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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5241, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347208

ABSTRACT

Serosurveillance helps establish reopening guidelines and determine the immunity levels in different populations to reach herd immunity. Then, there is an urgent need to estimate seroprevalence population wide. In Mexico, information about COVID-19 cases and related deaths is scarce. Also, there is no official serosurveillance, limiting our knowledge of the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Here, we report the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 522,690 unvaccinated people from July 5th to December 31st, 2020. The overall seroprevalence was 32.8% and highest in adults aged 30-39 years (38.5%) than people under 20 years (33.0%) or older (28.9%). Moreover, in a cohort of 1655 individuals confirmed COVID-19 by PCR, we found that symptomatic people (HR = 2.56) increased seroconversion than presymptomatic. Also, we identified that the most discriminative symptoms for COVID-19 that could predict seroconversion were anosmia and ageusia (HR = 1.70), fever, myalgia/arthralgia, and cough (HR = 1.75). Finally, we found that obese people had lower seroconversion (HR = 0.53) than healthy people, but the opposite happens in diabetic people (HR = 1.39). These findings reveal that around one-third of Mexican outpatients had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies before vaccination. Also, some symptoms improve empirically COVID-19 diagnosis and seroconversion. This information could help fine-tune vaccination schemes and the reopening and back-to-work algorithms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Seroconversion , Seroepidemiologic Studies
2.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 104(4): 269-273, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941446

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented time for the management of colorectal cancer, with uncertainty as to cancer-specific risks and the circumventing of gold standard oncological strategies. Our study aimed to acquire a snapshot of the practice of multidisciplinary team (MDT) management and variability in response to rapidly emerging guidelines. METHODS: The survey was disseminated to 150 colorectal cancer MDTs across England and Wales taken from the National Bowel Cancer Audit data set between 15 April and 30 June 2020 for completion by colorectal surgeons. RESULTS: Sixty-seven MDTs responded to the survey. Fifty-seven centres reported that they continued to perform colorectal cancer resections during the initial lockdown period. Fifty centres (74.6%) introduced routine preoperative COVID-19 testing and 50 (74.6%) employed full personal protective equipment for elective cases. Laparoscopic resections were continued by 25 centres (42.1%), whereas 28 (48.3%) changed to an open approach. Forty-nine (79.0%) centres reported experiencing patient-led surgical cancellations in 0-25% of their listings. If surgery was delayed significantly then 24 centres (38.7%) employed alternative neoadjuvant therapy, with short-course radiotherapy being their preferred adjunct of choice for rectal cancer. Just over 50% of the MDTs stated that they were uncomfortable or very uncomfortable with their management strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates variability in the MDT management of colorectal cancer during the initial COVID-19 lockdown, incorporating adaptive patient behaviour and initially limited data on oncological safety profiles leading to challenging decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rectal Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
3.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1208: 339846, 2022 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35525596

ABSTRACT

The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to the outbreak of the 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) disease, which greatly challenges the global economy and health. Simple and sensitive diagnosis of COVID-19 at the early stage is important to prevent the spread of pandemics. Herein, we have proposed a target-triggered cascade signal amplification in this work for sensitive analysis of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Specifically, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA can trigger the catalytic hairpin assembly to generate plenty of DNA duplexes with free 3'-OH termini, which can be recognized and catalyzed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) to generate long strand DNA. The prolonged DNA can absorb substantial Ru(NH3)63+ molecules via electrostatic interaction and produce an enhanced current response. The incorporation of catalytic hairpin assembly and TdT-mediated polymerization effectively lowers the detection limit to 45 fM, with a wide linear range from 0.1 pM to 3000 pM. Moreover, the proposed strategy possesses excellent selectivity to distinguish target RNA with single-base mismatched, three-base mismatched, and random sequences. Notably, the proposed electrochemical biosensor can be applied to analyze targets in complex circumstances containing 10% saliva, which implies its high stability and anti-interference. Moreover, the proposed strategy has been successfully applied to SARS CoV-2 RNA detection in clinical samples and may have the potential to be cultivated as an effective tool for COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , DNA/chemistry , DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase/metabolism , Electrochemical Techniques , Humans , Limit of Detection , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Environ Public Health ; 2022: 3859071, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35528635

ABSTRACT

The identification and tracking of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients in the general population are essential components of the global strategy to limit the COVID-19 viral spread, specifically for maintaining traceability and suppressing the resurgence of local outbreaks. Public health programs that include continuous RT-qPCR testing for COVID-19 in the general population, viral sequencing, and genomic surveillance for highly contagious forms of the virus have allowed for the identification of SARS-CoV-2 infections and reinfections. This work identified SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in a homeless person, which occurred 58 days after the first COVID-19 diagnosis. Genomic sequencing identified a different Nextstrain classification clade (20A and 20B) and PANGO lineage, with a divergence of 4 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in S and ORF1ab genes, suggesting reinfection by different viral variants. This study is the first from the great metropolitan area of Santiago, Chile, one of the top ten countries in the world to live during the COVID-19 pandemic. We support the importance of performing intensive genomic surveillance programs in the whole population and high-risk groups, such as homeless people, nearly 20 thousand people in Chile, and have limited access to health care services and poor viral traceability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Chile/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 840210, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531327

ABSTRACT

In the summer of 2019, DiaSorin Molecular started designing a multiplex respiratory panel with pan-coronavirus detection as one of the planned targets. The R&D team in Gerenzano, Italy was already searching databases, performing alignments and assessing preliminary target regions for common coronavirus RT-PCR, including SARS and MERS-CoV. In December 2019, we were vigilant and following a cluster of pneumonia cases with undetermined etiology in Wuhan, China. As we now know, the cause of the respiratory infections was the new SARS-CoV-2 virus. DiaSorin Molecular swiftly responded in line with our heritage and company history in detecting emerging infectious diseases. Early in the pandemic and in record time, using research and development teams in both Italy and the U.S. together with the U.S. manufacturing team, we were able to develop and commercialize a new diagnostic test, Simplexa™ COVID-19 Direct, to detect SARS-CoV-2. Our unique platform allowed development of a rapid diagnostic test without the need for extraction reagents. Challenges with control materials, quarantines, clinical samples, raw materials and production were overcome and the entire company worked side by side for accelerated delivery of this assay to clinical labs in Europe, the U.S. and Canada.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , China , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e2210743, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522282

ABSTRACT

Importance: Individuals with serious mental illness are at increased risk of severe COVID-19 infection. Several psychotropic medications have been identified as potential therapeutic agents to prevent or treat COVID-19 but have not been systematically examined in this population. Objective: To evaluate the associations between the use of psychotropic medications and the risk of COVID-19 infection among adults with serious mental illness receiving long-term inpatient psychiatric treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study assessed adults with serious mental illness hospitalized in a statewide psychiatric hospital system in New York between March 8 and July 1, 2020. The final date of follow-up was December 1, 2020. The study included 1958 consecutive adult inpatients with serious mental illness (affective or nonaffective psychoses) who received testing for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction or antinucleocapsid antibodies and were continuously hospitalized from March 8 until medical discharge or July 1, 2020. Exposures: Psychotropic medications prescribed prior to COVID-19 testing. Main Outcomes and Measures: COVID-19 infection was the primary outcome, defined by a positive SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction or antibody test result. The secondary outcome was COVID-19-related death among patients with laboratory-confirmed infection. Results: Of the 2087 adult inpatients with serious mental illness continuously hospitalized during the study period, 1958 (93.8%) underwent testing and were included in the study; 1442 (73.6%) were men, and the mean (SD) age was 51.4 (14.3) years. A total of 969 patients (49.5%) had laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection that occurred while they were hospitalized; of those, 38 (3.9%) died. The use of second-generation antipsychotic medications, as a class, was associated with decreased odds of infection (odds ratio [OR], 0.62; 95% CI, 0.45-0.86), whereas the use of mood stabilizers was associated with increased odds of infection (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03-1.47). In a multivariable model of individual medications, the use of paliperidone was associated with decreased odds of infection (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.41-0.84), and the use of valproic acid was associated with increased odds of infection (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.10-1.76). Clozapine use was associated with reduced odds of mortality in unadjusted analyses (unadjusted OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.10-0.62; fully adjusted OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.17-1.12). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of adults hospitalized with serious mental illness, the use of second-generation antipsychotic medications was associated with decreased risk of COVID-19 infection, whereas the use of valproic acid was associated with increased risk. Further research is needed to assess the mechanisms that underlie these findings.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Adult , Antipsychotic Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitals, Psychiatric , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Psychotropic Drugs/adverse effects , RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Valproic Acid
7.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268237, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522615

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 remains a challenge worldwide, and testing of asymptomatic individuals remains critical to pandemic control measures. Starting March 2020, a total of 7497 hospital employees were tested at least weekly for SARS CoV-2; the cumulative incidence of asymptomatic infections was 5.64%. Consistently over a 14-month period half of COVID-19 infections (414 of 820, total) were detected through the asymptomatic screening program, a third of whom never developed any symptoms during follow-up. Prompt detection and isolation of these cases substantially reduced the risk of potential workplace and outside of workplace transmission. COVID-19 vaccinations of the workforce were initiated in December 2020. Twenty-one individuals tested positive after being fully vaccinated (3.9 per 1000 vaccinated). Most (61.9%) remained asymptomatic and in majority (75%) the virus could not be sequenced due to low template RNA levels in swab samples. Further routine testing of vaccinated asymptomatic employees was stopped and will be redeployed if needed; routine testing for those not vaccinated continues. Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 testing, as a part of enhanced screening, monitors local dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic and can provide valuable data to assess the ongoing impact of COVID-19 vaccination and SARS-CoV-2 variants, inform risk mitigation, and guide adaptive, operational planning including titration of screening strategies over time, based on infection risk modifiers such as vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Workforce
8.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268082, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511941

ABSTRACT

Standard SARS-CoV-2 testing protocols using nasopharyngeal/throat (NP/T) swabs are invasive and require trained medical staff for reliable sampling. In addition, it has been shown that PCR is more sensitive as compared to antigen-based tests. Here we describe the analytical and clinical evaluation of our in-house RNA extraction-free saliva-based molecular assay for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Analytical sensitivity of the test was equal to the sensitivity obtained in other Dutch diagnostic laboratories that process NP/T swabs. In this study, 955 individuals participated and provided NP/T swabs for routine molecular analysis (with RNA extraction) and saliva for comparison. Our RT-qPCR resulted in a sensitivity of 82,86% and a specificity of 98,94% compared to the gold standard. A false-negative ratio of 1,9% was found. The SARS-CoV-2 detection workflow described here enables easy, economical, and reliable saliva processing, useful for repeated testing of individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Nasopharynx , RNA , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods
9.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 181, 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Practical guidance is needed regarding the vaccination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent individuals in resource-limited countries. It includes the number of vaccine doses that should be given to unvaccinated patients who experienced COVID-19 early in the pandemic. METHODS: We recruited COVID-19 convalescent individuals who received one or two doses of an mRNA vaccine within 6 or around 18 months after a diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Their samples were assessed for IgG-binding or neutralizing activity and cell-mediated immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and variants of concern. RESULTS: A total of 43 COVID-19 convalescent individuals were analyzed in the present study. The results showed that humoral and cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and variants of concern, including the Omicron variant, were comparable among patients vaccinated within 6 versus around 18 months. A second dose of vaccine did not significantly increase immune responses. CONCLUSION: One dose of mRNA vaccine should be considered sufficient to elicit a broad immune response even around 18 months after a COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
11.
Clin Lab ; 68(5)2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536079

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a severe acute respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Different pooling testing strategies have been applied for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. However, the discrepancies among different pooling strategies are still to be explored. METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the two pooling strategies of collecting respiratory specimens for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Two groups of five-sample pools were prepared to evaluate the impact of sample pooling and pooled sampling on test sensitivity, respectively. Viral RNA of coronavirus was extracted with the automation system. The N and ORF1ab genes of SARS-CoV-2 RNA were detected with real-time reverse-transcription PCR. The turnaround time of SARS-CoV-2 testing was analyzed before and after the implement of pooled sampling. RESULTS: The pooled sampling displayed advantages in assay sensitivity over the sample pooling. The implementation of pooled sampling significantly shortened the turnaround time of SARS-CoV-2 testing. CONCLUSIONS: The pooled sampling is an efficient and economical strategy for SARS-CoV-2 detection during the periods of high screening demand in low-prevalence areas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Prevalence , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7355, 2022 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513547

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the performance of oral swab specimen both health-care worker (HCW) collected and self-collected for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection with rapid antigen test (RAT) as compared to reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Of the 529 participants enrolled, 121 (22.8%) were RT-PCR positive. Among the RT-PCR positives, 62 (51.2%) were RAT positive using oral swab. When compared with RT-PCR, RAT with oral swab had sensitivity and specificity of 63.3 and 96.8% respectively among symptomatic individuals. No statistically significant difference was observed in RAT positivity with HCW collection and self-collection, p = 0.606. Ct values were significantly lower in RT-PCR and RAT positive samples (ORF gene: 18.85 ± 4.36; E gene: 18.72 ± 4.84) as compared to RT-PCR positive and RAT negative samples (ORF gene: 26.98 ± 7.09; E gene: 26.97 ± 7.07), p < 0.0001. Our study demonstrated moderate sensitivity of RAT with oral swab in symptomatic individuals. Oral swab was the preferred sampling by almost all participants in terms of convenience and comfort as compared to nasopharyngeal swab. Oral swabs have utility for SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection among symptomatic individuals residing in remote rural areas and can serve as an initial screening tool during COVID-19 spikes when cases rise exponentially and laboratory capacities for RT-PCR testing become overwhelmed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Nasopharynx , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling
15.
CMAJ Open ; 10(2): E409-E419, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35537749

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Essential workers are at increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to estimate the yield, acceptability and cost of systematic workplace-based testing of asymptomatic essential workers for SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: From Jan. 27 to Mar. 12, 2021, we prospectively recruited non-health care essential businesses in Montréal, Canada, through email or telephone contact. Two trained mobile teams, each composed of 2 non-health care professionals, visited businesses. Consenting asymptomatic employees provided saline gargle samples under supervision. Samples were analyzed by means of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). At businesses with outbreaks (≥ 2 participants with a positive result), we retested all participants with a negative result on initial testing. Our primary outcomes were yield (proportion of test results that were positive), acceptability (proportion of participants estimated to be present at the business who agreed to participate) and costs (including training, sample collection and analysis, and communicating results). Our secondary outcome was identification of factors associated with a positive test result on multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 366 businesses contacted, 69 (18.8%) agreed to participate. Nineteen businesses (28%) were manufacturers or suppliers, 12 (17%) were in auto sales or repair, and 11 (16%) were in childcare; the corresponding number of employees was 1225, 242 and 113. The median number of participants per business was 13 (interquartile range [IQR] 8-22). Of an estimated 2348 employees on site, 2128 (90.6%) participated (808 [38.0%] female, median age 48 [IQR 37-57] yr). Of the 2626 tests performed, 53 (2.0%) gave a positive result. Self-reported nonwhite ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-9.9) and a negative SARS-CoV-2 test result before the study (adjusted OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8) were associated with a positive test result. Five businesses were experiencing an outbreak; at these businesses, 40/917 participants (4.4%) had a positive result on the initial test. We repeated testing for employees with initially negative results at 3 of these businesses over 2-3 weeks: 8/350 participants (2.3%) had a positive result on the second test, and none had a positive result on the third and fourth tests; no employer reported new positive results after our final visit (up to Mar. 26, 2021). At the remaining 64 businesses, 1211 participants were tested once, of whom 5 (0.4%) had a positive result. The per-person RT-PCR cost was $34, and all other costs, $8.67. INTERPRETATION: On-site saline gargle sampling of essential workers for SARS-CoV-2 testing was acceptable and of modest cost, and appears most useful in the context of outbreaks. This sampling strategy should be evaluated further as a component of efforts to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission. PREPRINT: medRxiv - doi:10.1101/2021.05.12.21256956.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 444, 2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538434

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated leukoencephalopathy have been reported. Although most cases involve hypoxia, the pathophysiological mechanism and neurologic outcomes of COVID-19-associated leukoencephalopathy remain unclear. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of COVID-19-associated leukoencephalopathy without severe hypoxia in a 65-year-old woman diagnosed with pyelonephritis. After the initiation of intravenous ceftriaxone, her fever resolved, but she developed an altered state of consciousness with abnormal behavior and, subsequently, a relapse fever. She was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia and was intubated. Lung-protective ventilation with deep sedation and neuromuscular blockade were used for treatment. After cessation of sedative administration, her mental status remained at a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3. COVID-19 was assumed to have caused leukoencephalopathy due to the absence of severe hypoxia or other potential causes. She subsequently showed gradual neurologic improvement. Three months after the COVID-19 diagnosis, she regained alertness, with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should consider leukoencephalopathy in the differential diagnosis of consciousness disorders in patients with severe COVID-19, even in the absence of severe hypoxia. Gradual neurologic improvement can be expected in such cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukoencephalopathies , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Leukoencephalopathies/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Porto Alegre; CEVS/RS; abr. 2022. 1-21 p. ilus., graf., tab.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | Coleciona SUS, Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-RS | ID: biblio-1368428

ABSTRACT

Neste boletim são apresentados: situação mundial, ocorrência de hospitalizações confirmadas para sars-cov-2, perfil das pessoas, distribuição espacial, Síndrome Inflamatória Multissistêmica Pediátrica (SIM-P), povos indígenas, descrição de surtos, trabalhadores da saúde, Vigilância sentinela de síndrome gripal e tabelas de descrição do surto. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health Profile , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Population Groups/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage , COVID-19 Testing , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Child Health , Disease Outbreaks , Adolescent Health , COVID-19/complications
18.
Porto Alegre; CEVS/RS; abr. 2022. 1-21 p. ilus., graf., tab.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | Coleciona SUS, Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-RS | ID: biblio-1368426

ABSTRACT

Neste boletim são apresentados: situação mundial, ocorrência de hospitalizações confirmadas para sars-cov-2, perfil das pessoas, distribuição espacial, Síndrome Inflamatória Multissistêmica Pediátrica (SIM-P), povos indígenas, descrição de surtos, trabalhadores da saúde, Vigilância sentinela de síndrome gripal e tabelas de descrição do surto. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health Profile , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Population Groups/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage , COVID-19 Testing , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Child Health , Disease Outbreaks , Adolescent Health , COVID-19/complications
19.
Porto Alegre; CEVS/RS; abr. 2022. 1-21 p. ilus., graf., tab.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | Coleciona SUS, Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-RS | ID: biblio-1368433

ABSTRACT

Neste boletim são apresentados: situação mundial, ocorrência de hospitalizações confirmadas para sars-cov-2, perfil das pessoas, distribuição espacial, Síndrome Inflamatória Multissistêmica Pediátrica (SIM-P), povos indígenas, descrição de surtos, trabalhadores da saúde, Vigilância sentinela de síndrome gripal e tabelas de descrição do surto. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health Profile , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Population Groups/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Coverage , COVID-19 Testing , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Child Health , Disease Outbreaks , Adolescent Health , COVID-19/complications
20.
Trials ; 23(1): 310, 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has impacted the health and social fabric of individuals and families living across the USA, and it has disproportionately affected people living in urban communities with co-morbidities, those working in high-risk settings, refusing or unable to adhere to CDC guidelines, and more. Social determinants of health (SDH), such as stigmatization, incarceration, and poverty, have been associated with increased exposure to COVID-19 and increased deaths. While vaccines and booster shots are available, it will take time to reach herd immunity, and it is unclear how long newly developed vaccines provide protection and how effective they are against emerging variants. Therefore, prevention methods recommended by the Centers for Disease and Control (CDC)-i.e., testing, hand-washing, social distancing, contact tracing, vaccination and booster shots, and quarantine-are essential to reduce the rates of COVID-19 in marginalized communities. This project will adapt and test evidence-based HIV interventions along the prevention and treatment cascade to help address COVID-19 prevention needs. METHODS: The study aims to (1) optimize an adaptive intervention that will increase rates of testing and adherence to New Jersey State COVID-19 recommendations (testing, social distancing, quarantine, hospitalization, contact tracing, and acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination and booster shots) among high-risk populations and (2) identify predictors of testing completion and adherence to New Jersey recommendations. This study follows Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) principles to conduct a Sequential, Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial (SMART) with 670 COVID-19 medically/socially vulnerable people. Participants will be recruited using a variety of strategies including advertisements on social media, posting fliers in public places, street outreach, facility-based, and snowball sampling. Participants complete a baseline survey and are randomized to receive navigation services or an electronic brochure. They then complete a follow-up 7 days after baseline and are randomized again to either continue with their original assignment or switch to the other intervention or critical dialog or brief counseling. Participants then complete a 5-week post-baseline follow-up. Guided by the COVID-19 Continuum of Prevention, Care, and Treatment, the analysis will explore the factors associated with COVID-19 testing within 7 days of the intervention. DISCUSSION: This paper describes the protocol of the first study to use SMART following CBPR to adapt evidence-based HIV prevention interventions to COVID-19. The findings will inform the development of an effective and scalable adaptive intervention to increase COVID-19 testing and adherence to public health recommendations, including vaccination and booster shots, among a marginalized and difficult-to-engage population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04757298 . Registered on February 17, 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Community-Based Participatory Research , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans
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