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1.
Open Heart ; 11(1)2024 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851247

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Increased mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic is not explained exclusively by COVID-19 infection and its complications. We analysed non-COVID-19 causes of mortality in a population analysis based on data from the Spanish National Institute of Statistics. METHODS: Using monthly mortality data in Spain (January 2010-December 2020), we analysed deaths associated with cancer, blood, endocrine, mental, nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory and digestive diseases and explored the COVID-19 impact using a difference-in-difference strategy. We calculated monthly interannual variations in mortality and computed percentage change in terms of the log of deaths in month h of year t minus the log of deaths in month h in the previous year t-1. RESULTS: In 2020 in Spain, mortality increased 17.9% compared with 2019. COVID-19 was the leading cause of death (n=60 358), followed by ischaemic heart disease (n=29 654). Throughout 2020, monthly interannual variations in cardiovascular mortality showed an average upward trend of 1.7%, while digestive, cancer and blood diseases showed a downward trend. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain in 2020, excess mortality was primarily related to cardiovascular mortality while mortality associated with digestive, cancer and blood diseases was reduced.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Humans , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Cause of Death/trends , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Neoplasms/mortality , Time Factors , Adult
3.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 119(6): 1386-1396, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839194

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The independent effect of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body fat percentage (BF%) on ischemic cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains uncertain. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the independent associations of WHtR and BF% with ischemic CVD. METHODS: This prospective cohort study used data from the UK Biobank. BF% was calculated as fat mass divided by body weight, measured by bioimpedance. Cox models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for overall and sex-specific associations of BF% and WHtR with risks of ischemic CVD and its main subtypes [myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke (IS)], adjusted for a range of potential confounders, including mutual adjustment for BF% and WHtR. RESULTS: In total, 468,333 participants without existing CVD were included in the analysis. During 12 y of follow-up, 20,151 ischemic CVD events, 13,604 MIs, and 6681 ISs were recorded. WHtR was linearly associated with ischemic CVD, MI, and IS, with an HR per 5% increase of 1.23 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.25), 1.24 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.27), and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.18, 1.26), respectively, independent of BF%. A stronger association between WHtR and MI was seen in females than in males. The association of BF% with these outcomes was substantially attenuated in both sexes after adjustment for WHtR. For example, in females, the HR (highest compared with lowest fifth) was reduced from 1.94 (95% CI: 1.76, 2.15) to 1.04 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.01) for ischemic CVD, from 2.04 (95% CI: 1.79, 2.32) to 0.97 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.16) for MI, and from 1.81 (95% CI: 1.54, 2.13) to 1.07 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.33) for IS. CONCLUSIONS: WHtR, when used as a proxy measure for central obesity, is linearly associated with ischemic CVD in both sexes, which is independent of BF%. In contrast, the relationship of BF% with these health outcomes is predominantly driven by its correlation with WHtR.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Biological Specimen Banks , Waist-Height Ratio , Humans , Male , Female , Prospective Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Adult , Cohort Studies , UK Biobank
4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 83(23): 2291-2307, 2024 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839204

ABSTRACT

Environmental stresses are increasingly recognized as significant risk factors for adverse health outcomes. In particular, various forms of pollution and climate change are playing a growing role in promoting noncommunicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease. Given recent trends, global warming and air pollution are now associated with substantial cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As a vicious cycle, global warming increases the occurrence, size, and severity of wildfires, which are significant sources of airborne particulate matter. Exposure to wildfire smoke is associated with cardiovascular disease, and these effects are underpinned by mechanisms that include oxidative stress, inflammation, impaired cardiac function, and proatherosclerotic effects in the circulation. In the first part of a 2-part series on pollution and cardiovascular disease, this review provides an overview of the impact of global warming and air pollution, and because of recent events and emerging trends specific attention is paid to air pollution caused by wildfires.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Global Warming , Wildfires , Humans , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Smoke/adverse effects
5.
Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi ; 61(2): 155-162, 2024.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839314

ABSTRACT

AIM: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has caused significant disruptions in various aspects of daily life. The Japanese Government declared a state of emergency in April 2020, which resulted in reduced physical activity. This study investigated the impact of these lifestyle changes by generation among outpatients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: In autumn 2020, we conducted a questionnaire survey of 1,156 CVD outpatients who visited the Department of Cardiology at our institution. The survey collected data on physical activities and changes in daily behaviors over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were classified into 3 age groups: middle-aged (n=114, ≤64 years old), semi-old (n=330, aged 65-74 years old), and old (n=712, ≥75 years old). The number of steps per day and sedentary time per day were compared between autumn 2019 and 2020, over the course of the pandemic. RESULTS: In autumn 2020, the number of steps per day was significantly decreased and sedentary time significantly increased in all age groups compared to the pre-pandemic levels. However, there were no significant differences in the extent of changes in steps per day or sedentary time over the study period across all age groups. Regarding changes in daily behaviors, only the old-age group reported a decline in volunteering and reduced utilization of daycare services. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in changes in daily activities and lifestyles across all age groups. Because lifestyle patterns differ across generations, it may be necessary to implement age-specific interventions and procedures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Life Style , Outpatients , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Female , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires , Aged, 80 and over , Exercise , Adult , Japan/epidemiology
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13101, 2024 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849465

ABSTRACT

Currently, a comprehensive assessment of the relationship between ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) indicators and cataract risk is lacking. Life's Essential 8 (LE8) is the latest concept proposed by the American Heart Association to comprehensively reflect CVH status. LE8 includes four health behaviors (diet, physical activity, smoking, and sleep) and four health factors (blood lipid, blood sugar, blood pressure, and body mass index). This study tried to evaluate the association between LE8 and cataract using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008, a continuous research program which aims to monitor and evaluate the health and nutrition status of the US population. A cross-sectional study of 2720 non-cataract participants and 602 cataract participants. All participants were assigned to the poor, intermediate, and ideal CVH status groups based on LE8 score. Weighted multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the correlation between the LE8 score and cataract, as well as the correlation between each of the eight subitems and cataract, with potential confounding variables being adjusted. Then, restricted cubic spline analysis was used to further explore whether there was a nonlinear relationship between LE8 score and cataract. The proportion of cataract participants was 14.1%, 18.2%, and 20.6% in the ideal, intermediate, and poor CVH groups, respectively (P < 0.05). LE8 score was inversely associated with cataract risk, with each 10-point increase in LE8 score associated with a 14% reduction in cataract risk [odds ratio (OR) = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-0.93, P < 0.01]. Among all the LE8 subitems, physical activity, sleep, and blood glucose were significantly associated with cataract risk (all P < 0.05). Better CVH, defined by a higher LE8 score, is associated with a lower cataract risk. Efforts to improve LE8 score (especially when it comes to physical activity, sleep, and blood glucose) may serve as a novel strategy to help reduce the risk of cataract.


Subject(s)
Cataract , Nutrition Surveys , Humans , Cataract/epidemiology , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , United States/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Risk Factors , Exercise , Body Mass Index , Health Behavior , Diet , Blood Pressure , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Blood Glucose/analysis , Blood Glucose/metabolism
7.
Int J Epidemiol ; 53(3)2024 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38850276

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with cardiovascular outcomes in the general population, but it is unknown whether people with chronic respiratory disease (CRD) have a higher risk of cardiovascular events post-COVID-19 compared with the general population and, if so, what respiratory-related factors may modify this risk in these people. METHODS: Primary and secondary care data from the National Health Service England were used to define a population of adults in England with COVID-19 (index date) between 1 January 2020 and 30 November 2021. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression was used to quantify the association between CRD, asthma-related factors, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related factors, and risk of cardiovascular events. Asthma-specific factors included baseline asthma control, exacerbations, and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) dose. COPD-specific risk factors included baseline ICS and exacerbations. Secondary objectives quantified the impact of COVID-19 hospitalisation and vaccine dose on cardiovascular outcomes. RESULTS: Of 3 670 455 people, those with CRD had a higher risk of cardiovascular events [adjusted hazard ratio (HRadj), 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.11], heart failure (HRadj, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.12-1.22), angina (HRadj, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.06-1.20) and pulmonary emboli (HRadj, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.15-1.33) compared with people without CRD. In people with asthma or COPD, baseline exacerbations were associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular outcomes (HRadj, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.27-1.00 and HRadj, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.24-1.46, respectively). Regardless of CRD, the risk of cardiovascular events was lower with increasing COVID-19 vaccine dose. CONCLUSIONS: Higher risk of cardiovascular events post-COVID-19 might be explained by the underlying severity of the CRD, and COVID-19 vaccines were beneficial to both people with and those without CRD with regards to cardiovascualr events.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , England/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Proportional Hazards Models , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Risk Factors
8.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 15: 1389330, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854691

ABSTRACT

Objectives: A single measurement of adiposity indices could predict the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD); nonetheless their long-term pattern and its association with incident CVD are rarely studied. This study aimed to determine distinct trajectories of adiposity indices among participants of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) and their association with incident CVD. Furthermore, this study aimed to investigate whether this association differed among individuals according to their menopausal status. Method: A total of 6840 women participated in TLGS, aged 20 years and older were included in this study; they were followed for a median of 16 years. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), conicity index (CI) and body roundness index (BRI) were included in the analysis as adiposity indices. The cohort outcome panel of medical specialists identified the CVD outcomes. Trajectory analyses were used to identify homogeneous distinct clusters of adiposity indices trajectories. The association between the trajectory group membership and incident CVD were explored by Cox proportional hazard models, with unadjusted and adjusted model for baseline age, physical activity, smoking status, menopause and family history of CVD. Results: Three BMI trajectory groups of low, medium, and high and two trajectories for WC, BRI and CI were identified. Adjusted cox proportional hazard models revealed significant associations between the hazard of CVD experience and the high trajectory group of the BMI (HR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.38-3.07), WC (HR: 2.71, 95% CI: 1.98-3.70), CI (HR: 1.87, 95% CI: 1.26-2.77) and BRI (HR: 1.55-95% CI: 1.12-2.15), compared to the low trajectory group. Subgroup analysis based on the menopausal status of participants showed that the HR of CVD incidences for all of trajectories adiposity indices, except BMI, was statistically significant. Adjusted cox proportional hazard models, in those women not reached menopause during study, revealed that the HR (95% CI) of CVD incidences for high trajectory of BMI, WC, CI and BRI were 2.80 (1.86-7.05); 2.09 (1.40-6.16); 1.72 (1.42-5.61), and 3.09 (1.06-9.01), respectively. These values for those were menopause at the initiation of the study were 1.40 (1.11, 2.53); 1.65 (1.04-2.75); 1.69 (1.01-2.87), and 1.61 (0.98-2.65), respectively. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that adiposity trajectories, particularly central adiposity index of CI, could precisely predict the CVD risk. Consequently, preventive strategies should be tailored accordingly.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases , Menopause , Waist Circumference , Humans , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Adiposity/physiology , Middle Aged , Menopause/physiology , Adult , Cohort Studies , Iran/epidemiology , Incidence , Risk Factors , Follow-Up Studies , Aged , Young Adult
9.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1601, 2024 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38879521

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. It has been known for some considerable time that radiation is associated with excess risk of CVD. A recent systematic review of radiation and CVD highlighted substantial inter-study heterogeneity in effect, possibly a result of confounding or modifications of radiation effect by non-radiation factors, in particular by the major lifestyle/environmental/medical risk factors and latent period. METHODS: We assessed effects of confounding by lifestyle/environmental/medical risk factors on radiation-associated CVD and investigated evidence for modifying effects of these variables on CVD radiation dose-response, using data assembled for a recent systematic review. RESULTS: There are 43 epidemiologic studies which are informative on effects of adjustment for confounding or risk modifying factors on radiation-associated CVD. Of these 22 were studies of groups exposed to substantial doses of medical radiation for therapy or diagnosis. The remaining 21 studies were of groups exposed at much lower levels of dose and/or dose rate. Only four studies suggest substantial effects of adjustment for lifestyle/environmental/medical risk factors on radiation risk of CVD; however, there were also substantial uncertainties in the estimates in all of these studies. There are fewer suggestions of effects that modify the radiation dose response; only two studies, both at lower levels of dose, report the most serious level of modifying effect. CONCLUSIONS: There are still large uncertainties about confounding factors or lifestyle/environmental/medical variables that may influence radiation-associated CVD, although indications are that there are not many studies in which there are substantial confounding effects of these risk factors.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Life Style , Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects
10.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0303338, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous research has underscored the correlation between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and erectile dysfunction (ED). However, due to inherent limitations of observational studies, the causative relationship remains inconclusive. METHODS: Utilizing publicly available data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) summary statistics, this study probed the potential causal association between AD and ED using univariate Mendelian randomization (MR). Further, the multivariable MR assessed the confounding effects of six cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The primary approach employed was inverse variance weighted (IVW), supplemented by three additional methods. A series of sensitivity analyses were conducted to ensure the robustness of the results. RESULTS: In the forward MR analysis, the IVW method revealed causal evidence of genetically predicted AD being a risk factor for ED (OR = 1.077, 95% CI 1.007∼1.152, P = 0.031). Reverse analysis did not demonstrate any causal evidence linking ED to AD (OR = 1.018, 95% CI 0.974∼1.063, P = 0.430). Multivariable MR analysis showed that after adjusting for coronary heart disease (OR = 1.082, 95% CI 0.009∼1.160, P = 0.027), myocardial infarction (OR = 1.085, 95% CI 1.012∼1.163, P = 0.022), atrial fibrillation (OR = 1.076, 95% CI 1.002∼1.154, P = 0.043), heart failure (OR = 1.103, 95% CI 1.024∼1.188, P = 0.010), ischemic stroke (OR = 1.079, 95% CI 1.009∼1.154, P = 0.027), hypertension (OR = 1.092, 95% CI 1.011∼1.180, P = 0.025), and all models (OR = 1.115, 95% CI 1.024∼1.214, P = 0.012), the causal association between AD and ED persisted. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the absence of pleiotropy, heterogeneity, and outliers, validating the robustness of our results (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This MR study consistently evidences a causal effect of genetically predicted AD on the risk of ED, independent of certain CVDs, yet offers no evidence for a reverse effect from ED.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Cardiovascular Diseases , Erectile Dysfunction , Genome-Wide Association Study , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Humans , Male , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Alzheimer Disease/complications , Erectile Dysfunction/genetics , Erectile Dysfunction/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Risk Factors , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
11.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1388424, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38873301

ABSTRACT

Background: Arterial stiffness, typically evaluated via estimated pulse wave velocity (ePWV), is believed to have a significant association with cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between Life's Essential 8 (LE8), a newly revised metric of cardiovascular health, and ePWV among adult population in the United States. Methods: This research employed a cross-sectional methodology, drawing upon data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) spanning from 2011 to 2018. To explore the relationship between LE8 and ePWV among adults in the US, both univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were carried out. Additionally, the restricted cubic splines method was utilized to examine any non-linear correlation. Results: The study comprised 6,742 participants with an average age of 48.30 ± 0.35 years. Among these, 3,236 were males, representing a weighted percentage of 48%. The population's weighted average LE8 score was 68.68 ± 0.37, while the average ePWV was 8.18 ± 0.04. An entirely adjusted model revealed a negative correlation between ePWV and LE8 scores [in the moderate LE8 group, coefficient - 0.17, 95% CI -0.28 to -0.06, p = 0.004; in the high LE8 group, coefficient - 0.44, 95% CI -0.56 to -0.32, p < 0.0001]. This negative correlation was consistent with the findings in demographic subgroup analysis, with the effect size being more pronounced among adults under the age of 60, and individuals without hypertension, cardiovascular disease, or diabetes. Conclusion: Our study reveals a negative correlation between LE8 and ePWV in the adult population of the US, suggesting that LE8 could potentially serve as an indicative marker for evaluating the risk of vascular stiffness. This inverse relationship is markedly stronger in adults below 60 years and those without diagnosed vascular diseases. This implies that lifestyle upgrades and risk factor management could be especially advantageous in curbing arterial stiffness within these groups. These conclusions underscore the importance of primary prevention in mitigating the risk of vascular aging in a relatively healthy group, emphasizing the significance of early intervention and risk factor management in cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Nutrition Surveys , Pulse Wave Analysis , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Male , Female , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Risk Factors
12.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol ; 49: 100646, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38876556

ABSTRACT

In practice, survival analyses appear in pharmaceutical testing, procedural recovery environments, and registry-based epidemiological studies, each reasonably assuming a known patient population. Less commonly discussed is the additional complexity introduced by non-registry and spatially-referenced data with time-dependent covariates in observational settings. In this short report we discuss residual diagnostics and interpretation from an extended Cox proportional hazard model intended to assess the effects of wildfire evacuation on risk of a secondary cardiovascular events for patients of a specific healthcare system on the California's central coast. We describe how traditional residuals obscure important spatial patterns indicative of true geographical variation, and their impacts on model parameter estimates. We briefly discuss alternative approaches to dealing with spatial correlation in the context of Bayesian hierarchical models. Our findings/experience suggest that careful attention is needed in observational healthcare data and survival analysis contexts, but also highlights potential applications for detecting observed hospital service areas.


Subject(s)
Bayes Theorem , Proportional Hazards Models , Humans , Survival Analysis , California/epidemiology , Wildfires , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Spatial Analysis
13.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 30: S96-S99, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870366

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) disproportionately affects people of color and those with lower household income. Improving blood pressure (BP) and cholesterol management for those with or at risk for CVD can improve health outcomes. The New York City Department of Health implemented clinical performance feedback with practice facilitation (PF) in 134 small primary care practices serving on average over 84% persons of color. Facilitators reviewed BP and cholesterol management data on performance dashboards and guided practices to identify and outreach to patients with suboptimal BP and cholesterol management. Despite disruptions from the COVID-19 pandemic, practices demonstrated significant improvements in BP (68%-75%, P < .001) and cholesterol management (72%-78%, P = .01). Prioritizing high-need neighborhoods for impactful resource investment, such as PF and data sharing, may be a promising approach to reducing CVD and hypertension inequities in areas heavily impacted by structural racism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cholesterol , Electronic Health Records , Primary Health Care , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Primary Health Care/standards , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cholesterol/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Female , Male , Quality Improvement , Middle Aged , Feedback
14.
Diab Vasc Dis Res ; 21(3): 14791641241259792, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843864

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study examines whether Angiopoietin Like 8 (ANGPTL8) is linked to cardiometabolic risk factors (CMRFs) in Saudi women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). METHODS: Case-control investigation compared 150 women aged 30-60 with T2DM to 140 healthy women of the same age and gender. RESULTS: ANGPTL8 levels differed significantly between T2DM and non-diabetics. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin resistance (IR), triglycerides (TG), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), body mass index (BMI), and atherogenic index (AIP) of plasma all correlated positively with ANGPTL8 concentrations. Insulin levels correlated negatively with ANGPTL8. Multiple linear regression models showed that elevated ANGPTL8 independently predicted higher FBG, hs-CRP, IR, TG, and AIP in T2DM patients. CONCLUSION: The study found a significant association between ANGPTL8 levels and IR, hs-CRP, TG, AIP, and BMI in women with T2DM. These components are classified as CMRFs and have the potential to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD).


Subject(s)
Angiopoietin-Like Protein 8 , Angiopoietin-like Proteins , Biomarkers , Blood Glucose , Body Mass Index , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Insulin Resistance , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Middle Aged , Angiopoietin-like Proteins/blood , Pilot Projects , Case-Control Studies , Biomarkers/blood , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Adult , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Peptide Hormones/blood , Risk Assessment , Triglycerides/blood , Insulin/blood , Risk Factors
15.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13622, 2024 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38871763

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and depression are common diseases that lead to adverse health outcomes. Depressive Symptoms may be a risk factor for CVD. But few studies focused on the impact of socioeconomic factors, common medical history and dietary intake about this association. This study analyzed National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2016. Complex sampling-weighted logistic regression models were used to compare the odds ratios (ORs) of CVD in participants with different depressive symptoms. 11,516 NHANES participants aged ≥ 40 years were included in the final analysis, of whom 1842 had CVD. Compared with participants with no/minimal depression, participants with mild, moderate, and moderately severe/severe depression had OR values of 1.25 (95%  CI 1.01-1.54), 1.98 (95% CI 1.32-2.96), and 2.41 (95% CI 1.63-3.57). The association of depressive symptoms with CVD follow a dose-dependent pattern. The interactions of depressive symptoms with gender (Interaction P = 0.009), diabetes (Interaction P = 0.010), household income level (Interaction P = 0.002), dietary cholesterol intake (Interaction P = 0.017) on CVD were observed. More severe depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk of CVD in US population. The association may be more pronounced in the female population, population with diabetes, low family income level, or high dietary cholesterol intake.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Depression , Nutrition Surveys , Humans , Male , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Odds Ratio
16.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 5064, 2024 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38871766

ABSTRACT

Mental disorders are leading causes of disability and premature death worldwide, partly due to high comorbidity with cardiometabolic disorders. Reasons for this comorbidity are still poorly understood. We leverage nation-wide health records and near-complete genealogies of Denmark and Sweden (n = 17 million) to reveal the genetic and environmental contributions underlying the observed comorbidity between six mental disorders and 15 cardiometabolic disorders. Genetic factors contributed about 50% to the comorbidity of schizophrenia, affective disorders, and autism spectrum disorder with cardiometabolic disorders, whereas the comorbidity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and anorexia with cardiometabolic disorders was mainly or fully driven by environmental factors. In this work we provide causal insight to guide clinical and scientific initiatives directed at achieving mechanistic understanding as well as preventing and alleviating the consequences of these disorders.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Comorbidity , Mental Disorders , Humans , Mental Disorders/genetics , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Male , Denmark/epidemiology , Sweden/epidemiology , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/genetics , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/genetics , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Metabolic Diseases/genetics , Metabolic Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , Gene-Environment Interaction , Schizophrenia/genetics , Schizophrenia/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/genetics , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Scandinavians and Nordic People
17.
Reumatol Clin (Engl Ed) ; 20(5): 229-236, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38880551

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Autoimmune diseases are known to be associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular diseases; however, there exists a lack of awareness regarding this increased risk among patients. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and events in various systemic autoimmune diseases, including Systemic Sclerosis (SSc), Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), and Sjögren's syndrome (SS), matched by age, sex, and disease duration. Additionally, the study aimed to evaluate the perceived and actual risks of cardiovascular disease among patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional self-reported survey on the patient's perspective of cardiovascular risk was conducted between January and June 2023. Sociodemographic and clinical data, including disease activity, were collected through medical records and questionnaires. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors and events were assessed, alongside the perceived cardiovascular risk. The SCORE calculation and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) were employed for cardiovascular risk assessment. RESULTS: Survey responses from 180 patients (45 patients each with SSc, SLE, RA, and SS) with systemic autoimmune diseases revealed that 20% perceived a low risk, 23% perceived neither lower nor higher, and 56% perceived a higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in the next ten years. Only 45% agreed that their autoimmune disease could increase the risk of a heart attack, even in the absence of other risk factors, and 46.7% were unaware that NSAIDs pose a cardiovascular risk. An association between cardiovascular risk measured by SCORE, comorbidities, and risk perception was observed in RA, SSc, and SS patients, with no association found in SLE patients (p=0.27). Except for SS patients (p=0.02), no association between CCI and disease activity level was found. Regarding the influence of age, working status, and education in CVD risk perception, an association between CVD risk perception and age was observed (p=0.01), with patients over 40 years exhibiting a higher perception of CVD risk. No differences were found regarding working status (p=0.19) nor education level (p=0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with SS, RA, and SSc displayed a heightened perception of cardiovascular risk, correlating with their actual risk and preexisting comorbidities. However, patients exhibited unawareness of certain cardiovascular risk behaviors. This underscores the need for tailored education programs on cardiovascular risk for autoimmune disease patients, to be implemented at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up in outpatient clinics.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases , Humans , Male , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Middle Aged , Adult , Aged , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Self Report , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Sjogren's Syndrome/complications , Sjogren's Syndrome/epidemiology , Scleroderma, Systemic/complications , Scleroderma, Systemic/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Prevalence , Self Concept , Risk Factors
18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(12): e032886, 2024 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Survivors of cancer have elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, likely stemming from the negative impact of anticancer therapies on vascular function. Arterial stiffness is a strong indicator of vascular function and independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. The American Heart Association recommends Life's Essential 8 for optimal cardiovascular health. It is currently unknown, however, whether greater adherence to Life's Essential 8 is associated with low arterial stiffness in survivors of cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: This cross-sectional study included 172 older adult (≥65 years) survivors of cancer (74±6 years; 58% female). Life's Essential 8 100-point cardiovascular health score, with higher scores indicative of better cardiovascular health, was calculated based on 8 components: diet, physical activity, nicotine exposure, sleep health, body mass index, blood lipids, blood glucose, and blood pressure. Participants were classified as having low (<60), moderate (60-79), or high (≥80) cardiovascular health. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was used to assess arterial stiffness; with high arterial stiffness defined as a pulse wave velocity ≥10 m/s. The mean cardiovascular health score was 72±11 and 40 survivors (23%) had high arterial stiffness. Compared with low cardiovascular health, the odds ratio of high arterial stiffness was 0.12 (95% CI, 0.03-0.50) and 0.02 (95% CI, 0.003-0.18) for moderate and high cardiovascular health, respectively. Every 10-point increase in the cardiovascular health score was associated with a 0.43 m/s reduction in pulse wave velocity (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Greater adherence to the American Heart Association's Life's Essential 8 was associated with lower prevalence of high arterial stiffness in older adult survivors of cancer. Prospective studies with larger samples are needed.


Subject(s)
Cancer Survivors , Cardiovascular Diseases , Neoplasms , Pulse Wave Analysis , Vascular Stiffness , Humans , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Female , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , Aged , Neoplasms/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Healthy Lifestyle , Aged, 80 and over , Risk Factors , Risk Reduction Behavior , Exercise/physiology , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Risk Assessment
19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(12): e033810, 2024 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38842290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder associated with cardiovascular risks. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of probable OSA and its relationship with cardiovascular risks and diseases focusing on age-stratified young adults (20-40 years) and older (>40 years). METHODS AND RESULTS: The study used a cross-sectional design, analyzing data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2013 and 2018, comprising 9887 community-dwelling adults aged ≥20 years. Probable OSA was determined on the basis of self-report of OSA-related symptoms (eg, snoring, gasping/breath cessation while sleeping). Cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, were evaluated according to established guidelines. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) included self-reported heart conditions, including congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, angina, heart attacks, and strokes. Individuals with probable OSA showed a significantly higher prevalence of health conditions, including hypertension (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 1.19; P<0.001), diabetes (aPR, 1.17; P: 0.01), metabolic syndrome (aPR, 1.14; P<0.001), heart attack (aPR, 1.63; P<0.01), stroke (aPR, 1.41; P: 0.03), and any CVD event (aPR, 1.36; P: 0.01) after adjusting for relevant factors. Young adults with probable OSA showed higher prevalence rates of any CVD events (aPR, 3.44; P<0.001), hypertension (aPR, 1.45; P<0.001), metabolic syndrome (aPR, 1.25; P<0.001), and angina (aPR, 10.39; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests early identification and management of OSA in individuals at risk for CVD. While cross-sectional, it emphasizes that health care providers should recognize OSA as significantly associated with CVDs and its precursor risks in young adults, stressing proactive care and screening to reduce CVD risk in this population.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Nutrition Surveys , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Humans , Male , Adult , Female , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , United States/epidemiology , Prevalence , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Age Factors , Aged , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Heart Disease Risk Factors
20.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 56(3): 418-423, 2024 Jun 18.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38864126

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between puberty timing and cardiovascular metabolic risk factors among primary and secondary students with different genders in Beijing. METHODS: Using the method of stratified cluster sampling by urban and rural areas and school sections, 3 067 students from 16 primary and secondary schools in Fangshan District of Beijing were selected in October 2012, with questionnaire survey, physical examination and serum laboratory testing. In this study, we controlled for confounding factors such as school segments, current residence of the family, birth weight, feeding method, only child, highest educational level of parents, and monthly family income, and then the associations between cardiovascular metabolic risk factors and puberty timing among the primary and secondary students was analyzed by multivariate Logistic analysis. To ensure the reliability of the data, this study adopted strict quality control. RESULTS: A total of 3 067 primary and middle school students aged 7 to 16 years were included in this study, including 1 575 boys and 1 492 girls. The prevalence of premature puberty was 14.73% among the boys and 12.89% among the girls, respectively. The prevalence of delayed puberty was 9.49% among the boys and 10.99% among the girls, respectively. The detection rates of central obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia among the primary and secondary students were 35.87%, 19.95%, 2.54% and 26.31%, respectively. The detection rates of 1 risk factor clustering, 2 risk factors clustering and more than 3 risk factors clustering were 29.21%, 16.17% and 9.36%, respectively. The difference in the detection rate of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in different youth stages was insignificant (P>0.05), the detection rate of risk factor aggregation of 0 was lower than that of the timely group and delayed group, and the detection rate of risk factors aggregation of 2 was higher than that of the timely group (P < 0.05).After adjusting the effects of learning stage, region, birth weight, feeding patterns, one-child, family income and the parents' educational levels, multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that, compared with the on-time puberty group, the risk of 1 risk factor clustering, 2 risk factors clustering and more than 3 risk factors clustering increased by 1.94 times (95% CI=1.29-2.91), 2.97 times (95% CI=1.89-4.67) and 2.02 times (95% CI= 1.13-3.63) among the girls; It had not been found that the relationship between puberty timing and cardiovascular risk factor clustering among the boys (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Premature puberty is an independent risk factor for the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors in girls, and primary prevention strategies should be implemented to reduce the burden of cardiovascular metabolic diseases in the population.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Puberty , Students , Humans , Female , Male , Adolescent , Child , China/epidemiology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Puberty/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Hypertension/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Puberty, Precocious/epidemiology , Obesity, Abdominal/epidemiology , Prevalence , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Age Factors
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