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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856


Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.

Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Models, Statistical
Environ Pollut ; 302: 119070, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35231538


Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to lung cancer incidence and mortality, but limited evidence existed for other cancers. This study aimed to assess the association between PM2.5 on cancer specific mortality. An ecological study based on the cancer mortality data collected from 5,565 Brazilian cities during 2010-2018 using a difference-in-differences approach with quasi-Poisson regression, was applied to examine PM2.5-cancer mortality associations. Globally gridded annual average surface PM2.5 concentration was extracted and linked with the residential municipality of participants in this study. Sex, age stratified and exposure-response estimations were also conducted. Totalling 1,768,668 adult cancer deaths records of about 208 million population living across 5,565 municipalities were included in this study. The average PM2.5 concentration was 7.63 µg/m3 (standard deviation 3.32) with range from 2.95 µg/m3 to 28.5 µg/m3. With each 10 µg/m3 increase in three-year-average (current year and previous two years) concentrations of PM2.5, the relative risks (RR) of cancer mortality were 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-1.20) for all-site cancers. The PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with several cancer-specific mortalities including oral, nasopharynx, oesophagus, and stomach, colon rectum, liver, gallbladder, larynx, lung, bone, skin, female breast, cervix, prostate, brain and leukaemia. No safe level of PM2.5 exposure was observed in the exposure-response curve for all types of cancer. In conclusion, with nationwide cancer death records in Brazil, we found that long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 increased risks of mortality for many cancer types. Even low level PM2.5 concentrations had significant impacts on cancer mortality.

Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Lung Neoplasms , Adult , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Brazil/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure , Female , Humans , Male , Mortality , Particulate Matter/analysis
Malar J ; 21(1): 144, 2022 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35527254


BACKGROUND: Over a third of the world's population is at risk of Plasmodium vivax-induced malaria. The unique aspect of the parasite's biology and interactions with the human host make it harder to control and eliminate the disease. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and Duffy-negative blood groups are two red blood cell (RBC) variations that can confer protection against malaria. METHODS: Molecular genotyping of G6PD and Duffy variants was performed in 225 unrelated patients (97 with uncomplicated and 128 with severe vivax malaria) recruited at a Reference Centre for Infectious Diseases in Manaus. G6PD and Duffy variants characterizations were performed using Real Time PCR (qPCR) and PCR-RFLP, respectively. RESULTS: The Duffy blood group system showed a phenotypic distribution Fy(a + b-) of 70 (31.1%), Fy(a + b +) 96 (42.7%), Fy(a-b +) 56 (24.9%) and Fy(a-b-) 1 (0.44%.) The genotype FY*A/FY*B was predominant in both uncomplicated (45.3%) and severe malaria (39.2%). Only one Duffy phenotype Fy(a-b) was found and this involved uncomplicated vivax malaria. The G6PD c.202G > A variant was found in 11 (4.88%) females and 18 (8.0%) males, while c.376A > G was found in 20 females (8.88%) and 23 (10.22%) male patients. When combined GATA mutated and c.202G > A and c.376A > G mutated, was observed at a lower frequency in uncomplicated (3.7%) in comparison to severe malaria (37.9%). The phenotype Fy(a-b +) (p = 0.022) with FY*B/FY*B (p = 0.015) genotype correlated with higher parasitaemia. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of G6PD c202G > A and c.376A > G and Duffy variants is observed in Manaus, an endemic area for vivax malaria. In addition, this study reports for the first time the Duffy null phenotype Fy(a-b-) in the population of the Amazonas state. Moreover, it is understood that the relationship between G6PD and Duffy variants can modify clinical symptoms in malaria caused by P. vivax and this deserves to be further investigated and explored among this population.

Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency , Malaria, Vivax , Brazil/epidemiology , Duffy Blood-Group System/genetics , Female , Genotype , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency/genetics , Humans , Malaria, Vivax/epidemiology , Male , Plasmodium vivax/genetics
Adv Rheumatol ; 62(1): 15, 2022 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35527261


BACKGROUND: Most of the few studies that have established reference ranges for serum uric acid (SUA) have not taken into account factors which may interfere with its levels and followed rigorous laboratory quality standards. The aim of this study was to establish reference ranges for SUA and determine the prevalence of hyperuricemia. METHOD: Cross-sectional study including 15,100 participants (all sample) aged 35 to 74 years from baseline data of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicentric cohort of volunteer civil servants from five universities and one research institute located in different regions of Brazil. It was established a reference sample excluding participants with factors that directly influence SUA levels: glomerular filtration rate lower than 60 ml/min, excessive alcohol intake, use of diuretics, aspirin, estrogen or urate-lowering therapy. SUA was measured using the uricase method and following rigorous international quality standards. Reference ranges were defined as values between percentiles 2.5 (P2.5) and 97.5 (P97.5) of SUA distribution in the reference sample, stratified by sex. Hyperuricemia was defined as SUA ≥ 7 mg/100 ml in the all sample. RESULTS: The reference sample was composed of 10,340 individuals (55.3% women, median age 50 years). Reference ranges (P2.5 to P97.5) for SUA were: 4.0 to 9.2 mg/100 ml for men and 2.8 to 6.9 mg/100 ml for women. Sex was a major determinant for SUA levels (median [IQR], mg/100 ml: 6.1 [5.3-7.0] for men versus 4.5 [3.9-5.3] for women, p < 0.001). Higher levels of SUA were found in patients with higher BMI. Higher age had (a modest) influence only for women. The prevalence of hyperuricemia for all sample (N = 15,100) was 31.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 30.8-33.0%) in men and 4.8% (95% CI 4.3-5.3%) in women. CONCLUSION: SUA reference ranges were 4.0 to 9.2 mg/100 ml for men and 2.8 to 6.9 mg/100 ml for women. Prevalence of hyperuricemia was 31.9% in men and 4.8% in women. Updated SUA reference ranges and prevalence of hyperuricemia are higher nowadays and might be used to guide laboratories and the screening for diseases related to SUA.

Hyperuricemia , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hyperuricemia/diagnosis , Hyperuricemia/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Reference Values , Uric Acid
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(4): EN199121, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508024


Discrimination due to sexual orientation (DDSO) has an important association with health outcomes among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study aimed to analyze factors associated with DDSO among MSM in 12 Brazilian cities. This is a cross-sectional study with 4,176 MSM participants recruited in 2016 which used a respondent-driven sampling method in 12 Brazilian cities. DDSO levels were previously identified by a latent class analysis based on 13 variables from the discrimination section. An ordinal logistic regression was used to assess associations with these DDSO levels, and weighted ordinal odds ratios (OR) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using Gile's estimator. Most participants were young (< 25 years old) black or of mixed-race (pardo), single individuals who had a religious affiliation, primary or incomplete secondary education, and a high and average socioeconomic status. More than half (65%) reported DDSO in the 12 months prior to this study. We observed an independent association among the four latent DDSO classes and the following variables: age < 25 years old (OR = 1.66; 95%CI: 1.21-2.27), white skin color (OR = 1.43; 95%CI: 1.02-2.01), history of sexual (OR = 2.33; 95%CI: 1.58-3.43) and physical violence (OR = 3.08; 95%CI: 2.11-4.49), disclosure of their sexual orientation as MSM to their fathers (OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.47-2.72), experienced suicidal ideation in the two weeks prior to this study (OR = 2.09; 95%CI: 1.46-2.98), and use of any illicit drugs in the last six months (OR = 1.61; 95%CI: 1.19-2.18). Our results indicate that contextual factors may contribute to high DDSO levels among MSM in Brazil. Public health policies toward human rights surveillance and protection among MSM must be urgently addressed.

HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Perception , Sexual Behavior
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(4): EN230621, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508025


This study aims to estimate fertility trends in Brazil in the 2010s and early 2020s during a period of back-to-back novel infectious disease outbreaks - Zika virus and COVID-19. We use Brazilian Ministry of Health and Association of Civil Registrar data from 2011-2021 to measure general fertility rates at the national and state levels. We also used seasonal ARIMA model to forecast fertility rates by month and state in 2021 and compared these forecasts with observed fertility rates. We find that fertility rates were steady over 2011-2015 with no statistically significant variation, followed by a sharp decline during the Zika outbreak in 2016 followed by a return to pre-Zika levels after the end of the epidemic. Furthermore, to evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic, we make comparisons with observed and forecast rates from 2020-2021, showing that declines were generally larger for observed than for forecast rates, yet statistically insignificant. We argue that the resurgence of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021 might lead to further declines, as women might have not had enough time to adjust rebound from either the effects of the Zika epidemic. We also discuss the importance of timely availability of live births data during a public health crisis with immediate consequences for fertility rates.

COVID-19 , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Fertility , Humans , Pandemics , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(4): e00196821, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508029


The study aimed to analyze the prevalence of self-reported limitation of functional mobility and associated factors from 2000 to 2015 in elderly residing in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The analyses used data from the four waves (2000, 2006, 2010, and 2015) in the Health, Well-Being, and Aging Study (SABE). Regression models were conducted to analyze the demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, and health-related characteristics of individuals associated with limitations of mobility in each wave of the study, and multilevel analysis was performed for comparison between the four waves. The results showed an increase in the prevalence of self-reported limitations in mobility, most evident in the year 2006. There was also an association between chronic health conditions such as history of stroke (PR = 1.43; 95%CI: 1.29; 1.58, in 2000), presence of osteoarticular diseases (PR = 1.35; 95%CI: 1.23; 1.49, in 2015), and complaint of "backache" (PR = 1.33; 95%CI: 1.22; 1.45, in 2006), as well as with socioeconomic aspects such as insufficient income (PR = 1.17; 95%CI: 1.07; 1.28, in 2010). In a context of rapid population aging, these results provide relevant information for promoting public policies to prevent the decline in mobility in the elderly.

Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a prevalência de limitação na mobilidade funcional autorreferida e os fatores associados no período entre os anos 2000 e 2015, em idosos residentes no Município de São Paulo, Brasil. Para as presentes análises foram utilizados os dados das quatro ondas (2000, 2006, 2010 e 2015) do Estudo Saúde, Bem Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE). Foram conduzidos modelos de regressão para analisar as características demográficas, socioeconômicas, comportamentais e relativas à saúde dos indivíduos associadas à limitação da mobilidade em cada onda do estudo, e análise multinível para a comparação entre as quatro ondas. Os resultados indicaram aumento nas prevalências de limitações na mobilidade autorreferida, mais evidente no ano de 2006. Foi observado, ainda, associação com condições crônicas de saúde, como a história de AVC (RP = 1,43; IC95%: 1,29; 1,58, em 2000), a presença de doenças osteoarticulares (RP = 1,35; IC95%: 1,23; 1,49, em 2015), e a queixa de "dor nas costas" (RP = 1,33; IC95%: 1,22; 1,45, em 2006), bem como com aspectos socioeconômicos, como a renda insuficiente (RP = 1,17; IC95%: 1,07; 1,28, em 2010). Em um contexto de envelhecimento populacional acelerado, esses resultados trazem informações relevantes para a promoção de políticas públicas voltadas à prevenção de declínio da mobilidade em pessoas idosas.

Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar la prevalencia de limitación en la movilidad funcional autoinformada y sus factores asociados durante el período entre los años 2000 y 2015, en ancianos residentes en el Municipio de São Paulo, Brasil. Para los análisis actuales se utilizaron los datos de cuatro oleadas (2000, 2006, 2010 y 2015) del Estudio Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (SABE). Se aplicaron modelos de regresión para analizar las características demográficas, socioeconómicas, comportamentales y relativas a la salud de los individuos, asociadas a la limitación de la movilidad en cada oleada del estudio, y un análisis multinivel para la comparación entre las 4 oleadas. Los resultados indicaron un aumento en las prevalencias de limitaciones respecto a la movilidad autoinformada, pero fue evidente en el año 2006. Se observó, incluso, una asociación con las condiciones crónicas de salud, como un historial de ACV (RP = 1,43; IC95%: 1,29; 1,58, en 2000), la presencia de enfermedades osteoarticulares (RP = 1,35; IC95%: 1,23; 1,49, en 2015), y la queja de "dolor de espalda" (RP = 1,33; IC95%: 1,22; 1,45, en 2006), así como con aspectos socioeconómicos, como la renta insuficiente (RP = 1,17; IC95%: 1,07; 1,28, en 2010). En un contexto de envejecimiento poblacional acelerado, esos resultados presentan información relevante para la promoción de políticas públicas dirigidas a la prevención del declive de la movilidad en personas ancianas.

Aging , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Multilevel Analysis , Prevalence , Self Report , Socioeconomic Factors
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(4): e00104221, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508028


This article uses a socio-anthropological framework to explore the stigmas around interactions with children born with congenital Zika syndrome caused by the Zika virus epidemic in two Brazilian municipalities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents and other relatives. We reflected on the search for meaning when having a baby with unexpected body marks, the moral suffering, the societal ableism, the burden of care, and the need for support networks. We concluded that public policies, especially social policies (health, education, and social assistance), are essential for compensatory mechanisms, recognition, and social inclusion of these children and their families.

Epidemics , Microcephaly , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Infant , Microcephaly/epidemiology , Microcephaly/etiology , Social Stigma , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(4): PT155821, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508072


The study aimed to describe knowledge and risk practices related to HIV infection in three Brazilian cities in the general population, men 15 to 24 years of age living without a partner, and men that reported sex with other men (MSM) at least once in life. This was a cross-sectional household-based study with three-stage cluster sampling (census tracts, households, individuals) stratified by sex, age group (15-24; 25-34; 35-44; 45-59), and conjugal status in the individual selection. We estimated the proportions and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of indicators of knowledge, HIV testing, sexual behavior, and self-rated risk. We analyzed 5,764 individuals in Campo Grande, 3,745 in Curitiba, and 3,900 in Florianópolis. Low levels of knowledge were found for preventive methods, especially PrEP. Unprotected sex practices were frequent in the three municipalities. Lifetime HIV test rates were 57.2% (95%CI: 55.1-59.2) in Curitiba, 64.3% (95%CI: 62.7-66.0) in Campo Grande, and 65.9% (95%CI: 64.0-67.7) in Florianópolis. Among men 15-24 years of age, the proportions of stimulant drug use and unprotected sexual practices were higher than in the other age groups. Lifetime HIV test rates exceeded 80% in MSM. More than 30% of MSM were receptive partners in anal sex without condoms, and fewer than 5% assessed their risk as high. More effective communication strategies are needed on prevention of HIV infection, including increased knowledge that could motivate safer sexual practices.

O objetivo do estudo foi descrever o conhecimento e práticas de risco à infecção pelo HIV na amostra total de cada município, entre homens de 15 a 24 anos que vivem sem companheiro(a), e homens que fizeram sexo com homems (HSH) pelo menos uma vez na vida em três cidades brasileiras. Foi realizado estudo de corte transversal de base domiciliar com amostragem por conglomerados em três estágios (setores censitários, domicílios, indivíduos), com estratificação por sexo, faixa etária (15-24; 25-34; 35-44; 45-59) e vive com companheiro(a) na seleção do indivíduo. Estimaram-se proporções e intervalos de 95% de confiança (IC95%) de indicadores de conhecimento, testagem do HIV, comportamento sexual e autoavaliação do risco. Foram analisados 5.764 indivíduos em Campo Grande, 3.745 em Curitiba e 3.900 em Florianópolis. Baixo nível de conhecimento foi encontrado para os métodos de prevenção, sobretudo para profilaxia pré-exposição (PrEP). Práticas de sexo desprotegido foram frequentes nos três municípios. As proporções de teste de HIV na vida foram 57,2% (IC95%: 55,1-59,2) em Curitiba, 64,3% (IC95%: 62,7-66,0) em Campo Grande, e 65,9% (IC95%: 64,0-67,7) em Florianópolis. Entre homens de 15-24 anos, proporções de uso de drogas estimulantes e práticas sexuais desprotegidas foram mais altas que nos demais grupos etários. Entre os HSH, as proporções de teste de HIV na vida foram superiores a 80%. Mais de 30% foram parceiros receptivos no sexo anal sem uso de preservativo, e menos de 5% avaliam seu risco como alto. É preciso adotar estratégias de comunicação mais eficazes sobre a prevenção da infecção do HIV, incluindo a ampliação de conhecimentos que poderiam motivar práticas sexuais mais seguras.

El objetivo fue describir el conocimiento y prácticas de riesgo para la infección por el HIV en la muestra total de cada municipio, entre hombres de 15 a 24 años que viven sin compañero(a), y hombres que practicaron sexo con hombres (HSH) por lo menos una vez en la vida en tres ciudades brasileñas. Se trata de un estudio de corte transversal con base domiciliaria, con una muestra por conglomerados en tres fases (sectores censales, domicilios, individuos), con estratificación por sexo, franja de edad (15-24; 25-34; 35-44; 45-59) y vive con compañero(a) en la selección del individuo. Se estimaron las proporciones e intervalos de 95% de confianza (IC95%) de indicadores de conocimiento, testeo del VIH, comportamiento sexual y autoevaluación del riesgo. Se analizaron a 5.764 individuos en Campo Grande, 3.745 en Curitiba y 3.900 en Florianópolis. Se encontró un bajo nivel de conocimiento respecto a los métodos de prevención, sobre todo para PrEP. Fueron frecuentes las prácticas de sexo desprotegido en los tres municipios. Las proporciones de tests de VIH en la vida fueron 57,2% (IC95%: 55,1-59,2) en Curitiba, 64,3% (IC95%: 62,7-66,0) en Campo Grande, y 65,9% (IC95%: 64,0-67,7) en Florianópolis. Entre hombres de 15-24 años, las proporciones de uso de drogas estimulantes y prácticas sexuales desprotegidas fueron más altas que en los demás grupos de edad. Entre los HSH, las proporciones de test de VIH en la vida fueron superiores a 80%. Más de un 30% fueron parejas receptivas en el sexo anal, sin uso de preservativo, y menos de un 5% evalúan su riesgo como alto. Es necesario adoptar estrategias de comunicación más eficaces sobre la prevención de la infección contra el VIH, incluyendo la ampliación de conocimientos que podrían motivar prácticas sexuales más seguras.

HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Brazil/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Condoms , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Risk-Taking , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 379, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501764


BACKGROUND: The Brazilian healthcare system is a large and complex system, specially considering its mixed public and private funding. The incidence of syphilis has increased in the last four years, in spite of the presence of an effective and available treatment. Furthermore, syphilis takes part in a group of disorders of compulsory notification to the public health surveillance. The epidemiological implications are especially important during pregnancy since it can lead to complications, related to prematurity stillbirth and miscarriage, in addition to congenital syphilis, characterized by multisystem involved in the newborn. METHODS: The Action Research methodology was applied to address the complexity of the syphilis surveillance scenario in Pernambuco, Brazil. Iterative learning cycles were used, resulting in six cycles, followed by a formal validation of an operational version of the syphilis Trigram visualisation at the end of the process. The original data source was analyzed and prepared to be used without any new data or change in the ordinary procedure of the current system. RESULTS: The main result of this work is the production of a Syphilis Trigram: a domain-specific infographic for presenting gestational data and birth data. The second contribution of this work is the Average Trigram, an organized pie chart which synthesizes the Syphilis Trigram relationship in an aggregated way. The visualization of both graphics is presented in an Infographic User Interface, a tool that gathers an infographic broad visualization aspect to data visualization. These interfaces also gather selections and filters tools to assist and refine the presented information. The user can experience a specific case-by-case view, in addition to an aggregated perspective according to the cities monitored by the system. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed domain-specific visualization amplifies the understanding of each syphilis case and the overall characteristics of cases of a chosen city. This new information produced by the Trigram can help clarify the reinfection/relapse cases, optimize resource allocation and enhance the syphilis healthcare policies without the need of new data. Thus, this enables the health surveillance professionals to see the broad tendency, understand the key patterns through visualization, and take action in a feasible time.

Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Syphilis, Congenital , Syphilis , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Child Health , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Syphilis/diagnosis , Syphilis/epidemiology , Syphilis, Congenital/epidemiology , Syphilis, Congenital/prevention & control
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267556, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503766


BACKGROUND: Anxiety symptoms (AS) are exacerbated in healthcare workers (HCWs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Spirituality is known to protect against AS in the general population and it is a construct that differs from religion. It can be assessed using structured questionnaires. A validated questionnaire disclosed three spirituality dimensions: peace, meaning, and faith. In HCWs we investigated the predictors of chronic anxiety (pre-COVID-19 and during the pandemic) and acute anxiety (only during the pandemic), including spirituality in the model. Then, we verified which spirituality dimensions predicted chronic and acute anxiety. Lastly, we studied group differences between the mean scores of these spirituality dimensions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out in a Brazilian Hospital. HCWs (n = 118) were assessed for spirituality at a single time-point. They were also asked about AS that had started pre-COVID-19 and persisted during the pandemic (chronic anxiety), and AS that had started only during the pandemic (acute anxiety). The subjects without chronic anxiety were subdivided into two other groups: acute anxiety and without chronic and acute anxiety. Forward stepwise logistic regressions were used to find the significant AS predictors. First, the model considered sex, age, religious affiliation, and spirituality. Then, the analysis were performed considering only the three spirituality dimensions. Group means differences in the spirituality dimensions were compared using univariate ANCOVAS followed by T-tests. RESULTS: Spirituality was the most realible predictor of chronic (OR = 0.818; 95%CI:0.752-0.890; p<0.001) and acute anxiety (OR = 0.727; 95%CI:0.601-0.881; p = 0.001). Peace alone predicted chronic anxiety (OR = 0.619; 95%CI:0.516-0.744; p<0.001) while for acute anxiety both peace (OR:0.517; 95%CI:0.340-0.787; p = 0.002), and faith (OR:0.674; 95%CI:0.509-0.892; p = 0.006) significantly contributed to the model. Faith was significantly higher in subjects without AS. CONCLUSION: Higher spirituality protected against chronic and acute anxiety. Faith and peace spirituality dimensions conferred protection against acute anxiety during the pandemic.

COVID-19 , Graft vs Host Disease , Anxiety/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Protective Factors , Spirituality
Adv Rheumatol ; 62(1): 13, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505408


BACKGROUND: Patients using immunosuppressive drugs may have unfavorable results after infections. However, there is a lack of information regarding COVID-19 in these patients, especially in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with COVID-19 hospitalizations in patients with RA. METHODS: This multicenter, prospective cohort study is within the ReumaCoV Brazil registry and included 489 patients with RA. In this context, 269 patients who tested positive for COVID-19 were compared to 220 patients who tested negative for COVID-19 (control group). All patient data were collected from the Research Electronic Data Capture database. RESULTS: The participants were predominantly female (90.6%) with a mean age of 53 ± 12 years. Of the patients with COVID-19, 54 (20.1%) required hospitalization. After multiple adjustments, the final regression model showed that heart disease (OR = 4.61, 95% CI 1.06-20.02. P < 0.001) and current use of glucocorticoids (OR = 20.66, 95% CI 3.09-138. P < 0.002) were the risk factors associated with hospitalization. In addition, anosmia was associated with a lower chance of hospitalization (OR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.10-0.67, P < 0.005). CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that heart disease and the use of glucocorticoids were associated with a higher number of hospital admissions for COVID-19 in patients with RA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials - RBR-33YTQC.

Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Adult , Aged , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Female , Glucocorticoids , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Registries
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 385, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505301


BACKGROUND: Recognizing that hyperglycemia in pregnancy can impact both individually a patient's health and collectively the healthcare system and that different levels of hyperglycemia incur different consequences, we aimed to evaluate the differences and similarities between patients who met the diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or diabetes in pregnancy (DIP) according to the World Health Organization diagnostic criteria based on the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). METHODS: This retrospective study included a cohort of 1064 women followed-up at the Gestational Diabetes Unit of Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo, Brazil). Patients were classified into GDM and DIP groups, according to their OGTT results. Their electronic charts were reviewed to obtain clinical and laboratory data for all participants. RESULTS: Women in the DIP group had a higher pre-pregnancy body mass index (30.5 vs 28.1 kg/m2, odds ratio [OR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.11), more frequently experienced GDM in a previous pregnancy (25% vs. 11%, OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.17-6.27), and were more likely to have chronic hypertension (43.1% vs. 23.5%, OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.47-4.11), a current twin pregnancy (10.8% vs. 2.9%, OR 4.04, 95% CI 1.70-9.61), or require insulin (46.1% vs. 14.3%, OR 5.14, 95% CI 3.06-8.65) than those in the GDM group. Patients in the DIP group also had a higher frequency of large-for-gestational-age infants (12.3% vs. 5.1%, OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.23-6.27) and abnormal postpartum OGTT (45.9% vs. 12.6%, OR 5.91, 95% CI 2.93-11.90) than those in the GDM group. Nevertheless, in more than half of the DIP patients, glucose levels returned to normal after birth. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes but does not equate to a diagnosis of diabetes post-pregnancy. It is necessary to identify and monitor these women more closely during and after pregnancy. Keeping patients with hyperglycemia in pregnancy engaged in healthcare is essential for accurate diagnosis and prevention of complications related to abnormal glucose metabolism.

Diabetes, Gestational , Glucose Intolerance , Hyperglycemia , Pregnancy in Diabetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Diabetes, Gestational/diagnosis , Diabetes, Gestational/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy in Diabetics/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , World Health Organization
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 55: e01712022, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522804


BACKGROUND: Mother-to-child transmission of Chagas disease (CD) has become a relevant problem in both endemic and non-endemic areas. METHODS: Description of the CUIDA Chagas Project - Communities United for Innovation, Development and Attention for Chagas disease'. RESULTS: Through innovative and strategic research, this project will provide improved diagnostic and treatment options as well as replicable implementation models that are adaptable to different contexts. CONCLUSIONS: By integrating test, treat and care actions for CD into primary health care practices, the burden of CD on people and health systems may be significantly reduced.

Chagas Disease , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Bolivia/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Colombia , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Paraguay/epidemiology
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 55: e05292021, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522809


BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is a growing threat to public health. METHODS: A 3-year retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and lethality of multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii isolated from Brazilian patients. RESULTS: In this study, 219 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were identified, of which 70.8% (155/219) were isolated from patients hospitalized in intensive care units. Of these, 57.4% (n = 89/155) were assessed, of which 92.1% (82/89) were carbapenem-resistant, and 49 were classified as infected. The lethality rate was 79.6% (39/49). CONCLUSIONS: We highlight the need of an effective epidemiological surveillance measure to contain the dissemination of CRAB in the hospital environment.

Acinetobacter Infections , Acinetobacter baumannii , Cross Infection , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Epidemiological Monitoring , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Retrospective Studies , beta-Lactamases
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 55: e05992021, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522812


BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of Chagas disease among blood donors in southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: The study was conducted from 2010 to 2019 based on data registered by the Hemocentro Regional de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. RESULTS: There were 106,320 blood donations, and the discard rate of blood bags, either due to positive reactions to anti-T. cruzi antibodies or inconclusive results was 0.27% (283 bags). CONCLUSIONS: The usage of methods that enable the safe identification of donors with positive serology for Chagas disease is fundamental to ensure transfusional safety.

Chagas Disease , Trypanosoma cruzi , Antibodies, Protozoan , Blood Donors , Brazil/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 55: e06062021, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522813


BACKGROUND: The school community was heavily impacted by the Covid-19 pandemic, especially with the long time of school closures. This study aimed to analyze the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and possible factors associated with seropositivity for COVID-19 in teachers and other school staff, and to estimate the fraction of asymptomatic individuals by sex and age group. METHODS: We conducted a serological survey of SARS-CoV-2 infections. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in Fortaleza, Brazil. Teachers and other staff members from pre-schools to universities of higher education to were investigated. RESULTS: A total of 1,901 professionals participated in the study, of which 1,021 were staff and 880 were teachers. The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was 8.0% (152/1901). In the seropositive group, 48.3% were asymptomatic. There was a predominance of women (68.4%); and, 47.1% of the participants were between 31 and 45 years old. There was an increase in prevalence with increasing age. An inverse relationship was found for education level: more professionals with less education tested positive for COVID-19. The presence of an infected person living in the same household was significantly associated with positive results for COVID-19 among the professionals. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to report the seroprevalence of IgG against SARS-CoV-2 in Brazilian educational staff after the first wave of the disease. In this study, the seroprevalence was much lower than that in the general population. During school reopening, a small fraction of school workers showed serologically detectable signs of SARS-CoV-2 exposure.

COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies