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1.
Artif Organs ; 46(4): 688-696, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO) support is increasingly used in the management of COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the clinical decision-making to initiate V-V ECMO for severe COVID-19 still remains unclear. In order to determine the optimal timing and patient selection, we investigated the outcomes of both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients undergoing V-V ECMO support. METHODS: Overall, 138 patients were included in this study. Patients were stratified into two cohorts: those with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS. RESULTS: The survival in patients with COVID-19 was statistically similar to non-COVID-19 patients (p = .16). However, the COVID-19 group demonstrated higher rates of bleeding (p = .03) and thrombotic complications (p < .001). The duration of V-V ECMO support was longer in COVID-19 patients compared to non-COVID-19 patients (29.0 ± 27.5 vs 15.9 ± 19.6 days, p < .01). Most notably, in contrast to the non-COVID-19 group, we found that COVID-19 patients who had been on a ventilator for longer than 7 days prior to ECMO had 100% mortality without a lung transplant. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that COVID-19-associated ARDS was not associated with a higher post-ECMO mortality than non-COVID-19-associated ARDS patients, despite longer duration of extracorporeal support. Early initiation of V-V ECMO is important for improved ECMO outcomes in COVID-19 ARDS patients. Since late initiation of ECMO was associated with extremely high mortality related to lack of pulmonary recovery, it should be used judiciously or as a bridge to lung transplantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 609, 2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524251

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older persons living with HIV (PLWH) need routine healthcare to manage HIV and other comorbidities. This mixed methods study investigated digital equity, constituted as access, use and quality, of HIV and specialty telehealth services for PLWH > 50 years during the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic when services transitioned to remote care. METHODS: A survey of closed and open-ended questions was administered to 80 English (N = 63) and Spanish (N = 17) speaking PLWH receiving HIV care at an Academic Medical Center (N = 50) or a Federally Qualified Health Center (N = 30) in New York State. Quantitative analyses examined characteristics predicting telehealth use and visit quality. Qualitative analyses utilized thematic coding to reveal common experiences. Results were integrated to deepen the interpretation. RESULTS: Telehealth access and use were shaped by multiple related and unstable factors including devices and connectivity, technology literacy, and comfort including privacy concerns. Participants demonstrated their substantial effort to achieve the visit. The majority of patients with a telehealth visit perceived it as worse than an in-person visit by describing it as less interpersonal, and resulting in poorer outcomes, particularly participants with less formal education. Technology was not only a barrier to access, but also influenced perceptions of quality. CONCLUSIONS: In the COVID-19 pandemic initial wave, barriers to using telehealth were unequally distributed to those with more significant access and use challenges. Beyond these barriers, examining the components of equity indicate further challenges replicating in-person care using telehealth formats for older PLWH. Work remains to establish telehealth as both equitable and desirable for this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Telemedicine , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/therapy , Humans , New York/epidemiology , Pandemics
3.
BMJ ; 377: e068723, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35508314

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) compared with conventional mechanical ventilation on outcomes of patients with covid-19 associated respiratory failure. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: 30 countries across five continents, 3 January 2020 to 29 August 2021. PARTICIPANTS: 7345 adults admitted to the intensive care unit with clinically suspected or laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. INTERVENTIONS: ECMO in patients with a partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) ratio <80 mm Hg compared with conventional mechanical ventilation without ECMO. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary outcome was hospital mortality within 60 days of admission to the intensive care unit. Adherence adjusted estimates were calculated using marginal structural models with inverse probability weighting, accounting for competing events and for baseline and time varying confounding. RESULTS: 844 of 7345 eligible patients (11.5%) received ECMO at any time point during follow-up. Adherence adjusted mortality was 26.0% (95% confidence interval 24.5% to 27.5%) for a treatment strategy that included ECMO if the PaO2/FiO2 ratio decreased <80 mm Hg compared with 33.2% (31.8% to 34.6%) had patients received conventional treatment without ECMO (risk difference -7.1%, 95% confidence interval -8.2% to -6.1%; risk ratio 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.82). In secondary analyses, ECMO was most effective in patients aged <65 years and with a PaO2/FiO2 <80 mm Hg or with driving pressures >15 cmH2O during the first 10 days of mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: ECMO was associated with a reduction in mortality in selected adults with covid-19 associated respiratory failure. Age, severity of hypoxaemia, and duration and intensity of mechanical ventilation were found to be modifiers of treatment effectiveness and should be considered when deciding to initiate ECMO in patients with covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Oxygen , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
4.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268025, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511856

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence on the risk factors for COVID-19 hospitalization, mortality, hospital stay and cost of treatment in the African context is limited. This study aims to quantify the impact of known risk factors on these outcomes in a large South African private health insured population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a cross sectional analytic study based on the analysis of the records of members belonging to health insurances administered by Discovery Health (PTY) Ltd. Demographic data for 188,292 members who tested COVID-19 positive over the period 1 March 2020-28 February 2021 and the hospitalization data for these members up until 30 June 2021 were extracted. Logistic regression models were used for hospitalization and death outcomes, while length of hospital stay and (log) cost per patient were modelled by negative binominal and linear regression models. We accounted for potential differences in the population served and the quality of care within different geographic health regions by including the health district as a random effect. Overall hospitalization and mortality risk was 18.8% and 3.3% respectively. Those aged 65+ years, those with 3 or more comorbidities and males had the highest hospitalization and mortality risks and the longest and costliest hospital stays. Hospitalization and mortality risks were higher in wave 2 than in wave 1. Hospital and mortality risk varied across provinces, even after controlling for important predictors. Hospitalization and mortality risks were the highest for diabetes alone or in combination with hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: These findings can assist in developing better risk mitigation and management strategies. It can also allow for better resource allocation and prioritization planning as health systems struggle to meet the increased care demands resulting from the pandemic while having to deal with these in an ever-more resource constrained environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Expenditures , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , South Africa/epidemiology
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7097, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501359

ABSTRACT

Despite the publication of great number of tools to aid decisions in COVID-19 patients, there is a lack of good instruments to predict clinical deterioration. COVID19-Osakidetza is a prospective cohort study recruiting COVID-19 patients. We collected information from baseline to discharge on: sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities and associated medications, vital signs, treatment received and lab test results. Outcome was need for intensive ventilatory support (with at least standard high-flow oxygen face mask with a reservoir bag for at least 6 h and need for more intensive therapy afterwards or Optiflow high-flow nasal cannula or noninvasive or invasive mechanical ventilation) and/or admission to a critical care unit and/or death during hospitalization. We developed a Catboost model summarizing the findings using Shapley Additive Explanations. Performance of the model was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic and prediction recall curves (AUROC and AUPRC respectively) and calibrated using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Overall, 1568 patients were included in the derivation cohort and 956 in the (external) validation cohort. The percentages of patients who reached the composite endpoint were 23.3% vs 20% respectively. The strongest predictors of clinical deterioration were arterial blood oxygen pressure, followed by age, levels of several markers of inflammation (procalcitonin, LDH, CRP) and alterations in blood count and coagulation. Some medications, namely, ATC AO2 (antiacids) and N05 (neuroleptics) were also among the group of main predictors, together with C03 (diuretics). In the validation set, the CatBoost AUROC was 0.79, AUPRC 0.21 and Hosmer-Lemeshow test statistic 0.36. We present a machine learning-based prediction model with excellent performance properties to implement in EHRs. Our main goal was to predict progression to a score of 5 or higher on the WHO Clinical Progression Scale before patients required mechanical ventilation. Future steps are to externally validate the model in other settings and in a cohort from a different period and to apply the algorithm in clinical practice.Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04463706.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Deterioration , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Machine Learning , Oxygen , Prospective Studies
6.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 241, 2022 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome is a severe manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 in children. The incidence of MIS-C after infection is poorly understood. There are very few cohorts describing MIS-C in Africa despite MIS-C being more common in Black children worldwide. METHODS: A cohort of children with MIS-C and healthy children was recruited from May 2020 until May 2021 from the two main paediatric hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa. Clinical and demographic data were collected, and serum was tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The incidence of MIS-C was calculated using an estimation of population exposure from seroprevalence in the healthy group. Summary data, non-parametric comparisons and logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Sixty eight children with MIS-C were recruited with a median age of 7 years (3.6, 9.9). Ninety seven healthy children were recruited with a 30% seroprevalence. The estimated incidence of MIS-C was 22/100 000 exposures in the city in this time. Black children were over-represented in the MIS-C group (62% vs 37%, p = 0.002). The most common clinical features in MIS-C were fever (100%), tachycardia (98.5%), rash (85.3%), conjunctivitis (77.9%), abdominal pain (60.3%) and hypotension (60.3%). The median haemoglobin, sodium, neutrophil count, white cell count, CRP, ferritin, cardiac (pro-BNP, trop-T) and coagulation markers (D-dimer and fibrinogen) were markedly deranged in MIS-C. Cardiac, pulmonary, central nervous and renal organ systems were involved in 71%, 29.4%, 27.9% and 27.9% respectively. Ninety four percent received intravenous immune globulin, 64.7% received methylprednisolone and 61.7% received both. Forty percent required ICU admission, 38.2% required inotropic support, 38.2% required oxygen therapy, 11.8% required invasive ventilation and 6% required peritoneal dialysis. Older age was an independent predictor for the requirement for ionotropic support (OR = 1.523, CI 1.074, 2.16, p = 0.018). The median hospital stay duration was 7 days with no deaths. CONCLUSION: The lack of reports from Southern Africa does not reflect a lack of cases of MIS-C. MIS-C poses a significant burden to children in the region as long as the pandemic continues. MIS-C disproportionately affects black children. The clinical manifestations and outcomes of MIS-C in this region highlight the need for improved surveillance, reporting and data to inform diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , South Africa/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
7.
J Int Med Res ; 50(5): 3000605221097478, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531918

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Emergency psychological interventions are needed in patients with COVID-19. During the pandemic, psychological counseling services have been provided using online platforms to address adverse psychological impacts and symptoms in patients and the general population. We investigated the effects of telepsychotherapy on emotional well-being and psychological distress in patients affected by COVID-19. METHODS: Forty-five Sicilian patients who had contracted COVID-19 joined "Telecovid Sicilia" from March to June 2020. Participants completed self-assessment questionnaires and psychological testing to measure levels of anxiety, presence of depressive symptoms, and altered circadian rhythm with consequent sleep disorders and psychological distress. Individual telepsychotherapy services were provided for 1 hour, twice a week, for 16 sessions in total. RESULTS: We enrolled 45 patients (42.2% women). We found significant changes between baseline and the end of follow-up in all outcome measures, especially depression (χ2 (1) = 30.1; effect size [ES] = 0.82), anxiety (χ2 (1) = 37.4; ES = 0.91), and paranoid ideation (χ2 (1) = 5.6; ES = 0.35). The proportion of participants with sleep disorders decreased to 84.1% after intervention (χ2 (1) = 58.6; ES = 1.14). CONCLUSION: A telepsychotherapeutic approach showed promising effects on psychological symptoms, with significantly reduced patient anxiety and depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Telemedicine , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Psychotherapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/therapy
8.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 1511-1519, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594312

ABSTRACT

Patients on maintenance dialysis therapy are especially vulnerable to COVID-19 and its complications. This study aimed to assess the incidence, epidemiological characteristics, and mortality rate of COVID-19 among maintenance dialysis patients. This retrospective observational chart review study included 548 patients from all dialysis units in the West Bank of Palestine who acquired COVID-19 between 5 March 2020, and 11 August 2021. We collected data on patients' demographics, clinical features, and outcomes. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess independent risk factors for COVID-19-related mortality. The incidence of COVID-19 among maintenance dialysis patients was 35.3%, as 548 out of 1554 patients have tested positive during the study period. Patients on haemodialysis were three times riskier to get infected than those on peritoneal dialysis (37% vs 11.3%). Half (50.2%) of infected patients required hospitalisation, and 24.5% were admitted to an intensive care unit, while the mortality rate stood at 26.8%. Old age, male sex, central venous catheter use, comorbid diabetes, smoking, and having an RH negative blood group type were determined to be significantly associated with increased risk of mortality. In conclusion, the incidence of COVID-19 among Palestinian maintenance dialysis patients was notably high, especially among haemodialysis patients. High rates of hospitalisation, ICU admission, intubation and death were observed, and predictive factors for COVID-19-related mortality were identified. Therefore, the implementation of strict infection control measures and promotion of home dialysis are warranted to reduce the infection rate.KEY MESSAGESThe incidence of COVID-19 among Palestinian maintenance dialysis patients was notably high; more than one-third of the total dialysis population acquired COVID-19, with haemodialysis patients being three times more likely to get infected compared to their peritoneal dialysis counterparts.The mortality rate among maintenance dialysis patients was 26.8%, more than 25 times higher than that of the general population. The risk of mortality was significantly increased with age, male sex, smoking, diabetes, and having central venous catheter as vascular access for haemodialysis.Strict infection control measures, as well as the promotion of home dialysis, are necessary to reduce the risk of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Renal Dialysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Developing Countries , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
9.
Air Med J ; 41(3): 323-325, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35595343

ABSTRACT

We report on the international retrieval of a critically ill, ventilated, coronavirus disease 2019-positive patient from Dili, East Timor, into the intensive care unit of the Royal Darwin Hospital in Australia. The patient had severe respiratory failure, and the medical team in Dili was struggling to maintain adequate oxygenation with a fraction of inspired oxygen of 1 most of the time. This occurred during an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 in East Timor, placing strain on the local health system. Therefore, it was decided to transfer the patient to Australia. Given the closed international borders of Australia, organization of the retrieval and infection control measures were challenging and are described in the article. We discuss the need for a pathway to retrieve critically ill patients into a well-resourced country during a pandemic and the importance of public health measures including a robust vaccination program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics
10.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 166, 2022 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35597779

ABSTRACT

The therapeutic use of messenger RNA (mRNA) has fueled great hope to combat a wide range of incurable diseases. Recent rapid advances in biotechnology and molecular medicine have enabled the production of almost any functional protein/peptide in the human body by introducing mRNA as a vaccine or therapeutic agent. This represents a rising precision medicine field with great promise for preventing and treating many intractable or genetic diseases. In addition, in vitro transcribed mRNA has achieved programmed production, which is more effective, faster in design and production, as well as more flexible and cost-effective than conventional approaches that may offer. Based on these extraordinary advantages, mRNA vaccines have the characteristics of the swiftest response to large-scale outbreaks of infectious diseases, such as the currently devastating pandemic COVID-19. It has always been the scientists' desire to improve the stability, immunogenicity, translation efficiency, and delivery system to achieve efficient and safe delivery of mRNA. Excitingly, these scientific dreams have gradually been realized with the rapid, amazing achievements of molecular biology, RNA technology, vaccinology, and nanotechnology. In this review, we comprehensively describe mRNA-based therapeutics, including their principles, manufacture, application, effects, and shortcomings. We also highlight the importance of mRNA optimization and delivery systems in successful mRNA therapeutics and discuss the key challenges and opportunities in developing these tools into powerful and versatile tools to combat many genetic, infectious, cancer, and other refractory diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Proteins , RNA, Messenger/genetics
11.
Washington; PAHO/WHO; 04 May 2022. 462 p.
Non-conventional in English | PIE, LILACS, PIE | ID: biblio-1368644

ABSTRACT

Background: The urgent need for evidence on measures to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic had led to a rapid escalation in numbers of studies testing potential therapeutic options. The vast amount of data generated by these studies must be interpreted quickly so that physicians have the information to make optimal treatment decisions and manufacturers can scale-up production and bolster supply chains. Moreover, obtaining a quick answer to the question of whether or not a particular intervention is effective can help investigators involved in the many ongoing clinical trials to change focus and pivot to more promising alternatives. It is crucial for healthcare workers to have access to the most up-to-date research evidence to inform their treatment decisions. To address this evidence gap, we compiled the following database of evidence on potential therapeutic options for COVID-19. We hope this information will help investigators, policy makers, and prescribers navigate the flood of relevant data to ensure that management of COVID19, at both individual and population levels, is based on the best available knowledge. We will endeavor to continually update this resource as more research is released into the public space. Summary of evidence: Tables 1 and 2, which divide the total group of identified studies into randomized (Table 1) and non-randomized (Table 2) designs, indicate the primary outcome measures used for each investigation and the level of certainty. Table 3 summarizes the status of evidence for the 193 potential therapeutic options for COVID-19 for which studies were identified through our systematic review.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Therapeutics
12.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1662022 03 17.
Article in Dutch | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The case gives the reader a valuable insight in pathophysiology and treatment in atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia (AVNRT) and vagal manoeuvres available to treat this phenomenon. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 85-year-old woman with a medical history of heart failure and aortic valve stenosis presents herself on the Emergency Department with cardiac shock and cardiac asthma. The ECG showed an AVNRT with 170 beats per minute (bpm) and a left bundle branch block (LBBB). After nasal swab for COVID-19 cardiac rhythm converted to a sinus or atrial tachycardia with 116bpm. The patients circulatory status improved and could then be treated with diuretics. Nasal swabs can lead to stimulation of the glossopharyngeal nerve with increase parasympathetic activity leading to a remission of atrioventricular re-entry tachycardia. CONCLUSION: Nasal swabs can lead to increased parasympathetic activity in the atrioventricular node and cause conversion of supraventricular tachycardia to sinus rhythm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Tachycardia, Atrioventricular Nodal Reentry , Tachycardia, Supraventricular , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Electrocardiography , Female , Humans , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/diagnosis , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/therapy
15.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 127, 2022 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35526009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prone positioning improves survival in moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) unrelated to the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). This benefit is probably mediated by a decrease in alveolar collapse and hyperinflation and a more homogeneous distribution of lung aeration, with fewer harms from mechanical ventilation. In this preliminary physiological study we aimed to verify whether prone positioning causes analogue changes in lung aeration in COVID-19. A positive result would support prone positioning even in this other population. METHODS: Fifteen mechanically-ventilated patients with COVID-19 underwent a lung computed tomography in the supine and prone position with a constant positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) within three days of endotracheal intubation. Using quantitative analysis, we measured the volume of the non-aerated, poorly-aerated, well-aerated, and over-aerated compartments and the gas-to-tissue ratio of the ten vertical levels of the lung. In addition, we expressed the heterogeneity of lung aeration with the standardized median absolute deviation of the ten vertical gas-to-tissue ratios, with lower values indicating less heterogeneity. RESULTS: By the time of the study, PEEP was 12 (10-14) cmH2O and the PaO2:FiO2 107 (84-173) mmHg in the supine position. With prone positioning, the volume of the non-aerated compartment decreased by 82 (26-147) ml, of the poorly-aerated compartment increased by 82 (53-174) ml, of the normally-aerated compartment did not significantly change, and of the over-aerated compartment decreased by 28 (11-186) ml. In eight (53%) patients, the volume of the over-aerated compartment decreased more than the volume of the non-aerated compartment. The gas-to-tissue ratio of the ten vertical levels of the lung decreased by 0.34 (0.25-0.49) ml/g per level in the supine position and by 0.03 (- 0.11 to 0.14) ml/g in the prone position (p < 0.001). The standardized median absolute deviation of the gas-to-tissue ratios of those ten levels decreased in all patients, from 0.55 (0.50-0.71) to 0.20 (0.14-0.27) (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In fifteen patients with COVID-19, prone positioning decreased alveolar collapse, hyperinflation, and homogenized lung aeration. A similar response has been observed in other ARDS, where prone positioning improves outcome. Therefore, our data provide a pathophysiological rationale to support prone positioning even in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Prone Position/physiology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e056868, 2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534055

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We sought to understand patients' care-seeking behaviours early in the pandemic, their use and views of different virtual care modalities, and whether these differed by sociodemographic factors. METHODS: We conducted a multisite cross-sectional patient experience survey at 13 academic primary care teaching practices between May and June 2020. An anonymised link to an electronic survey was sent to a subset of patients with a valid email address on file; sampling was based on birth month. For each question, the proportion of respondents who selected each response was calculated, followed by a comparison by sociodemographic characteristics using χ2 tests. RESULTS: In total, 7532 participants responded to the survey. Most received care from their primary care clinic during the pandemic (67.7%, 5068/7482), the majority via phone (82.5%, 4195/5086). Among those who received care, 30.53% (1509/4943) stated that they delayed seeking care because of the pandemic. Most participants reported a high degree of comfort with phone (92.4%, 3824/4139), video (95.2%, 238/250) and email or messaging (91.3%, 794/870). However, those reporting difficulty making ends meet, poor or fair health and arriving in Canada in the last 10 years reported lower levels of comfort with virtual care and fewer wanted their practice to continue offering virtual options after the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that newcomers, people living with a lower income and those reporting poor or fair health have a stronger preference and comfort for in-person primary care. Further research should explore potential barriers to virtual care and how these could be addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Patient Outcome Assessment , Primary Health Care
17.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 24(5): 299-305, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598053

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with autoimmune disease (AID) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could have higher mortality due to the co-morbidity and the use of immunosuppressive therapy. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the risk factors and outcomes of patients with AID and COVID-19 versus a control group. METHODS: A prospective cohort study included patients with and without AID and COVID-19. Patients were paired by age and sex. Clinical, biochemical, immunological treatments, and outcomes (days of hospital stay, invasive mechanical ventilation [IMV], oxygen at discharge, and death) were collected. RESULTS: We included 226 COVID-19 patients: 113 with AID (51.15 ± 14.3 years) and 113 controls (53.45 ± 13.3 years). The most frequent AIDs were Rheumatoid arthritis (26.5%), systemic lupus erythematosus (21%), and systemic sclerosis (14%). AID patients had lower lactate dehydrogenas, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, IMV (P = 0.027), and oxygen levels at discharge (P ≤ 0.0001) and lower death rates (P ≤ 0.0001). Oxygen saturation (SaO2) ≤ 88% at hospitalization provided risk for IMV (RR [relative risk] 3.83, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.1-13.6, P = 0.038). Higher creatinine and LDH levels were associated with death in the AID group. SaO2 ≤ 88% and CO-RADS ≥ 4 were risk factors for in-hospital mortality (RR 4.90, 95%CI 1.8-13.0, P = 0.001 and RR 7.60, 95%CI 1.4-39.7, P = 0.016, respectively). Anticoagulant therapy was protective (RR 0.36, 95%CI 0.1-0.9, P = 0.041). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with AID had better outcomes with COVID-19 than controls. Anticoagulation was associated with a lower death in patients with AID.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Oxygen , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 778037, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35602161

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is highly contagious and is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. It spreads by means of respiratory droplets and close contact with infected persons. With the progression of disease, numerous complications develop, particularly among persons with chronic illnesses. Pathological investigations indicate that it affects multiple organs and can induce acute respiratory distress syndrome. Prevention is vital and self-isolation is the best means of containing this virus. Good community health practices like maintaining sufficient distance from other people, wearing protective face masks and regular hand washing should be adopted. Convalescent plasma transfusion and the administration of the antiviral Remdesivir have been found to be effective. Vaccines offer lifesaving protecting against COVID-19 which has killed millions and our best bet for staying safe. Screening, suppression/containment as well as mitigation are the strategies implemented for controlling COVID-19 pandemic. Vaccination is essential to end the COVID-19 pandemic and everyone should have an access to them. The current COVID-19 pandemic brought the global economy to a standstill and has exacted an enormous human and financial toll.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Pandemics , Plasma
19.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 409, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505237

ABSTRACT

RaTG13 is a close relative of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, sharing 96% sequence similarity at the genome-wide level. The spike receptor binding domain (RBD) of RaTG13 contains a number of amino acid substitutions when compared to SARS-CoV-2, likely impacting affinity for the ACE2 receptor. Antigenic differences between the viruses are less well understood, especially whether RaTG13 spike can be efficiently neutralised by antibodies generated from infection with, or vaccination against, SARS-CoV-2. Using RaTG13 and SARS-CoV-2 pseudotypes we compared neutralisation using convalescent sera from previously infected patients or vaccinated healthcare workers. Surprisingly, our results revealed that RaTG13 was more efficiently neutralised than SARS-CoV-2. In addition, neutralisation assays using spike mutants harbouring single and combinatorial amino acid substitutions within the RBD demonstrated that both spike proteins can tolerate multiple changes without dramatically reducing neutralisation. Moreover, introducing the 484 K mutation into RaTG13 resulted in increased neutralisation, in contrast to the same mutation in SARS-CoV-2 (E484K). This is despite E484K having a well-documented role in immune evasion in variants of concern (VOC) such as B.1.351 (Beta). These results indicate that the future spill-over of RaTG13 and/or related sarbecoviruses could be mitigated using current SARS-CoV-2-based vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Chiroptera/metabolism , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics
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