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1.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 366, 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35754036

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Individual differences in children eating behaviours have been linked with childhood overweight and obesity. The determinants of childhood eating behaviours are influenced by a complex combination of hereditary and ecological factors. This study examines if key ecological predictors of childhood overweight; maternal socio-economic status (SES), children's screen time, and childcare arrangements, are associated with eating behaviours in children aged 5-years-old. METHODS: This is secondary, cross-sectional analysis of the ROLO (Randomized COntrol Trial of LOw glycemic diet in pregnancy) study, using data from the 5-year follow-up (n = 306). Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) were obtained from mothers and children at the 5-year follow-up. Children's BMI z-scores were calculated. SES was determined using maternal education level and neighborhood deprivation score. Information on children's screen time and childcare arrangements were collected using lifestyle questionnaires. Children's eating behaviours were measured using the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ). Multiple linear regression, adjusted for potential confounders, assessed associations between maternal SES, screen time and children's eating behaviours. One-way ANOVA, independent sample t-tests and Spearman's correlation examined childcare exposure and children's eating behaviour. RESULTS: Mothers in the lowest SES group had higher BMI and were younger than those in the highest SES group (p = < 0.001, p = 0.03 respectively). In adjusted analysis, the lowest SES group was associated with a 0.463-point higher mean score for 'Desire to Drink' (95% CI = 0.054,0.870, p = 0.027) and higher 'Slowness to Eat' (B = 0.388, 95% CI = 0.044,0.733, p = 0.027) when compared with the highest SES group. Screen time (hours) was associated with higher 'Food Fussiness' (B = 0.032, 95% CI = 0.014,0.051, p = 0.001). Those who attended childcare had higher scores for 'Desire to Drink'(p = 0.046). No relationship was observed between longer duration (years) spent in childcare and eating behaviours. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, the ecological factors examined had an influence on children's eating behaviours aged 5-years-old. Our results illustrate the complexity of the relationship between the child's environment, eating behaviour and children's body composition. Being aware of the ecological factors that impact the development of eating behaviours, in the pre-school years is vital to promote optimal childhood appetitive traits, thus reducing the risk of issues with excess adiposity long-term.


Subject(s)
Pediatric Obesity , Body Mass Index , Child , Child Behavior , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Nutrients ; 14(11)2022 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684080

ABSTRACT

Early nutrition plays a crucial role not only in providing essential nutrients for proper child development, but may also be an important step in creating desirable eating behaviors, which can be transmitted into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess possible links between early feeding factors, such as breastfeeding, complementary feeding (timing and method) as well as types of complementary foods and mealtime environment during the first three months of complementary feeding and eating behaviors in children aged 1-3 years old. This cross-sectional, online survey involved 467 mothers of toddlers aged 1-3 years old from the whole of Poland. The questionnaire consisted of questions about early feeding and the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). The adjusted linear regression model revealed that longer duration of any breastfeeding was negatively related to enjoyment of food (EF), desire to drink (DD) and positively related to satiety responsiveness (SR) and slowness in eating (SE) subscales. Moreover, offering homemade complementary foods more often than commercial may be related to higher SR. Eating meals during distraction seems to be negatively associated with EF, and positively with DD and SE subscales. Our study highlights possible links between early feeding factors and toddlers' eating behaviors, so further investigation, also including dietary factors, is needed.


Subject(s)
Feeding Behavior , Meals , Adult , Child , Child Behavior , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eating , Female , Humans , Infant , Mothers , Satiation , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 7147740, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35707378

ABSTRACT

Acquaintance with the behavior of children in dental office setting is highly important in treatment success. People with different blood groups often have different behaviors. Thus, the blood group may aid in prediction of behavior of pediatric dental patients. This study is aimed at assessing the relationship of the blood group with level of cooperation of pediatric dental patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 130 children between 4 and 6 years of age. The blood group of children was recorded according to their identification card or by collecting an intraoral blood sample during pulpotomy and using the respective kit. To assess the level of cooperation of children, their behavior was videotaped during the procedure, and the videos were assessed by two pedodontists. The behavior of children was scored according to the Venham scale. Data were analyzed by SPSS 26 and Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, and Mann-Whitney U test. The blood group was A in 35.7%, B in 5.8%, AB in 3.2%, and O in 53.5%. Children with blood group O had maximum cooperation (52.6) while those with blood group B had minimum cooperation. Pairwise comparisons of the groups regarding the Venham scale revealed significant differences between blood groups A and B (P = 0.0001) and also B and O (P = 0.005). Pairwise comparisons of the groups regarding the level of cooperation also revealed significant differences between blood groups A and B (P = 0.0001) and B and O (P = 0.019). Blood group B may be correlated with certain behavioral traits such as dental fear and anxiety and the resultant poor cooperation.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , Child Behavior , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dental Anxiety , Humans , Treatment Outcome
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1064, 2022 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The specific 'active ingredients' through which neighborhood disadvantage increases risk for child psychopathology remains unclear, in large part because research to date has nearly always focused on poverty to the exclusion of other neighborhood domains. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether currently assessed neighborhood built, social, or toxicant conditions were associated with child externalizing psychopathology outcomes separately, and in a combined model, using data from the Detroit-metro county area. METHODS: We conducted principal components analyses for built, social, or toxicant conditions. Next, we fitted separate multiple regression models for each of the child externalizing psychopathology measures (oppositional defiant and conduct problems) as a function of built, social, or toxicant components. RESULTS: We found that built features (more non-profits, churches, and alcohol outlets, and less agriculture and vacant properties) were associated with conduct problems, while toxicant conditions (high percent industrial, toxins released and number of pre-1978 structures) were associated with oppositional defiance problems. There was no significant association between greenspace or social conditions and child externalizing outcomes. When examined simultaneously, only the significant independent association between built conditions and conduct problems remained. CONCLUSIONS: Built, social, and toxicant neighborhood conditions are not interchangeable aspects of a given neighborhood. What's more, built features are uniquely associated with child externalizing outcomes independently of other neighborhood characteristics. Future research should consider how changes in the built conditions of the neighborhood (e.g., development, decay) serve to shape child externalizing behaviors, with a focus on identifying potentially actionable elements.


Subject(s)
Exposome , Problem Behavior , Child , Child Behavior , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Residence Characteristics
5.
Brain Inj ; 36(6): 750-758, 2022 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35622928

ABSTRACT

AIM: The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) includes several sleep items. We aimed to examine the convergent validity of CBCL sleep scores with validated sleep measures, and to explore their functional correlates. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 44 children with moderate to severe TBI, aged 6-15 years. Parents completed the CBCL and Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC), and children wore actigraphy watches. RESULTS: We found significant, albeit differential, associations between CBCL and SDSC sleep scores. Specifically: (i) "trouble sleeping" with SDSC total score, (ii) "trouble sleeping" and "nightmares" with SDSC initiating and maintaining sleep, (iii) "talks/walks in sleep" with SDSC arousal, and (iv) "overtired," "sleeps more" and CBCL sleep composite with SDSC excessive somnolence. The CBCL item "sleeps less" was the only significant predictor of functioning; children who slept less had lower social competence. No associations were found between CBCL sleep scores and actigraphy. CONCLUSIONS: The CBCL does not provide a comprehensive assessment of sleep disturbances in children with moderate to severe TBI. Nevertheless, certain CBCL sleep items demonstrate initial convergent validity with subscales of the SDSC assessing select types of sleep disturbances. The CBCL may be useful in research and clinical situations when administration of more comprehensive assessment sleep tools is not viable.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Sleep Wake Disorders , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/complications , Checklist , Child , Child Behavior , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Sleep , Sleep Wake Disorders/diagnosis , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
J Sch Psychol ; 92: 360-375, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35618381

ABSTRACT

The Measurement Model of Derivatives (MMOD; Estabrook, 2015) provides the opportunity to evaluate and refine measurement scales used in longitudinal studies to clarify their theoretical distinctions and relationship to academic achievement. We demonstrate this using three teacher-rated scales of child self-regulatory behavior obtained from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Class of 2010-11 (ECLS-K:2011; Tourangeau et al., 2019). Data-driven factor structures were generated using a training sample (N = 2821), then compared using the MMOD to the theoretical measurement structure on a holdout sample (N = 2822). Finally, to externally validate their utility, the best-fitting data-driven measurement structure was compared to the theoretical structure in their ability to predict academic achievement on a validation sample (N = 5643). We discuss theoretical implications for self-regulation, as well as the MMODs applicability to other educational data sets.


Subject(s)
Academic Success , Schools , Child , Child Behavior , Child, Preschool , Educational Status , Humans , Longitudinal Studies
7.
Nutrients ; 14(9)2022 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565663

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have supported the link between children's self-regulation (CSR) and weight status, but the potential pathways have not been elucidated yet. We aimed to investigate whether and to what extent health behaviors mediate this association, as well as to explore the sex effect. For this study, we recruited 3740 preschoolers in Wuhan, China. The height and weight of children were measured, and a body mass index of the ≥85th percentile was defined as overweight/obesity (OWO). We used the Children's Behavior Questionnaire, with measured domains including inhibitory control, impulsivity, anger, and attentional focusing, to assess CSR. The primary caregivers' SR (PSR) was assessed with the Self-Control Scale. Information on lifestyles collected from questionnaires was utilized to construct the health behavior index (HBI). We found that Children's HBI was associated with both CSR and PSR, inhibitory control (OR = 0.81, p < 0.001), anger (OR = 1.23, p < 0.001), attentional focusing (OR = 0.70, p < 0.001), impulsivity (OR = 1.23, p < 0.001), and PSR (OR = 0.73, p < 0.001). Children's impulsivity was associated with their OWO (OR = 1.11, p = 0.013) which was partly mediated by the HBI (direct effect: ß = 0.092, p = 0.026; indirect effect: ß = 0.011, p = 0.007). The sex-specific analysis indicated that this mediation effect was only significant in boys. These results indicated that impulsivity is associated with childhood weight status, which is partially mediated by health behaviors, especially in boys.


Subject(s)
Child Behavior , Self-Control , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Child , Child, Preschool , Feeding Behavior , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Obesity , Overweight , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Nutrients ; 14(9)2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Parental non-responsive feeding practices and child eating behaviors both play significant roles in childhood obesity. However, their longitudinal relationships are less clear. This systematic review aimed to examine their bidirectional associations. METHODS: A systematic search of five databases was conducted from inception to February 2022. Data synthesis was performed using a semi-quantitative and quantitative approach. RESULTS: A total of 14 studies with 15348 respondents were included. A total of 94 longitudinal effects from 14 studies of parental non-responsive feeding practices on child eating behaviors were investigated, and 19 statistically significant effects were discovered. Seventy-seven longitudinal effects from nine studies of child eating behaviors on parental feeding practices were examined, with fifteen being statistically significant. The pooled results of meta-analysis showed five statistically significant associations: parental restrictive feeding positively predicted child enjoyment of food (ß = 0.044; 95% CI: 0.004, 0.085); use of food as a reward positively predicted child emotional eating (ß = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.15); child food responsiveness positively predicted restrictive feeding (ß = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.06); use food as a reward (ß = 0.06; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.10). In addition, the pooled effects showed that child satiety responsiveness negatively predicted restrictive feeding (ß = -0.05; 95% CI: -0.08, -0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The bidirectional relationships between parental non-responsive feeding practices and child eating behaviors are inconsistent and a few showed statistical significance. Theory-driven longitudinal studies using validated instruments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to unveil their relationships and provide evidence for obesity prevention interventions.


Subject(s)
Parenting , Pediatric Obesity , Child , Child Behavior/psychology , Eating/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Parenting/psychology , Parents/psychology , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Pediatric Obesity/psychology , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Nutrients ; 14(9)2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565865

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study of 2231 Japanese adults described food choice values and food literacy in relation to sex, age, and body mass index. We assessed eight food choice values (accessibility, convenience, health/weight control, tradition, sensory appeal, organic, comfort, and safety, using a 25-item scale), as well as food literacy, which was characterized by nutrition knowledge (using a validated 143-item questionnaire), cooking and food skills (using 14- and 19-item scales, respectively), and eight eating behaviors (hunger, food responsiveness, emotional overeating, enjoyment of food, satiety responsiveness, emotional undereating, food fussiness, and slowness in eating, using the 35-item Adult Eating Behavior Questionnaire). Females had higher means of all the variables than males, except for food fussiness. Compared to participants aged 19-39 and/or 40-59 years, those aged 60-80 years had low means of some food choice values (accessibility, convenience, sensory appeal, and comfort), nutrition knowledge, and all the food approach behaviors (hunger, food responsiveness, emotional overeating, and enjoyment of food) and high means of other food choice values (tradition, organic, and safety) and slowness in eating. Age was inversely associated with cooking and food skills in males, whereas the opposite was observed in females. The associations with body mass index were generally weak. These findings serve as both a reference and an indication for future research.


Subject(s)
Child Behavior , Literacy , Adult , Body Mass Index , Child , Child Behavior/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Humans , Hyperphagia , Japan , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
J Dev Behav Pediatr ; 43(5): e288-e295, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35583945

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of child behavior, academic and sleep concerns, and parent stress and depression symptoms during COVID-19; to test associations of parent-child well-being with child school format; and to examine effect moderation by child race/ethnicity and material hardship. METHODS: A total of 305 English-speaking parents of elementary school-age children completed online surveys regarding demographics, child school format, behavior, learning-related experiences, sleep, and parent stress and depression symptoms. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses examined associations of school format with child and parent outcomes. RESULTS: Children were aged 5.00 to 10.99 years, with 27.8% underrepresented minority race/ethnicity. Per parental report, 27.7% attended school in-person, 12.8% hybrid, and 59.5% remote. In multivariable models, compared with children receiving in-person instruction, children receiving remote instruction exhibited more hyperactivity (ß 0.94 [95% confidence interval, 0.18-1.70]), peer problems (ß 0.71 [0.17-1.25]), and total behavioral difficulties (ß 2.82 [1.11-4.53]); were less likely to show academic motivation (odds ratio [OR] 0.47 [0.26-0.85]) and social engagement (OR 0.13 [0.06-0.25]); were more likely to show schoolwork defiance (OR 2.91 [1.56-5.40]); and had a later sleep midpoint (ß 0.37 [0.18-0.56]) and higher odds of cosleeping (OR 1.89 [1.06-3.37]). Associations of remote learning with behavior difficulties were stronger for children without material hardships. CONCLUSION: Children receiving remote and hybrid instruction were reported to have more difficulties compared with children receiving in-person instruction. Children with material hardships showed more behavior challenges overall but less associated with school format. Therefore, planning for a return to in-person learning should also include consideration of family supports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Behavior , Educational Status , Humans , Parents , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Physiol Behav ; 252: 113837, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35513084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, many mothers and fathers have spent more time at home with their children, warranting consideration of parenting practices around food during the pandemic as influences on obesogenic eating behaviors among children. Structure-related feeding practices, particularly around snacking, may be particularly challenging yet influential in the pandemic setting. Parent sex and levels of feeding-related co-operation among parents (co-feeding) are understudied potential influences on parent-child feeding relationships. METHODS: We investigated relationships between structure-related parent feeding and child food approach behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic, while considering potential moderating influences of parent sex and co-feeding levels. An online survey was completed by 318 parents (206 mothers and 112 fathers) of 2-12-year-olds who were living in states with statewide or regional lockdowns in May/June 2020 within the US. Mothers and fathers were drawn from different families, with each survey corresponding to a unique parent-child dyad. Parental stress/mental health, co-feeding (Feeding Coparenting Scale), structure-related food and snack parenting (Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire and Parenting around SNAcking Questionnaire), and child eating behaviors (Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire) were assessed. Relationships of parents' structure-related food and snack parenting practices with their child's emotional overeating and food responsiveness behaviors were examined using structural equation modelling. Further, we investigated whether these relations were moderated by parent sex or level of co-feeding. RESULTS: Parent sex differences were seen in parental stress, mental health, and co-feeding, but not in structure-related food and snack parenting or child food approach eating behaviors. Structure-related food parenting was negatively associated with emotional overeating. However, structure-related snack parenting was positively associated with emotional overeating and food responsiveness. While regression paths varied between mothers vs. fathers, as well as by co-feeding levels, neither parent sex nor co-feeding levels significantly moderated relationships between parent feeding and child eating variables. CONCLUSIONS: Future studies of food and snack parenting and co-operation in relation to feeding among mothers and fathers within a familial unit may be critical to identify intervention strategies that draw on all family resources to better navigate future disruptive events such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mothers , Child , Child Behavior , Choice Behavior , Communicable Disease Control , Fathers/psychology , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Hyperphagia , Male , Mothers/psychology , Pandemics , Parent-Child Relations , Parenting/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Child Abuse Negl ; 129: 105667, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35567957

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 related distress has been shown to have negative associations with family well-being. OBJECTIVES: To determine the immediate impact of acute COVID-19 infection on maternal well-being and parenting practices among Brazilian families. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: We studied 2'579 mothers (29'913 observations) of young children from vulnerable neighborhoods in Boa Vista, Brazil over 12 months. METHODS: We monitored family health and caregiving behavior including the incidence of COVID-19 infections in the surveyed households through bi-weekly phone interviews over 50 weeks, from June 2020 to May 2021. Primary outcomes were home-based child stimulation, positive parenting behavior, and parenting stress. We used fixed effects panel regressions to estimate the impact of household COVID-19 infections on parenting outcomes. RESULTS: Over the study period, 441 participants (17.1%; 831 (3.0%) observations) reported at least 1 positive COVID-19 infection in their household. Household COVID-19 infections significantly reduced home-based stimulation by 0.10 SDs (95%CI: -0.18, -0.01), positive parenting behaviors by 0.14 SDs (-0.21, -0.01), and increased parenting stress by 0.07 SDs (0.02, 0.12). The impact on home-based stimulation was most pronounced when the mother herself had a COVID-19 infection (-0.16; -0.29, -0.04). Parenting stress responded most strongly to mother or child COVID-19 infections. Effects were relatively short-lived, only children's infections' on parental stress was still detectable 2 weeks after initial infection. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that COVID-19 infections cause substantial disruptions in children's home environments - additional short-term support for families with acute infections could attenuate the negative impact on children's home environment during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Care , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Behavior , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Maternal Health , Mothers , Parenting
13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627538

ABSTRACT

Many women in detention are mothers and often the sole caregivers of their children. Italy, as most European countries, allows mothers to keep their children with them in detention, with the aim of preserving the fundamental bond between mother and child. Since prison does not seem to provide a good environment for the child's growth, there are different alternative residential solutions, such as Group Homes. The aim of this preliminary study was to explore the differences between mothers living in detention through alternative measures with their children and mothers who are not detained regarding parenting stress, child behavior from the parent's perspective, and maternal attachment. Twelve mothers were enrolled in this study, divided equally between the detained and the control groups. Both groups' participants completed a three-questionnaire battery in order to assess parenting stress, child's behavior, and maternal attachment. The analyses of variance showed significant differences between the two groups, with the detained group reporting higher scores than the control group in almost all the subscales of parenting stress. The results highlighted that imprisoned mothers might experience more stress than the general population. There is a need to design intervention programs to support parenting in detention.


Subject(s)
Parenting , Stress, Psychological , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child Behavior , Female , Humans , Mothers
14.
Open educational resource in Spanish | CVSP - Argentina | ID: oer-4053

ABSTRACT

Contenido del móudlo: Derechos humanos en niñeces y adolescencias. Cambio de paradigma: de la situación irregular a la promoción y protección integral. Principios rectores en materia de niñeces y adolescencias. Políticas públicas que garanticen la restitución de derechos. Violencias por razones de género: conceptualización


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child Behavior , Child Abuse , Violence , Gender-Based Violence , Gender Analysis in Health , Argentina , Gender Equity , Gender Mainstreaming , Public Nondiscrimination Policies
15.
Infant Behav Dev ; 67: 101717, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452976

ABSTRACT

In a longitudinal study, mothers (N = 50) self-reported on their depressive symptoms (DS) and their child's behavior during the first year and at 36 months postpartum. Maternal DS during infancy were associated with child conduct problems (CP), suggesting a long-term association between maternal mental health and the development of child behavior. Infant temperament was also associated with child behavior so that negative affect predicted child CP, while infant surgency was associated with later hyperactivity-inattention. This study contributes to the literature by jointly assessing the role of maternal DS and infant temperament and showing that these are independent predictors of childhood behavior.


Subject(s)
Depression , Temperament , Child Behavior/psychology , Child, Preschool , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant , Longitudinal Studies , Maternal Behavior/psychology , Mothers/psychology
16.
J Affect Disord ; 309: 259-265, 2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460738

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the utility of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to identify meaningful subtypes of emotional dysregulation in an outpatient pediatric psychiatry clinic. METHODS: The sample consisted of 417 newly referred youth 6-18 years of age. Parents completed the CBCL and rating scales measuring executive function deficits, social functioning, and quality of life. Patients were stratified into subtypes of emotional dysregulation and compared on clinical correlates based on the A-A-A profile consisting of the CBCL Anxious/Depressed, Aggressive Behavior, and Attention Problems (A-A-A) scales. RESULTS: 67% of youth had emotional dysregulation (CBCL A-A-A T-score ≥ 180) and of these, 39% had a positive CBCL-Bipolar (BP) profile (A-A-A T-score ≥ 210), 24% had depression without the BP profile (CBCL Anxious/Depressed and/or Withdrawn/Depressed T-scores ≥70 and A-A-A T-score ≥ 180 and ã€ˆ210), and 37% had emotional impulsivity (A-A-A T-score ≥ 180 and <210) with normal CBCL Anxious/Depressed and Withdrawn/Depressed T-scores. Patients with the CBCL-BP profile were significantly more impaired on all measures of social and executive functioning compared to the other two groups. LIMITATIONS: Since our findings relied on the CBCL, other instruments may have led to different results. Because we included youth from a single clinic, largely Caucasian and referred, our findings may not generalize to other ethnic groups or settings. CONCLUSIONS: The CBCL can aid in the identification of subtypes of emotional dysregulation affecting youth seeking mental health services.


Subject(s)
Checklist , Child Behavior Disorders , Adolescent , Child , Child Behavior/psychology , Humans , Personality Tests , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Quality of Life
17.
Dev Psychobiol ; 64(4): e22263, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35452548

ABSTRACT

This study examined links between aspects of parenting behavior and children's cortisol and whether those links varied by child behavioral problems and ethnicity. Participants included children ages 9-15 (N = 159, 75% Latinx) and their primary caregivers from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A.FANS; Wave 2). Children provided saliva upon waking, 30 min after waking, and at bedtime which was analyzed for cortisol. Analyses revealed associations between parenting behavior and cortisol were greater among children who had behavioral problems and these associations were stronger among non-Latinx White children compared to Latinx children. This study moves beyond the current literature by investigating these important associations in a predominately Latinx urban sample of children.


Subject(s)
Hydrocortisone , Parenting , Adolescent , Child , Child Behavior , Humans , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Los Angeles , Residence Characteristics , Saliva/chemistry
18.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 220: 105426, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378325

ABSTRACT

Third-party punishment promotes cooperation by deterring opportunistic behaviors. Even children are willing to pay a cost to implement third-party punishment of unfair behavior. Whether in judicial practice or in daily third-party punishment, people take recipients' feelings into account out of restorative motives. Restorative motives pay attention to both the offenders and the victims and are committed to best repairing harm. This work examined whether children adopt restorative motives by considering recipients' responses when punishing unfair dividers. Participants (N = 128) were 6-, 8-, and 10-year-old Chinese children. Children were shown allocations proposed among a divider and a recipient with response (positive vs. negative) or without response and were asked to accept or pay a cost to reject the allocation. Two experiments indicated that costly third-party punishment increased with age. Furthermore, children took recipients' responses into consideration, with negative responses prompting children to punish more. These findings show that children adopted a restorative view when implementing costly third-party punishment.


Subject(s)
Child Behavior , Punishment , Child , Cooperative Behavior , Emotions , Humans , Motivation
19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457342

ABSTRACT

Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) is a best-practice treatment for behavior problems in young children. In PCIT, therapists coach parents during in-vivo interactions to strengthen the parent-child relationship and teach parents effective ways of managing difficult child behaviors. Past research has found that different therapist coaching styles may be associated with faster skill acquisition and improved parent engagement. However, most research examining therapist behaviors has been conducted with English-speaking families, and there is limited research examining therapist behaviors when working with Spanish-speaking clients. In this study, English- and Spanish-speaking therapists' coaching behaviors (e.g., directive versus responsive) were examined, as well as their association with client outcomes, including speed of parental skill acquisition and treatment completion. Results suggested that coaching styles varied significantly between sessions conducted in Spanish versus English. In Spanish sessions, therapists had more total verbalizations than in English sessions and demonstrated higher rates of both total directive and responsive coaching. Responsive coaching was found to predict treatment completion across groups, while directive coaching was not. Directive and responsive coaching were not found to predict the rate of parental skill acquisition. Implications regarding the training of therapists and emphasizing cultural considerations are discussed.


Subject(s)
Mentoring , Problem Behavior , Child , Child Behavior , Child, Preschool , Humans , Parent-Child Relations
20.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 863, 2022 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35488325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the first years of their lives, children develop the cognitive, social and emotional skills that will provide the foundations for their lifelong health and achievements. To increase their life prospects and reduce the long-term effects of early aversive conditions, it is therefore crucial to understand the risk factors that negatively affect child development and the factors that are instead beneficial. In this study, we tested (i) the effects of different social and environmental stressors on maternal stress levels, (ii) the dynamic relationship between maternal stress and child behavior problems during development, and (iii) the potential promotive (i.e. main) or protective (i.e. buffering) effect of siblings on child behavior problems during development. METHODS: We used longitudinal data from 373 mother-child pairs (188 daughters, 185 sons) from pregnancy until 10 years of age. We assessed maternal stress and child behavior problems (internalizing and externalizing) with validated questionnaires, and then used linear mixed models, generalized linear mixed models and longitudinal cross-lagged models to analyze the data. RESULTS: Our results showed that higher maternal stress levels were predicted by socio-environmental stressors (i.e. the lack of sufficient social areas in the neighborhood). Moreover, prenatal maternal stress reliably predicted the occurrence of behavior problems during childhood. Finally, the presence of older siblings had a promotive function, by reducing the likelihood that children developed externalizing problems. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results confirm the negative effects that maternal stress during pregnancy may have on the offspring, and suggest an important main effect of older siblings in promoting a positive child development.


Subject(s)
Child Behavior Disorders , Problem Behavior , Child , Child Behavior , Child Behavior Disorders/psychology , Female , Humans , Mothers/psychology , Pregnancy , Problem Behavior/psychology , Siblings
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