with low birth weight and most mothers were 20-34 years old. There were decreasing trends in mortality rates from 2009 to 2018: early neonatal, in the Southeast (-3.57%), North (-3.33%) and South (-2.91%); late neonatal, in the South (-4.12%), Southeast (-4.53%), North (-4.55%) and Midwest (-6.21%); and post-neonatal, in the Northeast (-1.84%), North (-3.62%), Southeast (-3.83%) and Midwest (-5.81%). The Northeast showed a stable trend in early and late neonatal mortality rates. It was concluded that most regions showed a decreasing trend in mortality rates from sepsis in all age components, despite regional differences.


Subject(s)
Infant Mortality/trends , Sepsis/mortality , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Sepsis/microbiology , Young Adult
7.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852710

ABSTRACT

Despite the widespread use of chlorhexidine (CHX) to prevent infection, data regarding the in vitro action of CHX against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are limited. Clinical isolates from Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, identified during 2002/2003 and 2012/2013 were studied to describe the susceptibility to CHX and mupirocin, molecular characteristics, and virulence profile of MRSA. Susceptibility test to Mupirocin was performed by the disk diffusion method and to CHX by the agar dilution technique. PCR for virulence genes, mecA gene and Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) types were investigated as well. Mupirocin- and CHX-resistant isolates were sequenced using the IlluminaTM plataform. Two hundred and sixteen MRSA clinical isolates were evaluated: 154 from infected and 62 from colonized patients. Resistance to mupirocin was observed in four isolates assigned as SCCmec type III and STs (ST05; ST239 and ST105) carrying mupA and blaZ, two of them co-harboring the ileS gene. Only one isolate assigned as SCCmec type III was resistant to CHX (MIC of 8.0 µg.mL-1) and harbored the qacA gene. Resistance to chlorhexidine and mupirocin were found in isolates carrying qacA and mupA in our hospital. Since these genes are plasmid-mediated, this finding draws attention to the potential spread of resistance to mupirocin in our hospital.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Mupirocin/pharmacology , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Brazil , Child , Child, Preschool , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Female , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Infant , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Virulence , Young Adult
8.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852712

ABSTRACT

To estimate the prevalence of cases of trachoma in the population at social risk aged 1-9 years in Pernambuco State and its mesoregions. This was a cross-sectional study in which secondary data from the National Household Survey on Trachoma (2014-2015) were analyzed. The study covered 96 census tracts distributed across the mesoregions of Pernambuco State (Metropolitan Region of Recife, Zona da Mata, Agreste, Sertao do Sao Francisco and Sertao Pernambucano). The study included all homes with children aged 1-9 years, and all of them were examined for trachoma, using the WHO criteria. Among the total of 7,423 children aged 1-9 years who participated in this survey, 446 presented with active trachoma. Thus, the prevalence of trachoma in Pernambuco State, in children between 1-9 years old was 6.65%, and it was higher among children aged 5-9 years (7.12%) and among girls (7.23%). This result was seen in the majority of the mesoregions studied, except in the Zona da Mata and Sertao do Sao Francisco, where there were higher prevalences in the age group of 1-4 years (5.55%) and among boys (5.90%). A tendency towards a higher prevalence between 1 and 6 years of age was observed. The follicular trachoma continues to be an important public health problem in Pernambuco State. It particularly affects poor people, including those living in urban areas of the State.


Subject(s)
Trachoma/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Trachoma/diagnosis
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 277, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861359

ABSTRACT

The moisture content of the municipal solid waste (MSW) is a physical characteristic that plays a fundamental role in the stability and settlement of landfills. However, this physical index is difficult to monitor within the mass of landfilled MSW because it undergoes great variation due, mainly, to the heterogeneity and biodegradation of the waste. Brazilian MSW generally has a large amount of organic matter, that when biodegraded, generates a considerable volume of gases and fluids, aggravated by climatic conditions, such as high rainfall and temperatures. Hence, the importance of obtaining and evaluating the distribution of moisture content in the MSW mass over time. Currently, the electrical resistivity properties have been presented as an interesting approach to obtain the moisture content in landfills indirectly. This study aimed to apply geoelectrical methods as a tool to obtain and evaluate the moisture content distribution in an experimental cell of a sanitary landfill using Archie's law, which correlates the volumetric moisture content and electrical resistivity. Moisture content values were obtained in laboratory tests with MSW samples collected in two vertical holes and electrical resistivity measurements by means of vertical electrical sounding. The moisture content and the resistivity values of the samples were used to calculate the parameters a and m of Archie's law. This allowed to convert the resistivity tomography to moisture content tomography. The good correlation achieved between the moisture content calculated by Archie's law and that obtained from samples indicates that the use of electrical resistivity methods is useful to assess and monitor quantitatively the moisture content in landfills using Archie's law.


Subject(s)
Refuse Disposal , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring , Solid Waste/analysis , Waste Disposal Facilities
10.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e026220, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825800

ABSTRACT

Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) is a common tick-borne disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. Horses are the primary hosts of the main vector, Amblyomma sculptum, and are considered efficient sentinels for circulation of Rickettsia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect antibodies reactive to R. rickettsii antigens in horses from a non-endemic area in the north-central region of Bahia state, Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from 70 horses from the municipalities of Senhor do Bonfim, Antônio Gonçalves, Pindobaçu, and Campo Formoso. The sera obtained were tested by an indirect immunofluorescence assay to detect anti-Rickettsia antibodies. Overall, 5.7% (4/70) of the horses reacted to R. rickettsii antigens. Ticks were collected from 18.6% (13/70) of the horses and were identified as A. sculptum and Dermacentor nitens. Despite being a non-endemic area, seropositive animals were identified in our study, suggesting circulation of rickettsial agents in the region. This is the first serological survey of this agent in horses from the north-central region of Bahia, and further studies are needed to understand the epidemiology of BSF in these locations.


Subject(s)
Horse Diseases/diagnosis , Horses/microbiology , Rickettsia rickettsii , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/veterinary , Ticks , Animals , Brazil/epidemiology , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Horse Diseases/microbiology , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/diagnosis , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever/epidemiology , Ticks/classification , Ticks/microbiology
11.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 29: e3410, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852682

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to make and validate an educational video about the management of pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest caused by respiratory failure. METHOD: methodological study developed in three stages: preparation and validation of a clinical case; production; and validation of educational video. To build the educational video, the Fleming, Reynolds and Wallace methodological framework was used. RESULTS: the clinical case was validated by ten expert referees, who worked as nurses in different regions in Brazil, by completing an online form, with one round of evaluation and calculation of the content validity index. The educational video was validated by three expert judges and 25 nursing students in an evaluation round and contains six scenes, with duration of nine minutes and 56 seconds. An agreement over 80% was reached for most of the items in both the clinical case and the educational video. CONCLUSION: the educational video proved valid regarding face and content. This educational technology has the potential to meet the demands of students, who are digital natives, related to teaching of management of pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest caused by respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
Education, Nursing , Heart Arrest , Students, Nursing , Brazil , Child , Educational Technology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Humans , Pediatric Nursing
12.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 29: e3411, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852683

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the frequency and factors associated to disapproval among nursing students. METHOD: a descriptive and cross-sectional study, outlined by the convergent mixed method. A total of 88 nursing students of a Brazilian public university took part. The Reduced Academic Experiences Questionnaire was used for evaluating academic adaptation. The association of the variables in the study with disapproval was verified by bivariate analysis. RESULTS: the frequency of disapprovals in the sample was 68.2%, recurrences in the same discipline in 39.8%, with the associated factors: age over or equal to 22 years old (p=0.015), family income below 2 minimum wages (p=0.019) and lag in the curricular flow (p<0.001). Disciplines with higher frequencies of disapprovals are of the basic area, taught in the first two years of the course and common to the health courses. Students without disapprovals had better perception of physical and psychological well-being (p=0.002), good interpersonal relationships (p=0.017) and more assertive study behaviors (p=0.005). Personal, study-related and institutional issues were motivating. CONCLUSION: the results reveal a high rate of disapproval, especially in the basic area. An association was found between disapprovals and mental health for nursing students during their education process, and difficulties were pointed out that can culminate with the disapproval rate in the curricular flow.


Subject(s)
Students, Nursing , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Curriculum , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 29: e3424, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852689

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to describe the methodological process of cultural adaptation of the Glamorgan Scale to Brazilian Portuguese. METHOD: a methodological study of translation and cultural adaptation of the Glamorgan Scale, following the six stages: initial translation, synthesis of translations, back-translation, committee of experts, pre-test, and submission of the adapted version to the author for approval. The committee of experts was composed of five physicians and, during evaluation, a semantic, idiomatic, cultural and conceptual analysis was carried out. The agreement and representativeness of the items were assessed using the Content Validity Index. A minimum value of 80% agreement was considered. RESULTS: all stages of the translation and cross-cultural adaptation process were satisfactory. In the evaluation made by the committee of experts, all items obtained an agreement greater than 80% in the first evaluation round. The pre-test stage allowed for a critical overview of the instrument, where few modifications were suggested by the participants. CONCLUSION: the Glamorgan Scale was translated and culturally adapted to Brazilian Portuguese. Future psychometric studies are necessary to validate the scale.


Subject(s)
Cross-Cultural Comparison , Pediatrics , Brazil , Child , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires , Translations
14.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 25(2): 104-108, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798109

ABSTRACT

Active learning is common in pharmacy school. However, such learning strategy rarely integrates more than one specific field. Here, we develop a new active multidisciplinary approach centered on compounded capsule's quality evaluation. Captopril capsules were chosen for their important role to control systemic arterial hypertension, a highly prevalent disease. The study design was developed and demonstrated by two undergraduate students. Four compounding pharmacies were selected randomly, and sixty capsules of captopril 25 mg were purchased from each pharmacy at three different periods (12 batches). The capsules were evaluated according to general aspects (visual observation), label information (according to the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia's regulation), weight variation (standard method), and uniformity of dosage units (iodine titration). All batches met the requirements expected for general aspects and one pharmacy did not meet minimum label criteria. Weight variation out of the standard limits was observed for three of the batches evaluated, and five batches were found to be out of the acceptable captopril's dosage. All stages of this activity resulted in important discussions pertaining to the education of pharmacists. The experimental multidisciplinary approach presented a lead to different discussions on several expertise fields and might have a great impact on the formation of future pharmacist. Several topics could be addressed using this activity, such as analytical chemistry, titration, stoichiometry, medicine preparation, pharmacological risks, et h i c a l aspects, and the pharmacist's role to guarantee health.


Subject(s)
Pharmacies , Pharmacy , Brazil , Drug Compounding , Humans , Pharmacists , Students
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 246, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821337

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of drugs and endocrine disrupters in water supplies and in water for human consumption. Twelve sampling campaigns were carried out during the rainy and dry season at four sampling points in the Bolonha Complex, in the city of Belém, northern region of Brazil: Bolonha reservoir (catchment) and Water Treatment Plant (WTP) Bolonha (filtered water chamber, treated water tank, and washing water from the filters). The determination of the compounds was performed by solid phase extraction followed by gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The results confirmed the anthropic influence that the reservoir and WTP-Bolonha have been suffering, as consequence of the discharge of domestic sewage in natura. Among 25 microcontaminants analyzed, 12 were quantified in raw water and 10 in treated water. The antiallergic Loratadine (LRT) was the contaminant that occurred most frequently in all sample points, having been poorly removed (median 12%) in the conventional treatment used. Losartana (LST), 4-octylphenol (4-OP), and Bisphenol A (BPA) also occurred very frequently in raw water with concentrations ranging from 3.7 to 194 ng L-1. Although such contaminants occurred in treated water in concentrations varying from 4.0 to 135 ng L-1, the estimated margin of exposure ranged from 55 to 3333 times which indicates low risk of human exposure to such contaminants through ingestion of treated water.


Subject(s)
Endocrine Disruptors , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Brazil , Endocrine Disruptors/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
16.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(3): e00216620, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825801

ABSTRACT

The goal of this study is to characterize the population of older adults in Brazil during the COVID-19 pandemic with regard to health, socioeconomic conditions, gender inequality, adherence to social distancing and feelings of sadness or depression. It is a cross-sectional study carried out with Brazilian older adults who responded to an online health survey (N = 9,173), using a "virtual snowball" sampling method. Data were collected online via a self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence and confidence interval estimates were performed and verified for independence using Pearson's chi-square test. During the pandemic there was a fall in household income among almost half of older adults. Extreme social distancing was practiced by 30.9% (95%CI: 27.8; 34.1) and 12.2% (95%CI: 10.1; 14.7) did not adhere to it. Older adults who were not working before the pandemic adhered in greater numbers to extreme social distancing measures. Most of them presented comorbidities associated with a higher risk of developing the severe form of COVID-19. Feelings of loneliness, distress and sadness were frequent among older adults, especially women. The COVID-19 pandemic widened the inequality gap by affecting the most vulnerable older people. Strategies to mitigate loneliness and social distancing should consider social vulnerability and the marked difference between men and women in terms of household composition and socioeconomic and working conditions. The development of representative surveys of Brazilian older adults is recommended, investigating the impact of the pandemic on this population.


Subject(s)
Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 262, 2021 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846871

ABSTRACT

Emerging contaminants is a topic that has been in evidence, especially in the last decades. These compounds are pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products that are present in several locations, mainly in large urban centers. The aim of this work was to investigate the fate of seven compounds (atrazine, simazine, ametrine, tebuthiuron, 2,4-D, fipronil, and diclofenac) using leaching column experiments to evaluate accumulation and transfer in 5 different types of urban soils from Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Chemical analyses were carried out through liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results showed that the soil derived from quaternary sediments, with well-sorted sandy sediments, was the one in which the contaminants had higher mobility. This soil also has a pH above the average of the others in the city, a factor that may also be responsible for less retention of substances. Tebuthiuron is the substance with the greatest leaching potential overall. Column experiments are a relevant tool to understand the behavior of emerging contaminants in soils and implications on the population health.


Subject(s)
Soil Pollutants , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Brazil , Chromatography, Liquid , Environmental Monitoring , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Soil , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 263, 2021 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847840

ABSTRACT

Rainfall is a climatic variable that dictates the daily rhythm of urban areas in Northeastern Brazil (NEB) and, therefore, understanding its dynamics is fundamental. The objectives of the study were (i) to validate the CHELSA product with data in situ, (ii) assess the spatial-temporality of the rains, and (iii) assess the trends and socio-environmental implications in the Metropolitan Region of Maceió (MRM). The monthly rainfall data observed between 1960 and 2016 were flawed and were filled with the imputation of data. These series were subjected to descriptive and exploratory statistics, statistical indicators, and the Mann-Kendall (MK) and Pettitt tests. CHELSA product was validated for MRM, and all stations obtained satisfactory determination coefficients (R2) and Pearson correlation (r). The standard error of the estimate (SEE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute error (MAE) were satisfactory. The highest annual rainfall accumulated occurred near the Mundaú and Manguaba lagoons. The Pettitt test identified that abrupt changes occur in El Niño and La Niña years (strong and weak). The monthly rain boxplots showed high variability in the rainy season (April-July). Outliers have been associated with extreme rainfall at MRM. The drought period was 5 months in all MRM seasons, except in Satuba and Pilar. The Mann-Kendall test and the Sen method showed a tendency for a significant increase in rainfall in Satuba and not significant in the Pilar, while in the others, there was a tendency for a decrease in rainfall. The MRM rainfall depends on physiographic factors, multiscale meteorological systems, and the coastal environment. These results will assist in planning conservationist practices, especially in areas of socio-environmental vulnerability.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring , Rain , Brazil , El Nino-Southern Oscillation , Seasons
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e045258, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795308

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic and its control measures have impacted health and healthcare provision in various levels. Physical distancing measures, for instance, may affect sexual health, impacting access to HIV prevention supplies and changing sexual behaviour, as well as mental health, increasing feelings of unsafety and weakening community support ties. These effects can be worsened among socially marginalised groups, such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). Brazil is among the countries most affected by COVID-19 in the world, where control measures have been inconsistently implemented. We aim to investigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the sexual and mental health of adolescent and adult MSM and TGW in Brazil. METHODS: Convergent mixed-method prospective cohort study, nested in two ongoing HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) cohorts in Brazil, named PrEP1519 and Combina. Participants will be invited to answer, at baseline and after 6 months, a questionnaire about the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on sexual behaviour, HIV prevention and mental health. Data on HIV infection and sexually transmitted infections (STI) will be collected as part of routine follow-up from the cohorts. Main outcome measures (HIV infection, STI and depression symptoms) will be observed within 12 months after baseline. Sample size is estimated at 426 participants. Complementarily, 50 participants will be invited to in-depth interviews through video calls or interactive voice response, and 20 will be invited to chronicle their lives during the pandemic through digital diaries. Triangulation will be done across qualitative methods and with the quantitative data. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by Research Ethics Committees from the Brazilian Universities coordinating the study. Findings will be published in scientific journals and presented at meetings. Informative flyers will be elaborated to communicate study findings to participants and key stakeholders.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/prevention & control , Mental Health , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Transgender Persons/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(3)2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802471

ABSTRACT

Background and objective: In the current pandemic scenario, data mining tools are fundamental to evaluate the measures adopted to contain the spread of COVID-19. In this study, unsupervised neural networks of the Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) type were used to assess the spatial and temporal spread of COVID-19 in Brazil, according to the number of cases and deaths in regions, states, and cities. Materials and methods: The SOM applied in this context does not evaluate which measures applied have helped contain the spread of the disease, but these datasets represent the repercussions of the country's measures, which were implemented to contain the virus' spread. Results: This approach demonstrated that the spread of the disease in Brazil does not have a standard behavior, changing according to the region, state, or city. The analyses showed that cities and states in the north and northeast regions of the country were the most affected by the disease, with the highest number of cases and deaths registered per 100,000 inhabitants. Conclusions: The SOM clustering was able to spatially group cities, states, and regions according to their coronavirus cases, with similar behavior. Thus, it is possible to benefit from the use of similar strategies to deal with the virus' spread in these cities, states, and regions.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Neural Networks, Computer , Unsupervised Machine Learning , Brazil/epidemiology , /transmission , Humans , Spatio-Temporal Analysis
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