Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 358.608
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255055, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355865

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was aimed to investigate Carbofuran (CF)-induced pathological changes in cattle egret. Two hundred cattle egrets were reared and equally divided into four groups and given different CF concentrations (0.03 mg/L, 0.02 mg/L, 0.01 mg/L and 0 mg/L (control group)). Hematology, serum biochemistry, histopathology, and immunological markers were studied. Our results confirm that CF induces anemic conditions, leukocytosis, elevated liver enzymatic activity, and alterations in renal biomarkers. Moreover, specific microscopic lesions such as multifocal necrosis, pyknotic nuclei, hemorrhages, congestion, and inflammatory cell proliferation were observed in the liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus. These findings suggest that CF can induce harmful effects, so the application of this pesticide in the field must be strictly monitored to mitigate the possibility of exposure to non-target species.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar as alterações patológicas induzidas por carbofurano (CF) em garças-vaqueiras. Duzentas dessas garças foram criadas e divididas igualmente em quatro grupos e receberam diferentes concentrações de CF: 0,03 mg/L; 0,02 mg/L; 0,01 mg/L; e 0 mg/L (grupo controle). Foram realizadas análises de hematologia, bioquímica sérica, histopatologia e marcadores imunológicos. Nossos resultados confirmaram que CF induz condições anêmicas, leucocitose, atividade enzimática hepática elevada e alterações nos biomarcadores renais. Além disso, lesões microscópicas específicas, como necrose multifocal, núcleos picnóticos, hemorragias, congestão e proliferação de células inflamatórias, foram observadas no fígado, rim, baço e timo. Esses achados sugerem que o CF pode causar efeitos nocivos, portanto a aplicação desse agrotóxico no campo deve ser rigorosamente monitorada para mitigar a possibilidade de exposição a espécies não alvo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Carbofuran/toxicity , Birds , Cattle
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254011, 2024. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355886

ABSTRACT

Abstract Livestock is a fundamental part of the agriculture industry in Pakistan and contributes more than 11.53% to GDP. Among livestock species, the buffaloes are regarded as the black gold of Pakistan. Being the highest milk producers globally, Nili-Ravi buffaloes are the most famous ones. Buffaloes are affected by many endemic diseases, and "Hemorrhagic septicemia" (HS) is one of them. This study was designed to ascertain the effects of experimental exposure ofP. multocida B:2 (oral) and its immunogens, i.e., LPS (oral and intravenous) and OMP (oral and subcutaneous) on reproductive hormonal profiles in Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Repeated serum samples were collected from the jugular vein of experimental animals for 21 days (0, 02, 04, 08, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 and 504 hours). Hormonal assays to determine the serum concentrations of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4) were performed using (MyBioSource) commercial Elisa kits. The hormonal profile of all treatment groups of the buffalo heifers exhibited significant (P<0.05) variations as compared to the control group (G-1). These results indicate suppression in Nili-Ravi buffaloes' reproductive hormonal profile on exposure to P. multocida B:2 and its immunogens. This influence warrants that exposure to H.S may be a possible reason for delayed puberty and poor reproduction performance in Nili-Ravi buffaloes.


Resumo A pecuária é uma parte fundamental da indústria agrícola no Paquistão e contribui com 11,53% do PIB nacional. Entre as espécies de gado, os búfalos são considerados o ouro negro do Paquistão. Sendo os maiores produtores de leite em todo o mundo, os búfalos Nili-Ravi são os mais famosos. Os búfalos são afetados por muitas doenças endêmicas, entre as quais a "septicemia hemorrágica" (SH). Este estudo busca verificar os efeitos da exposição experimental de P. multocida B:2 (oral) e seus imunógenos, ou seja, LPS (oral e intravenoso) e OMP (oral e subcutâneo), nos perfis hormonais reprodutivos em búfalos Nili-Ravi. Amostras de soro repetidas foram coletadas da veia jugular de animais experimentais por 21 dias (0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 264, 360, 456 e 504 horas). Os ensaios hormonais para determinar as concentrações séricas do hormônio liberador de gonadotrofina (GnRH), hormônio foliculoestimulante (FSH), hormônio luteinizante (LH), estrogênio (E2) e progesterona (P4) foram realizados usando kits comerciais Elisa (MyBioSource). O perfil hormonal de todos os grupos de tratamento das novilhas bubalinas apresentou variações significativas (P < 0,05) em relação ao grupo controle (G-1). Esses resultados indicam supressão no perfil hormonal reprodutivo de búfalos Nili-Ravi na exposição a P. multocida B:2 e seus imunógenos. Essa influência garante que a exposição à SH possa ser uma possível razão para o atraso da puberdade e o baixo desempenho reprodutivo em búfalos Nili-Ravi.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pasteurella Infections/veterinary , Reproduction , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/blood , Buffaloes , Progesterone , Cattle , Lipopolysaccharides , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone , Pasteurella multocida
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251671, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345526

ABSTRACT

Abstract Trypanosomiasis is a protozoan infection affecting both human and animals in almost all parts of the world. It can affect a very large range of domestic and wild hosts including camelids, equines, cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs and other carnivores, deer, gazelles and elephants. This review paper was designed to address the effect of this economically important disease in countries on the Red Sea, especially in Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, and Saudi Arabia during the period 2010 to 2020. The prevalence of trypanosomiasis is different between these countries due to different types of diagnostic methods (Giemsa-stained blood smears, Hematocrit centrifugation, Serological test, and molecular analysis PCR) used and differential distribution of vector (Tse tse) flies. In current review, retrospective studies of published literature on distribution and prevalence of Trypanosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries was conducted [Google Scholar and PubMed were used to retrieve the published literature from 2000-2020. A total of 77 published articles met the eligibility criteria and were reviewed. A total of 16 reports have been reported on the prevalence and distribution of Trypnosoma evansi infection in the Red Sea Countries have been from 2010-2020]. According to the published literature, we can say that trypanosomiasis in camels are more prevalent in Sudan than in other countries, followed by 17% and 51.78% in both clinical and non-clinical cases. Hence, the reliable diagnostic tests should be used for rapid treatment or control of the disease as if not treated appropriately in early-stage, can lead to death of the camels.


Resumo A tripanossomíase é uma infecção por protozoário que afeta humanos e animais em quase todas as partes do mundo. Pode afetar grande variedade de hospedeiros domésticos e selvagens, incluindo camelídeos, equinos, gado, búfalos, ovelhas, cabras, porcos, cães e outros carnívoros, veados, gazelas e elefantes. Este artigo de revisão foi elaborado para abordar o efeito dessa doença economicamente importante em países do mar Vermelho, especialmente Egito, Sudão, Somália e Arábia Saudita, durante o período de 2010 a 2020. A prevalência de tripanossomíase é diferente entre esses países devido a tipos distintos de métodos diagnósticos (esfregaços de sangue corados com Giemsa, centrifugação de hematócrito, teste sorológico e PCR de análise molecular) usados ​​e distribuição diferencial de moscas vetoras (tsé-tsé). Na revisão atual, foram realizados estudos retrospectivos da literatura publicada sobre distribuição e prevalência da infecção por Trypanosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho [Google Scholar e PubMed foram usados ​​para recuperar a literatura publicada de 2000 a 2020. Um total de 77 artigos publicados preencheu os critérios de elegibilidade e foi revisado. E há também 16 relatos sobre a prevalência e distribuição da infecção por Trypnosoma evansi nos países do mar Vermelho, de 2010 a 2020]. De acordo com a literatura publicada, podemos afirmar que a tripanossomíase em camelos é mais prevalente no Sudão do que em outros países, seguida por 17% e 51,78% em casos clínicos e não clínicos. Assim, os testes diagnósticos confiáveis ​​devem ser utilizados para o tratamento rápido ou controle da doença, pois, se eles não forem tratados de forma adequada na fase inicial, isso pode levar à morte dos camelos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Trypanosomiasis/diagnosis , Trypanosomiasis/veterinary , Trypanosomiasis/epidemiology , Deer , Cattle , Sheep , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Indian Ocean , Horses
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247562, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339410

ABSTRACT

Abstract To investigate the role of cow dung in soil reclamation and bio assimilation along with bio accumulation of heavy metals in earthworm (P. posthuma) (N=900) earthworms were used and treatment groups of CD-soil mixture of different proportion of cow dung were designed. Nonlethal doses of lead acetate and cadmium chloride were added in treatment groups. Mature P. posthuma were released in each experimental pot maintaining the favorable conditions. The pH, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, exchangeable cations, and heavy metal level of each mixture was evaluated. The results indicated that bio-assimilation of Pb and Cd by P. posthuma were significantly (P ˂ 0.01) higher in different soil-CD treatments compared to control. Highest bio-assimilation of both metals was observed in T1 of both groups (Pb = 563.8 mg/kg and Cd = 42.95 mg/kg). The contents of both metals were significantly (P ˂ 0.05) lowered in casting. The nutrient concentration in the final castings of all soil-CD treatments were also equally transformed from less or insoluble to more soluble and available for plants, except for carbon level which increased with CD proportion. It is concluded that cow dung as organic matter has a positive effect on soil reclamation and bio-assimilation of metals by P. posthuma.


RESUMO Para investigar o papel do esterco de vaca na recuperação do solo e bioassimilação, juntamente com a bioacumulação de metais pesados ​​em minhocas (P. posthuma) (N = 900), minhocas foram usadas e grupos de tratamento de mistura CD-solo de diferentes proporções de esterco de vaca foram projetados. Doses não letais de acetato de chumbo e cloreto de cádmio foram adicionadas aos grupos de tratamento. P. posthuma maduros foram liberados em cada vaso experimental, mantendo as condições favoráveis. Foram avaliados o pH, carbono, nitrogênio, fósforo, cátions trocáveis ​​e nível de metais pesados ​​de cada mistura. Os resultados indicaram que a bioassimilação de Pb e Cd por P. posthuma foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,01) maior em diferentes tratamentos de solo-CD em relação ao controle. A maior bioassimilação de ambos os metais foi observada em T1 de ambos os grupos (Pb = 563,8 mg / kg e Cd = 42,95 mg / kg). O conteúdo de ambos os metais foi significativamente (P ˂ 0,05) reduzido na fundição. A concentração de nutrientes nas fundições finais de todos os tratamentos de solo-CD também foi igualmente transformada de menos ou insolúvel para mais solúvel e disponível para as plantas, exceto o nível de carbono que aumenta com a proporção de CD. Conclui-se que o esterco de vaca como matéria orgânica tem um efeito positivo na recuperação do solo e na bioassimilação de metais por P. posthuma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Oligochaeta , Soil Pollutants , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Soil , Cadmium , Cattle , Bioaccumulation
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245330, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339394

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Aim The study examined the expression of Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) in adult and young yak brain tissues, and provided researchers with meaningful insight into the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of this mammal. Method The study employed immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and Western blot (WB) to obtain the results. Results Ngb and Hif-1α were significantly (P<0.05) expressed in the cerebellar cortex, piriform lobe, medulla, and corpus callosum of the adult yak while in the young yak brain tissues, the protein expressions were significantly found in the white matter of the cerebellum, pineal gland, corpus callosum, and cerebellar cortex. The Ngb and Hif-1α expression showed similarities and differences. This may have resulted from similar animal species, source of nutrition, age factors, brain size, emotional activities, and communication. The findings documented that Ngb and Hif-1α are commonly expressed in various adult and young yak brain tissues. Multiple roles in the brain tissues of the adult and young yaks are involved in the expression and distribution and are proposed to play a significant role in the adaptation of the yak to the high altitude environment. Conclusion This study provides meaningful data to understand the adaptive mechanism to hypoxia and recommended researchers to expand on the adaptive mechanism and brain tissues that are not recorded.


Resumo Contexto O cérebro é um órgão que funciona como o centro do sistema nervoso em todos os animais vertebrados e na maioria dos invertebrados. Objetivo O estudo examinou a expressão de neuroglobina (Ngb) e fator-1α indutível por hipóxia (Hif-1α) em tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens e forneceu aos pesquisadores uma visão significativa da anatomia, fisiologia e bioquímica desse mamífero. Método O estudo utilizou imuno-histoquímica (IHC), PCR quantitativo em tempo real (qRT-PCR) e western blot (WB) para a obtenção dos resultados. Resultados Ngb e Hif-1α foram significativamente (P < 0,05) expressos no córtex cerebelar, lobo piriforme, medula e corpo caloso do iaque adulto, enquanto nos tecidos cerebrais do iaque jovem as expressões proteicas foram encontradas significativamente na substância branca do cerebelo, glândula pineal, corpo caloso e córtex cerebelar. A expressão de Ngb e Hif-1α apresentou semelhanças e diferenças. Isso pode ter resultado de espécies animais semelhantes, fonte de nutrição, fatores de idade, tamanho do cérebro, atividades emocionais e comunicação. Os resultados documentaram que o Ngb e o Hif-1α são comumente expressos em vários tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens. Múltiplos papéis nos tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens estão envolvidos na expressão e distribuição e são propostos para desempenhar um papel significativo na adaptação do iaque ao ambiente de alta altitude. Conclusão Este estudo fornece dados significativos para compreender o mecanismo adaptativo à hipóxia e recomendou que os pesquisadores expandissem o mecanismo adaptativo e os tecidos cerebrais que não foram registrados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , Hypoxia , Brain , RNA, Messenger , Cattle , Neuroglobin
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248911, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339362

ABSTRACT

Abstract The telencephalon refers to the most highly developed and anterior part of the forebrain, consisting mainly of the cerebral hemispheres. The study determined Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) expression in the telencephalon of yak and cattle, and compare the expression and distribution pattern of Ngb and HIF-1α in the two animals. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blot (WB) were employed to investigate Ngb and Hif-1α expression in the telencephalon of yak and cattle. mRNA and protein expressions of Ngb and HIF-1α showed positive in different tissues of the yak and cattle telencephalon. Ngb expression in tissues of the yak recorded higher as compare to cattle while HIF-1α expression was found higher in cattle than yak. The HIF-1α expression in some tissues of yak telencephalon was consistent with the cattle. The results documented that HIF-1α may have a direct or indirect synergistic effect on Ngb expression in the yak telencephalon to improve hypoxia adaptation. It is suggested that yak may need more Ngb expression for adaptation, but the expression of HIF-1α seems to be down-regulated during long-term adaptation, and the specific causes of this phenomenon needs to be further verified.


Resumo O telencéfalo refere-se à parte anterior e mais desenvolvida do prosencéfalo, consistindo principalmente dos hemisférios cerebrais. O estudo determinou a expressão de neuroglobina (Ngb) e fator indutível por hipóxia (HIF-1α) no telencéfalo de iaques e bovinos e comparou a expressão e o padrão de distribuição de Ngb e HIF-1α nos dois animais. Imuno-histoquímica (IHC), reação em cadeia da polimerase quantitativa em tempo real (qRT-PCR) e Western blot (WB) foram empregados para investigar a expressão de Ngb e Hif-1α no telencéfalo de iaques e bovinos. As expressões de mRNA e proteínas de Ngb e HIF-1α mostraram-se positivas em diferentes tecidos do telencéfalo de iaque e bovino. A expressão de Ngb nos tecidos do iaque foi registrada mais alta em comparação com o gado, enquanto a expressão do HIF-1α foi encontrada mais alta no gado do que no iaque. A expressão de HIF-1α em alguns tecidos do telencéfalo de iaque foi consistente com o gado. Os resultados documentaram que o HIF-1α pode ter um efeito sinérgico direto ou indireto na expressão de Ngb no telencéfalo de iaque para melhorar a adaptação à hipóxia. É sugerido que o iaque pode precisar de mais expressão de Ngb para adaptação, mas a expressão de HIF-1α parece ser regulada para baixo durante a adaptação de longo prazo, e as causas específicas desse fenômeno precisam ser verificadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Telencephalon , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Cattle , Adaptation, Physiological , Neuroglobin
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(24): e2203752119, 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666867

ABSTRACT

SignificanceThe Galápagos Islands are an iconic evolutionary and ecological setting, recognized to be both species-poor and ecologically sensitive. Here, we show an indirect ecological cascade initiated by whalers harvesting tortoises near the coast in the 1790s, which had lasting impacts on the highland interior of San Cristóbal Island. Our data also reveal how the replacement of endemic herbivores with exotic herbivores, namely, cattle, impacted the local vegetation. We advocate for the restoration of preimpact shrub species and tortoises to promote habitat rewilding, restoration, and especially the socioeconomic value of these highland ecosystems in providing tourist experiences.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Extinction, Biological , Turtles , Animals , Biological Evolution , Cattle , Ecology , Ecuador , Herbivory , Human Activities , Humans
8.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 585, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705693

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic-resistant microorganisms (ARMs) are widespread in natural environments, animals (wildlife and livestock), and humans, which has reduced our capacity to control life threatening infectious disease. Yet, little is known about their transmission pathways, especially at the wildlife-livestock interface. This study investigated the potential transmission of ARMs and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) between cattle and wildlife by comparing gut microbiota and ARG profiles of feral swine (Sus scrofa), coyotes (Canis latrans), cattle (Bos taurus), and environmental microbiota. Unexpectedly, wild animals harbored more abundant ARMs and ARGs compared to grazing cattle. Gut microbiota of cattle was significantly more similar to that of feral swine captured within the cattle grazing area where the home range of both species overlapped substantially. In addition, ARMs against medically important antibiotics were more prevalent in wildlife than grazing cattle, suggesting that wildlife could be a source of ARMs colonization in livestock.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild , Livestock , Animals , Cattle , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics
9.
Talanta ; 248: 123566, 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653959

ABSTRACT

The effective trypsin purification methods should be established since trypsin plays a crucial role in biosome. In this work, a novel ternary magnetic composite adsorbent (MnFe2O4-MWCNTs@B-U-G) with the features of strong specific selectivity, good adsorption effect, simple and efficient separation process, no secondary pollution brought in was prepared by integrating the superior physicochemical properties of ternary based natural deep eutectic solvent, multi-walled carbon nanotubes and MnFe2O4. The property, composition and microtopography structure of MnFe2O4-MWCNTs@B-U-G were characterized in detail. Combined with magnetic solid-phase extraction, MnFe2O4-MWCNTs@B-U-G was utilized to adsorb trypsin. Response surface methodology experiment was prepared under Box-Behnken design to optimize the adsorption conditions and the results showed that the practical maximum adsorption capacity for trypsin was 1020.1 mg g-1. Besides, the adsorption isotherms, adsorption kinetics, regeneration studies and method validation studies were investigated systematically to evaluate the established adsorption separation system. Mechanism exploration proved that electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bonding interaction and chelation interaction were the dominant forces for the high-performance adsorption of trypsin. The activity of trypsin after elution had been analyzed by UV-vis spectrophotometer and CD spectrometer with three methods, which illustrated that the enzyme activity, conformation and secondary structure of trypsin did not change significantly during the adsorption-desorption process. In addition, the proposed method was successful and practical applicability to isolation trypsin from crude bovine pancreas. As a result, due to the superiority of the MnFe2O4-MWCNTs@B-U-G, the proposed method not only exhibites high-performance adsorption of trypsin, but also provides a green and sustainable potential value in the adsorption of biomacromolecule.


Subject(s)
Glycerol , Nanotubes, Carbon , Adsorption , Animals , Betaine , Cattle , Indicators and Reagents , Magnetic Phenomena , Nanotubes, Carbon/chemistry , Protein Structure, Secondary , Solvents/chemistry , Trypsin , Urea
10.
Exp Parasitol ; 238: 108285, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654132

ABSTRACT

Fasciola hepatica, a worldwide-distributed liver fluke, is one of the causative agents of fasciolosis, a zoonotic disease that affects livestock and humans. In livestock, fasciolosis causes huge economic losses worldwide, reducing animal fertility, milk production, weight gain and condemnation of livers. In spite of the availability of drugs, such as triclabendazole (TCZ), for the treatment of fasciolosis, they do not necessarily prevent liver damage or parasite reinfection and can eventually increase parasite resistance. The aim of this research was to relate the hepatic function, haematological parameters, leukocyte counts in circulation and parasite egg shedding during F. hepatica acute and chronic phases of infection in cattle as well as to determine how these parameters change with TCZ-treatment of chronically infected cattle. Our results show that increased levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) were detected in early stages of the experimental infection. Moreover, high circulating eosinophil count and plateletcrit levels were correlated with fluke number in livers from infected cattle. On the other hand, although TCZ-treatment in the chronic phase of infection reduced parasite burden and damage in the liver, it was not able to completely avoid them. In conclusion, our work sheds light into the physiopathological mechanisms induced during fluke infection in cattle, revealing the complexity of the host response to the infection, together with the effects of TCZ-treatment in chronically infected animals.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Fasciola hepatica , Fascioliasis , Animals , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/drug therapy , Cattle Diseases/parasitology , Fascioliasis/drug therapy , Fascioliasis/parasitology , Fascioliasis/veterinary , Triclabendazole/therapeutic use
11.
Meat Sci ; 191: 108867, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660291

ABSTRACT

Temperament is defined as individual behavioral responses to potentially fear-eliciting or challenging situations related to human presence and handling. A total of 190 steers of commercial Zebu Brahman (Bos indicus) were used in this study, selected when they were between 10 and 11 months of age, fattened for 24 months (720 days) and slaughtered between 34 and 35 months of age. Using a temperament index (based on two tests: chute and exit score), animals were classified as calm, restless, or nervous. In general, calm animals had a longer carcass, a higher slaughter and fasting weight, and a normal pH24 (<5.7). However, carcass yield was significantly higher in nervous than in restless animals, but did not differ from that of calm steers. It is important to note that these results were obtained under experimental conditions, therefore, effects could have a greater impact on carcass quality under commercial conditions.


Subject(s)
Temperament , Animals , Cattle , Colombia , Temperament/physiology
12.
Meat Sci ; 191: 108868, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661625

ABSTRACT

The D - optimal mixture design was used to optimize inclusions of hydrocolloids [carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) 0-1% w/w, and tapioca starch (TS) 0-1% w/w] to create beef patties as a soft & bite-size food (level 6) according to the international dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative (IDDSI) guidelines. The effect of each ingredient and combination, on cooking properties and textural characteristics, were analysed. Results revealed that a combination of CMC and TS helped to improve the cooking yield and texture of beef patties. Optimization of ingredients obtained according to the maximum cooking yield, optimum colour, soft texture as per the IDDSI guidelines. Optimum formulation of patty contained beef 88.57%, CMC 0.89% and TS 0.02% with 0.87 desirability score. The beef patties containing hydrocolloids complied with the IDDSI fork pressure test. This test is recommended as a way to identify soft and bite-size foods for people with dysphagia.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders , Manihot , Animals , Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium , Cattle , Cooking/methods , Humans , Starch
13.
Meat Sci ; 191: 108866, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35667192

ABSTRACT

Here we developed an advanced reaction-diffusion model to predict the evolution of the myoglobin state in beef meat using numerous reactions with rate constants of different orders of magnitude. The initial scheme included 44 reactions from the literature. Sensitivity analysis proved that this initial scheme was equivalent to a simple 22-reaction scheme. Results calculated with this scheme were compared against the spatial distributions of oxymyoglobin (MbO2), metmyoglobin (MMb) and deoxymyoglobin (DMb) measured in meat cuts stored at 20°C under air-permeable packaging. We found global agreement between measured and calculated distributions when adequate rate constant values were used, particularly for the formation of MbO2 from DMb. The model was used to calculate evolutions in MbO2 and MMb distributions under different situations (modified-atmosphere packaging, Fenton chemistry with or without water-soluble antioxidants, increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption). Results were used to discuss the underlying kinetics reaction mechanisms and the performances and limits of the model.


Subject(s)
Metmyoglobin , Myoglobin , Animals , Cattle , Kinetics , Meat/analysis , Myoglobin/analysis , Oxidation-Reduction
14.
J Chromatogr A ; 1673: 463192, 2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689879

ABSTRACT

Effective purification and enrichment of polypeptide antibiotics in animal tissues is always a challenge, due to the co-extraction of other endogenous peptides which usually interfere their final determination. In this study, a molecularly imprinted column was prepared by packing polymyxin E-imprinted particles into a 100 mm × 4.6 mm i.d. HPLC column. The as-prepared imprinted columns were able to tolerate 100% aqueous phase and exhibited good stability and high column efficiency. Polypeptides antibiotics with similar molecular size or spatial structure to polymyxin E were well retained by the imprinted column, suggesting class selectivity. After optimization of mobile phase conditions of imprinted column, polypeptide antibiotics in animal tissue extracts were enriched and cleaned up by in-line molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction, allowing the screening of target analytes in complex samples at low concentration levels by UV detection. Eluate fraction from the imprinted column was collected, and further dried and re-dissolved with methanol-0.5% formic acid aqueous solution (80:20, v/v) for final LC-MS/MS analysis. Analysis was accomplished using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive electrospray ionization mode and analytes quantified using the matrix-matched external calibration curves. The results showed high correlation coefficients for target analytes in the linear range of 2 ∼ 200 µg kg-1. At four different concentration levels (limit of quantification, 50, 100 and 200 µg kg-1), recoveries of four polypeptide antibiotics in swine, cattle and chicken muscles ranged from 66.7 to 94.5% with relative standard deviations lower than 16.0%. The limits of detection (LOD) were 2.0 ∼ 4.0 µg/kg, depending upon the analyte and sample. Compared with a conventional pretreatment method, the imprinted column was able to remove more impurities and to significantly reduce matrix effects, allowing the accurate analysis of polypeptide antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Cattle , Chickens , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Colistin , Peptides , Solid Phase Extraction/methods , Swine , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
15.
mBio ; 13(3): e0105122, 2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35695459

ABSTRACT

An outstanding question regarding the human gut microbiota is whether and how microbiota-directed interventions influence host phenotypic traits. Here, we employed a dietary intervention to probe this question in the context of lactose intolerance. To assess the effects of dietary dairy product elimination and (re)introduction on the microbiota and host phenotype, we studied 12 self-reported mildly lactose-intolerant adults with triweekly collection of fecal samples over a 12-week study period: 2 weeks of baseline diet, 4 weeks of dairy product elimination, and 6 weeks of gradual whole cow milk (re)introduction. Of the 12 subjects, 6 reported either no dairy or only lactose-free dairy product consumption. A clinical assay for lactose intolerance, the hydrogen breath test, was performed before and after each of these three study phases, and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was performed on all fecal samples. We found that none of the subjects showed change in a clinically defined measure of lactose tolerance. Similarly, fecal microbiota structure resisted modification. Although the mean fraction of the genus Bifidobacterium, a group known to metabolize lactose, increased slightly with milk (re)introduction (from 0.0125 to 0.0206; Wilcoxon P = 0.068), the overall structure of each subject's gut microbiota remained highly individualized and largely stable in the face of diet manipulation. IMPORTANCE Lactose intolerance is a gastrointestinal disorder diagnosed with a lactose hydrogen breath test. Lifestyle changes such as diet interventions can impact the gut microbiome; however, the role of the microbiome in lactose intolerance is unclear. Our study assessed the effects of a 12-week dietary dairy product elimination and (re)introduction on the microbiome and clinical lactose intolerance status in 12 adult self-reported lactose-intolerant individuals. We found each subject's gut microbiome remained highly individualized and largely stable in the face of this diet manipulation. We also report that none of the subjects showed change in a clinically defined measure of lactose tolerance.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Lactose Intolerance , Animals , Cattle , Female , Humans , Hydrogen/metabolism , Lactose/analysis , Lactose/metabolism , Lactose Intolerance/metabolism , Lactose Intolerance/microbiology , Milk/chemistry , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/metabolism , Self Report
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(25): 7786-7795, 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696488

ABSTRACT

The price of mammalian milk from different animal species varies greatly due to differences in their yield and nutritional value. Therefore, the authenticity of dairy products has become a hotspot issue in the market due to the replacement or partial admixture of high-cost milk with its low-cost analog. Herein, four common commercial varieties of milk, including goat milk, buffalo milk, Holstein cow milk, and Jersey cow milk, were successfully profiled and differentiated from each other by rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS) combined with chemometric analysis. This method was developed as a real-time lipid fingerprinting technique. Moreover, the established chemometric algorithms based on multivariate statistical methods mainly involved principal component analysis, orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis, and linear discriminant analysis as the screening and verifying tools to provide insights into the distinctive molecules constituting the four varieties of milk. The ions with m/z 229.1800, 243.1976, 257.2112, 285.2443, 299.2596, 313.2746, 341.3057, 355.2863, 383.3174, 411.3488, 439.3822, 551.5051, 577.5200, 628.5547, 656.5884, 661.5455, 682.6015, and 684.6146 were selected as potential classified markers. The results of the present work suggest that the proposed method could serve as a reference for recognizing dairy fraudulence related to animal species and expand the application field of REIMS technology.


Subject(s)
59761 , Milk , Animals , Cattle , Discriminant Analysis , Female , Lipids/analysis , Mammals , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Milk/chemistry
17.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270250, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714168

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Animal source foods contain quality nutrients, immunity, and behavioral outcome and are important for growth, and development. However, evidence on the level of animal source food consumption frequency and associated factors among pregnant women in Ethiopia, particularly rural residents are limited. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the consumption frequency of animal source food and to identify associated factors among pregnant women in the Haramaya district. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 448 pregnant women. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews by trained research assistants, using a validated frequency questionnaire. Consumption of animal food sources was assessed by counting the frequency of each food from animal sources that pregnant women ate over a seven-day reference period. The highest tertile for animal source food consumption was considered as the high frequency of animal source food consumption; whereas the two lower tertiles were taken as the low frequency of animal source food consumption. A binary logistic regression model was used to investigate the association of the independent variables with the animal source food consumption. An adjusted odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval was reported to show an association using a p-value <0.05. RESULTS: The high frequency of animal source food consumption among the study participants was 24.78% (95% CI = 21%-29%). High animal source food consumption was more likely higher among respondents who were literate (AOR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.048-3.095), and those who owned milk cows (ARO = 1.70; 95% CI = 1.003-2.863). However, respondent who reported chewing khat (AOR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.313-0.805) (AOR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.349-0.903), were less likely experienced animal source food consumption. CONCLUSION: We found low animal source food consumption among pregnant women in this predominantly rural setting. Women's educational level and milk cow ownership were positively associated with animal source food consumption. Additionally, a lower frequency of animal source food consumption was observed among women who reported chewing khat. Therefore, nutrition policy programs and interventions aimed at encouraging maternal nutritional guidance and counseling are recommended.


Subject(s)
Catha , Diet , Meat , Pregnant Women , Animals , Cattle , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Rural Population
18.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 23(2): 149-153, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35748442

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of anti-asthmatic inhalers salbutamol and budesonide on the surface microhardness of bovine tooth enamel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was experimental, prospective, longitudinal, and comparative. The sample consisted of permanent mandibular incisors, which were prepared in (n = 90) blocks of dental enamel of size 3 × 3 mm and 2 mm thick, separated into 6 groups of 15 specimens each in sterile bottles properly labeled and contained in artificial saliva at 37°C. Three measurements (baseline, 5 days, and 10 days) were performed after immersion to determine the microhardness using a Vickers microdurometer programmed to apply a load of 100 gm for 15 seconds. RESULTS: It was observed that the enamel surface microhardness decreased after 5 and 10 days, after being in contact with the anti-asthmatic inhalers based on salbutamol and budesonide. In addition, it was evidenced that there is a greater decrease in the superficial microhardness of the enamel when comparing the values at the beginning and after 10 days; likewise, the reduction in the microhardness of enamel exposed to budesonide was greater (120.8 kg/mm2) compared to salbutamol (112.3 kg/mm2) (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The two anti-asthmatic inhalers studied decreased superficial enamel microhardness, with the budesonide-based inhaler having a greater erosive effect. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This research allowed us to know the values of the microhardness of the superficial enamel after being exposed to different anti-asthmatic inhalers that are indicated in daily clinical practice. Therefore, it is important to evaluate this microhardness since the use of different inhalers is very prevalent.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Dental Enamel , Albuterol/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/pharmacology , Budesonide/pharmacology , Cattle , Hardness , Prospective Studies
19.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 23(2): 169-175, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35748445

ABSTRACT

AIM: To compare the efficacy of two naturally based commercially available whitening toothpastes charcoal and sea salt-lemon on stain removal of teeth in terms of color change and surface roughness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven intact bovine incisors were selected and randomly allocated into three main groups (n = 9) according to the tested toothpaste [I: Signal Complete 8 Charcoal; II: sea salt-lemon essence Closeup natural smile; and III: Signal Complete 8 Original (control)]. Following 4 successive days of staining protocol, each specimen in its corresponding group was brushed with the toothpaste using toothbrush simulator apparatus for three brushing cycles. Color assessment using Vita Easyshade spectrophotometer and surface roughness (Ra) measurement using contact type profilometer were performed for each specimen at baseline, after staining, and after each tooth brushing cycle. RESULTS: Nonparametric color data and parametric surface roughness data were analyzed. The color difference (ΔE) from after-staining protocol to different tooth brushing cycles (1,2,3) showed no significant difference on each cycle between the tested groups (p >0.05). While for color difference (ΔE) from baseline to the last tooth brushing cycle 3, the difference between groups was statistically significant where group II, sea salt-lemon-based toothpaste, had a significantly lowest (ΔE 00) value (p <0.001) indicating more whitening effect in relation to others. However, a significant increase in surface roughness was present in all tested groups (p <0.001); meanwhile, there was no significant difference between tested groups (p >0.05). CONCLUSION: After three tooth brushing cycles, none of the natural whitening toothpastes or conventional toothpastes produced had effective whitening results nor completely removed the stains back to the initial baseline tooth color. Sea salt-lemon-based whitening toothpaste had a whitening effect better than the charcoal-based toothpaste. All of the tested toothpastes increased the degree of surface roughness. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Charcoal and sea salt-lemon-based whitening toothpastes do not guarantee to whiten nor completely remove the stains back to normal and their effects on enamel surface roughness should be highly clinically considered and managed.


Subject(s)
Tooth Bleaching , Tooth Discoloration , Animals , Cattle , Charcoal , Color , Coloring Agents , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Toothbrushing , Toothpastes
20.
Genet Sel Evol ; 54(1): 47, 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35761182

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Compared to medium-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data, high-density SNP data contain abundant genetic variants and provide more information for the genetic evaluation of livestock, but it has been shown that they do not confer any advantage for genomic prediction and heritability estimation. One possible reason is the uneven distribution of the linkage disequilibrium (LD) along the genome, i.e., LD heterogeneity among regions. The aim of this study was to effectively use genome-wide SNP data for genomic prediction and heritability estimation by using models that control LD heterogeneity among regions. METHODS: The LD-adjusted kinship (LDAK) and LD-stratified multicomponent (LDS) models were used to control LD heterogeneity among regions and were compared with the classical model that has no such control. Simulated and real traits of 2000 dairy cattle individuals with imputed high-density (770K) SNP data were used. Five types of phenotypes were simulated, which were controlled by very strongly, strongly, moderately, weakly and very weakly tagged causal variants, respectively. The performances of the models with high- and medium-density (50K) panels were compared to verify that the models that controlled LD heterogeneity among regions were more effective with high-density data. RESULTS: Compared to the medium-density panel, the use of the high-density panel did not improve and even decreased prediction accuracies and heritability estimates from the classical model for both simulated and real traits. Compared to the classical model, LDS effectively improved the accuracy of genomic predictions and unbiasedness of heritability estimates, regardless of the genetic architecture of the trait. LDAK applies only to traits that are mainly controlled by weakly tagged causal variants, but is still less effective than LDS for this type of trait. Compared with the classical model, LDS improved prediction accuracy by about 13% for simulated phenotypes and by 0.3 to ~ 10.7% for real traits with the high-density panel, and by ~ 1% for simulated phenotypes and by - 0.1 to ~ 6.9% for real traits with the medium-density panel. CONCLUSIONS: Grouping SNPs based on regional LD to construct the LD-stratified multicomponent model can effectively eliminate the adverse effects of LD heterogeneity among regions, and greatly improve the efficiency of high-density SNP data for genomic prediction and heritability estimation.


Subject(s)
Genome , Genomics , Animals , Cattle/genetics , Genotype , Linkage Disequilibrium , Models, Genetic , Phenotype , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...