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1.
Cogn Sci ; 46(6): e13146, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665531

ABSTRACT

Gender associations have been a long-standing research topic in psychological and social sciences. Although it is known that children learn aspects of gender associations at a young age, it is not well understood how they might emerge through the course of development. We investigate whether gender associations, such as the association of dresses with women and bulldozers with men, are reflected in the linguistic communication of young children from ages 1-5. Drawing on recent methods from machine learning, we use word embeddings derived from large text corpora including news articles and web pages as a proxy for gender associations in society, and we compare those with the gender associations of words uttered by caretakers and children in children's linguistic environment. We quantify gender associations in childhood language through gender probability, which measures the extent to which word usage frequencies in speech to and by girls and boys are gender-skewed. By analyzing 4,875 natural conversations between children and their caretakers in North America, we find that frequency patterns in word usage of both caretakers and children correlate strongly with the gender associations captured in word embeddings through the course of development. We discover that these correlations diminish from the 1970s to the 1990s. Our work suggests that early linguistic communication and social changes may jointly contribute to the formation of gender associations in childhood.


Subject(s)
Language Development , Language , Child , Child Language , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Linguistics , Male , Speech
2.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(6): 2288-2308, 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35658517

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Measuring the growth of young children's vocabulary is important for researchers seeking to understand language learning as well as for clinicians aiming to identify early deficits. The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs) are parent report instruments that offer a reliable and valid method for measuring early productive and receptive vocabulary across a number of languages. CDI forms typically include hundreds of words, however, and so the burden of completion is significant. We address this limitation by building on previous work using item response theory (IRT) models to create computer adaptive test (CAT) versions of the CDIs. We created CDI-CATs for both comprehension and production vocabulary, for both American English and Mexican Spanish. METHOD: Using a data set of 7,633 English-speaking children ages 12-36 months and 1,692 Spanish-speaking children ages 12-30 months, across three CDI forms (Words & Gestures, Words & Sentences, and CDI-III), we found that a 2-parameter logistic IRT model fits well for a majority of the 680 pooled vocabulary items. We conducted CAT simulations on this data set, assessing simulated tests of varying length (25-400 items). RESULTS: Even very short CATs recovered participant abilities very well with little bias across ages. An empirical validation study with N = 204 children ages 15-36 months showed a correlation of r = .92 between language ability estimated from full CDI versus CDI-CAT forms. CONCLUSION: We provide our item bank along with fitted parameters and other details, offer recommendations for how to construct CDI-CATs in new languages, and suggest when this type of assessment may or may not be appropriate.


Subject(s)
Child Language , Language Development , Language Tests , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Internet , Language , Vocabulary
3.
J Psycholinguist Res ; 51(3): 655-677, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35596049

ABSTRACT

In this study, evaluative language in narratives of 15 healthy and 15 schizophrenic females was compared using the Structure of Evaluative Components. The two groups were matched for chronological age and socioeconomic status. A movie named "The Pear Film" ( http://chafe.faculty.linguistics.ucsb.edu/pearfilm.htm ) was used to elicit the narratives. The Goal evaluative component in the schizophrenic population and the Ownership in healthy individuals were used more than other components within the narratives of each respective group. Significant differences (Mann-Whitney and t-test) between the two groups in using evaluative components were determined using statistical analysis. In general, patients used less evaluative components in their narratives compared to healthy participants and as per specific components, healthy subjects utilized five evaluative components more than patients, which was found to be a significant difference; Goal, Assumption, Ownership, Metaphor, and Causality were those five components. These findings confirm that the ability to use evaluative language in schizophrenia is reduced.


Subject(s)
Narration , Schizophrenia , Child , Child Language , Female , Humans , Language , Metaphor
4.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 221: 105427, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523079

ABSTRACT

Science achievement gaps are a persistent social issue and are largely explained by individual differences in science knowledge before formal schooling. We were interested in whether children's science vocabulary relates to these differences in science knowledge. This experiment examined whether children's science vocabulary predicted their science knowledge above and beyond general vocabulary size and demographic variables. Children aged 3 to 11 years (N = 91; 59 boys) participated in-person at a laboratory within a large university in a mid-size city in the midwestern United States. The tasks that the children completed assessed general receptive vocabulary, science productive vocabulary, general science knowledge, and conceptions of science as a practice. We found that science vocabulary was the strongest predictor of science knowledge above and beyond other factors, indicating that science vocabulary production may predict individual differences in science knowledge specifically when achievement gaps emerge (ß = .28). In addition, children who produced more of certain types of science words, such as size and physical property words, depicted more science equipment and language elements in their drawings of scientists. These findings suggest that learning new words may be related to conceptual development in science and that examining early science vocabulary is a key step toward fully understanding science knowledge gaps.


Subject(s)
Individuality , Vocabulary , Child , Child Language , Humans , Language , Language Development , Male
5.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 221: 105449, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550281

ABSTRACT

Children's early language knowledge-typically assessed using standardized word comprehension tests or through parental reports-has been positively linked to a variety of later outcomes, from reasoning tests to academic performance to income and health. To better understand the mechanisms behind these links, we examined whether knowledge of certain "seed words"-words with high inductive potential-is positively associated with inductive reasoning. This hypothesis stems from prior work on the effects of language on categorization suggesting that certain words may be important for helping people to deploy categorical hypotheses. Using a longitudinal design, we assessed 36 2- to 4-year-old children's knowledge of 333 words of varying levels of generality (e.g., toy vs. pinwheel, number vs. five). We predicted that adjusting for overall vocabulary, knowledge of more general words (e.g., toy, number) would predict children's performance on inductive reasoning tasks administered 6 months later (i.e., a subset of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales for Early Childhood-Fifth Edition [SB-5] and Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities [WJ] concept formation tasks). This prediction was confirmed for one of the measures of inductive reasoning (i.e., the SB-5 but not the WJ) and notably for the task considered to be less reliant on language. Although our experimental design demonstrates only a correlational relationship between seed word knowledge and inductive reasoning ability, our results are consistent with the possibility that early knowledge of certain seed words facilitates performance on putatively nonverbal reasoning tasks.


Subject(s)
Child Language , Vocabulary , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Language , Language Development , Language Tests
6.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 221: 105443, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35623309

ABSTRACT

We investigated lexical retrieval processes in 4- to 6-year-old German-English bilinguals by exploring cross-language activation during second-language (L2) word recognition of cognates and noncognates in semantically related and unrelated contexts in young learners of English. Both button presses (reaction times and accuracies) and eye-tracking data (percentage looks to target) yielded a significant cognate facilitation effect, indicating that the children's performance was boosted by cognate words. Nonetheless, the degree of phonological overlap of cognates did not modulate their performance. Moreover, a semantic interference effect was found in the children's eye movement data. However, in these young L2 learners, cognate status exerted a comparatively stronger impact on L2 word recognition than semantic relatedness. Finally, correlational analyses on the cognate and noncognate performance and the children's executive function yielded a significant positive correlation between noncognate performance and their inhibitory control, suggesting that noncognate processing depended to a greater extent on inhibitory control than cognate processing.


Subject(s)
Language , Multilingualism , Child , Child Language , Child, Preschool , Executive Function , Humans , Semantics
7.
Dev Psychol ; 58(6): 1051-1065, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35446071

ABSTRACT

Children learn what words mean from hearing words used across a variety of contexts. Understanding how different contextual distributions relate to the words young children say is critical because context robustly affects basic learning and memory processes. This study examined children's everyday experiences using naturalistic video recordings to examine two contextual factors-where words are spoken and who speaks the words-through analyzing the nouns in language input and children's own language productions. The families in the study (n = 8) were two-parent, dual-income, middle-class families with a child between 1 year, 3 months to 4 years, 4 months (age M = 3 years, 5 months) and at least one additional sibling. The families were filmed as they interacted in their homes and communities over 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days. From these videos, we identified when the focal child was exposed to language input and randomly selected 9 hr of contiguous speech segments per family to obtain 6,129 noun types and 30,257 noun tokens in language input and 1,072 noun types and 5,360 noun tokens in children's speech. We examined whether the words that children heard in more variable spatial and speaker contexts were produced with greater frequency by children. The results suggest that both the number of places and the number of speakers that characterized a child's exposure to a noun were positively associated with the child's production of that noun, independent of how frequently the word was spoken. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Language Development , Language , Child , Child Language , Child, Preschool , Humans , Parents , Speech
8.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(5): 1956-1977, 2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442754

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Children with typical development vary in how much experience they need to learn words. This could be due to differences in the amount of information encoded during periods of input, consolidated between periods of input, or both. Our primary purpose is to identify whether encoding, consolidation, or both, drive individual differences in the slow-mapping process. METHOD: Four- to 6-year-old children (N = 43) were trained on nine form-referent pairs across consecutive days. Children's ability to name referents was assessed at the beginning and end of each session. Word learning was assessed 1 month after training to determine long-term retention. RESULTS: Children with varying language knowledge and skills differed in their ability to encode words. Specifically, children varied in the number of words learned and the phonological precision of word forms at the end of the initial training session. Children demonstrated similarities in re-encoding in that they refined representations at a similar rate during subsequent sessions. Children did not differ in their ability to consolidate words between sessions, or in their ability to retain words over the 1-month delay. CONCLUSIONS: The amount of experience children need to learn words is primarily driven by the amount of information encoded during the initial experience. When provided with high-quality instruction, children demonstrate a similar ability to consolidate and retain words. Critically, word learning instruction in educational settings must include repeated explicit instruction with the same words to support learning in children with typical development and varying language skills. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.19606150.


Subject(s)
Language Development Disorders , Verbal Learning , Child , Child Language , Child, Preschool , Humans , Language Tests , Linguistics , Vocabulary
9.
Av. psicol. latinoam ; 40(1): 1-16, ene.-abr. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1367248

ABSTRACT

Existe pouco consenso sobre o que constitui um bom reconto de uma história e como avaliar essa importante habilidade linguística. Este estudo revisou artigos publi-cados entre 2010 e 2018 que avaliaram narrativas orais de histórias por crianças, a fim de mapear e sistematizar as medidas qualitativas e quantitativas empregadas. Ini-cialmente os estudos analisados foram classificados de acordo com o uso de uma de quatro metodologias amplas: avaliações padronizadas, gramática narrativa, unidades-C e protocolos de pontuação de narrativa. No entanto, um exame mais detalhado mostrou que essa classificação geral obscureceu o fato de que as medidas específicas podiam não ser equivalentes entre estudos. Para melhorar esse esquema conceitual, as medidas específicas foram organizadas em novas categorias, baseadas em dimensões diferentes do desempenho da narrativa oral de histórias, como fluência, coesão e inclusão de elementos psicológicos. A aplicação desse novo esquema classificatório aos estudos publicados entre 2010 e 2018 revelou que as medidas específicas da qualidade narrativa variam ampla e ortogonalmente aos métodos mais gerais empregados, o que explica parte da confusão conceitual e metodológica presente na literatura sobre avaliação de habilidades narrativas orais. Espera-se que esse novo esquema de classificação possa ajudar a dissipar parte dessa confusão e melhorar a comparabilidade e a replicabilidade dos estudos


Hay poco consenso sobre lo que constituye un buen recuento de una historia y cómo evaluar esta importante habilidad lingüística. El presente estudio revisó artículos publicados entre 2010 y 2018 que evaluaron narrativas orales de historias contadas por niños para mapear y sistematizar las medidas cualitativas y cuantitativas empleadas. Inicialmente, los estudios analizados se clasificaron de acuerdo con el uso de una de cuatro metodologías amplias: evaluaciones estandarizadas, gramática narrativa, unidades-C y protocolos de puntuación narrativa. Sin embargo, un examen más detallado mostró que esta clasificación general ocultaba el hecho de que las medidas específicas podrían no ser equivalentes entre los estudios. Para mejorar este esquema conceptual, las medidas específicas fueron organizadas en nuevas categorías, basadas en diferentes dimensiones del desempeño de la narrativa oral de historias como la fluidez, la cohesión y la inclusión de elementos psicológicos. La aplicación de este nuevo esquema de clasificación a los estudios publicados entre 2010 y 2018 reveló que las medidas específicas de calidad narrativa varían amplia y ortogonalmente a los métodos más generales empleados, lo que explica parte de la confusión conceptual y metodológica presente en la literatura sobre la evaluación de las habilidades narrativas orales. Se espera que este nuevo esquema de clasificación pueda ayudar a disipar parte de esta confusión y a mejorar la comparabilidad y la replicabilidad de los estudios


There has been little consensus on what constitutes a good retelling of a story and how to assess this essential language skill. This study reviewed studies between 2010 and 2018 that assessed children ́s retellings of stories to map and systematize the qualitative and quan-titative measures employed. Initially, studies were clas-sified according to the use of one of four broad method-ologies: standardized assessments, narrative grammar, C-Units, and narrative scoring protocols. However, closer examination showed that this general classifica-tion obscured the fact that the specific measures might not be equivalent between one study and another. To improve this conceptual scheme, the specific measures were organized into new categories, based on different dimensions of retelling performance, such as fluency, cohesion, and inclusion of psychological elements. The application of this new classificatory scheme to studies between 2010 and 2018 revealed that the specific measures of narrative quality vary broadly and orthog-onally to the more general methods employed, which explains part of the conceptual and methodological confusion present in the literature on assessment of narrative oral skills. It is hoped this new classification scheme can help to dispel some of this confusion and improve comparability and replicability


Subject(s)
Humans , Child Language , Child , Narration
10.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(5): 1939-1955, 2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394820

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Language sample analysis (LSA) represents an ecologically valid method for diagnosing, identifying goals, and measuring progress in children with developmental language disorder (DLD). LSA is, however, time consuming. The purpose of this study was to determine the length of sample needed to obtain reliable LSA measures for children in kindergarten and first grade with typical language (TL) and DLD using automated analyses from the Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts software. METHOD: Play-based conversational language samples collected on kindergarten to first-grade children with TL (n = 21) and DLD (n = 21) from a community-based sample were analyzed. Eight LSA measures were calculated from 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, and 10-min sample cuts and compared to 20-min samples for reliability. RESULTS: Reliability estimates were similar for the TL and DLD groups except for errors and omissions, which showed overall higher levels of reliability in the DLD group and reached acceptable levels at 3 min. Percent grammatical utterances were reliable at 7 min in the DLD group and not reliable in shorter samples in the TL group. The subordination index was reliable at 10 min for both groups. Number of different words reached acceptable reliability at the 3-min length for the DLD group and at the 10-min length for the TL group. Utterances and words per minute were reliable at 3 min and mean length of utterance at 7 min in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Speech-language pathologists can obtain reliable LSA measures from shorter, 7-min conversational language samples from kindergarten to first-grade children with DLD. Shorter language samples may encourage increased use of LSA. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.19529287.


Subject(s)
Child Language , Language Development Disorders , Child , Humans , Language , Language Development Disorders/diagnosis , Language Tests , Reproducibility of Results
11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409506

ABSTRACT

The literature on the role of gestures in children with language delay (LD) is partial and controversial. The present study explores gestural production and modality of expression in children with LD and semantic and temporal relationships between gestures and words in gesture + word combinations. Thirty-three children participated (mean age, 26 months), who were recruited through a screening programme for LD. Cognitive skills, lexical abilities, and the use of spontaneous gestures in a naming task were evaluated when the children were 32 months old. When the children were 78 months old, their parents were interviewed to collect information about an eventual diagnosis of developmental language disorder (DLD). According to these data, the children fell into three groups: children with typical development (n = 13), children with LD who did not show DLD (transient LD; n = 9), and children with LD who showed DLD (n = 11). No significant differences emerged between the three groups for cognitive and lexical skills (comprehension and production), for number of gestures spontaneously produced, and for the sematic relationships between gestures and words. Differences emerged in the modality of expression, where children with transient LD produced more unimodal gestural utterances than typical-development children, and in the temporal relationships between gestures and words, where the children who would show DLD provided more frequent representational gestures before the spoken answer than typical-development children. We suggest a different function for gestures in children with T-LD, who used representational gestures to replace the spoken word they were not yet able to produce, and in children with LD-DLD, who used representational gestures to access spoken words.


Subject(s)
Gestures , Language Development Disorders , Child , Child Language , Child, Preschool , Humans , Language Development Disorders/diagnosis , Pilot Projects , Vocabulary
12.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(4): 1543-1560, 2022 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320679

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Sentence repetition (SR) is believed to be a clinical marker for developmental language disorder (DLD) across many languages. This study explored the potential of a self-designed Mandarin SR task (MSRT) to reflect Mandarin-speaking preschoolers' language ability and to differentiate children with and without DLD in this population. Furthermore, we aimed to compare five scoring systems for evaluating children's MSRT performance. METHOD: In Study 1, the MSRT was administered to 59 typically developing (TD) children aged 3;6 (years;months) to 6;5 in China. The task was examined regarding its ability to correlate with language indices derived from children's narrative samples. In Study 2, both a TD and a DLD group were recruited to investigate the task's sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios to distinguish between children with and without DLD. RESULTS: Study 1 showed that, using four of the five scoring methods, TD children's performance on the MSRT significantly correlated with all the language measures derived from narratives. Study 2 showed that the MSRT was able to differentiate children with and without DLD. CONCLUSION: The MSRT is a promising tool to reflect language abilities and identify DLD in Mandarin-speaking preschoolers. Based on the current evidence, we recommend that researchers and clinicians select the number of errors in the syllable method or the binary method when scoring responses to meet their specific needs. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.19386257.


Subject(s)
Language Development Disorders , Biomarkers , Child , Child Language , Humans , Language , Language Development Disorders/diagnosis , Language Tests
13.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 53(2): 542-560, 2022 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320680

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Learning new vocabulary has been identified as a challenge for students with (developmental) language disorder ((D)LD). In this study, we evaluate the effects of two active learning methods, (a) retrieval practice (RP) and (b) rich vocabulary instruction (RVI), in a group of students with (D)LD in secondary school. METHOD: A quasi-experimental counterbalanced within-subject design was used to compare and evaluate the effect of RP and RVI on learning Tier 2 vocabulary, with target and control words as dependent measures. Eleven students with (D)LD (M age = 14.9 years) attending a language unit participated. RP and RVI were implemented in regular classroom activities during 16 lessons (eight lessons/instructional condition). Learning was assessed by comparing performance on a pretest session 1-2 weeks prior, with posttest performance 1 week after each instructional condition. RESULTS: The learning gain for RP was superior to that for RVI, both with respect to the Bayesian probabilistic estimations for target words relative to control words and in direct comparison with RVI. Only weak evidence was found for RVI with respect to the Bayesian probabilistic estimations for target words relative to control words. CONCLUSIONS: All participants showed positive learning gains following RP, whereas the outcome for RVI was more diverse. This initial work suggests that RP promotes larger learning gains relative to RVI and promotes learning across language profiles. This study extends previous studies by exploring the implementation of RP in regular classroom activities and by using more complex to-be-learned material (Tier 2 words).


Subject(s)
Language Disorders , Vocabulary , Adolescent , Bayes Theorem , Child , Child Language , Humans , Language Tests
14.
Dev Psychol ; 58(3): 405-416, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35286106

ABSTRACT

Infants learn nouns during object-naming events-moments when caregivers name the object of infants' play (e.g., ball as infant holds a ball). Do caregivers also label the actions of infants' play (e.g., roll as infant rolls a ball)? We investigated connections between mothers' verb inputs and infants' actions. We video-recorded 32 infant-mother dyads for 2 hr at home (13 month olds, n = 16; 18 month olds, n = 16; girls, n = 16; White, n = 23; Asian, n = 2; Black, n = 1; other, n = 1; multiple races, n = 5; Hispanic/Latinx, n = 2). Dyads were predominantly from middle-class to upper middle-class households. We identified each manual verb (e.g., press, shake) and whole-body verb (e.g., kick, go) that mothers directed to infants. We coded whether infants displayed manual and/or whole-body actions during a 6-s window surrounding the verb (i.e., 3 s prior and 3 s after the named verb). Mothers' verbs and infant actions were largely congruent: Whole-body verbs co-occurred with whole-body actions, and manual verbs co-occurred with manual actions. Moreover, half of mothers' verbs corresponded precisely to infants' concurrent action (e.g., infant pressed button as mother said, "Press the button"). In most instances, mothers commented on rather than instigated infants' actions. Findings suggest that verb learning is embodied, such that infants' motor actions offer powerful cues to verb meanings. Furthermore, our approach highlights the value of cross-domain research integrating infants' developing motor and language skills to understand word learning. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Child Language , Mothers , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant Behavior , Language Development , Verbal Learning
15.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 53(2): 329-334, 2022 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344443

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This introduction presents the LSHSS Forum: Can You See My Screen? Virtual Assessment in Speech and Language. The goals of the forum are to document reliability and validity of assessment results conducted virtually, identify characteristics of measures that are suitable for online assessment, and provide clinical and research guidance for interpreting diagnostic results obtained in virtual settings. METHOD: In this introduction, we provide an overview of the research completed by nine teams, who submitted research articles and notes on a variety of topics pertinent to the theme of telehealth assessments. Of these, seven teams investigated the validity and reliability of 14 different assessment tools, while two teams described training and experience issues. CONCLUSION: The nine studies presented in this forum will provide speech-language pathologists with insight into a range of issues regarding telehealth assessment, including the breadth of suitable assessment tools; practical strategies for assessing children with a diverse range of ages, languages, skills, and abilities; and the unexpected challenges and opportunities of conducting clinical work and research during a global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Speech-Language Pathology , Speech , Child , Child Language , Humans , Language , Reproducibility of Results , Speech-Language Pathology/methods
16.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(4): 1370-1385, 2022 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35235374

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare word-initial and word-final consonant cluster productions in young children who speak African American English (AAE) and compare their productions to what we know about cluster productions in children who speak Mainstream American English (MAE), in order to minimize misdiagnosis of speech sound disorders. METHOD: Twenty-two children (ages 2;10-5;4 [years;months]) labeled pictures whose names contained at least one consonant cluster in word-initial and/or word-final position. Most two-element clusters of English were sampled, the majority in two or more words. The participants' responses were transcribed using a consensus transcription procedure. Each cluster attempt was analyzed for its similarity with MAE. RESULTS: Percentage matching scores were significantly higher for word-initial than word-final clusters. Word-final clusters produced as singletons were significantly more common than word-final cluster substitutions. However, word-initial cluster substitutions were significantly more common than word-initial clusters produced as singletons. Word-initial cluster mismatches were consistent with markedness theory and the sonority sequencing principle (SSP). By contrast, word-final cluster mismatches were not consistent with the SSP, while the voicing generalization seen in adult speakers of AAE was evident. CONCLUSION: Culturally and linguistically appropriate assessment of phonological development in children who speak AAE requires an understanding of the contrastive and noncontrastive features exemplified in their consonant cluster productions.


Subject(s)
African Americans , Speech Sound Disorder , Child , Child Language , Child, Preschool , Humans , Language , Phonetics , Speech Production Measurement , Speech Sound Disorder/diagnosis
17.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(4): 1294-1310, 2022 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35263167

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Very preterm (VPT) children are at risk for speech and language problems throughout school age. However, little is known about early speech sound production in these children. This study aims to present a detailed description of early speech sound production and its trajectories in VPT children from 2 to 4 years of age. In addition, this study aimed to determine if early speech sound production is associated with speech production and expressive language function at 4 years of age. METHOD: In 63 VPT children (< 32 weeks of gestation, 41 boys, mean gestational age = 28.8 weeks, mean birth weight = 1,135 g), speech sound production was assessed by naturalistic speech analysis at 2 years of corrected age and speech and language function by standardized tests at 4 years of age. RESULTS: Speech sound production was found to be abnormal in 49% of the VPT children at 2 years of age and in 19% at 4 years of age. Four different speech production trajectories from 2 to 4 years of age could be identified: a normal trajectory, an abnormal trajectory, a catch-up trajectory, and a growing-into-deficit trajectory. Early speech production, defined by the number of acquired consonants at 2 years of age, significantly predicted the word production score at 4 years of age and the sentence production score at 4 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the general population, an alarmingly high proportion of VPT children showed speech production problems at 2 years of age. About half of these children showed persistent speech problems at 4 years of age. Moreover, these problems were associated with expressive language problems at the age of 4 years. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.19310822.


Subject(s)
Infant, Extremely Premature , Phonetics , Child , Child Language , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Language Development , Male , Speech
18.
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch ; 53(2): 532-541, 2022 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35271346

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine the change in specific English microstructure features according to language ability in preschool Spanish-English dual language learners. METHOD: We collected English narratives from 22 Spanish-English dual language learners with typical language development (TD) and 22 Spanish-English dual language learners with developmental language disorder (DLD) at the beginning and end of their first year in Head Start. Children came from Spanish-speaking homes and were exposed to English and Spanish in their preschool classrooms. We analyzed children's use of English microstructure across time using the Narrative Assessment Protocol. RESULTS: Both groups showed improvement in overall English microstructure use, although children with TD made greater gains than children with DLD. Phrase structure (noun phrases, coordinating conjunctions, and prepositional phrases) increased in both groups, but more so in children with TD than with DLD. Sentence structure (compound, complex, negative, and interrogative sentences) increased in both groups. Verb use, noun use (Tier 2 nouns and nouns marked with plural and possessive endings), and modifiers (adverbs and adjectives) neither changed across time nor differed between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Spanish-English dual language learners who attend Head Start and come from Spanish-speaking homes, regardless of language ability, may not readily acquire verbs, nouns, and modifiers during their first year of formal English exposure, suggesting that they would benefit from explicit instruction in these areas. Preschool Spanish-English dual language learners with DLD may make less progress than their peers with TD in phrase structure use, indicating that explicit instruction in this microstructure feature may be beneficial for children with DLD.


Subject(s)
Language Development Disorders , Multilingualism , Child , Child Language , Child, Preschool , Humans , Language , Language Development , Language Development Disorders/diagnosis , Language Tests
19.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 31(3): 1221-1243, 2022 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35235411

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) are underidentified, despite a robust literature on their language abilities and a clinical grammar marker. Adlof and Hogan (2019) call for school systems to assess oral language and provide supports through response to intervention (RTI), with the aim of identifying and supporting children with SLI and other language impairments. However, it is unknown how teachers make educational decisions for children with SLI. METHOD: A web-based survey was distributed to public school teachers nationwide (N = 304). In this observational study, teachers read six vignettes featuring profiles of children systematically varying in the linguistic characteristics relevant to SLI (e.g., difficulty with verb tense) and responded to items on the educational decisions that they would make in the absence of workplace constraints. RESULTS: Teachers were likely to identify that the children in the vignettes needed language for classroom success and to indicate that they would provide in-class intervention. However, teachers were unlikely to recommend speech-language pathology services. These outcomes were mostly consistent across all child characteristics and teacher characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Findings show that teachers were sensitive to the language-based needs of children with SLI and elected to provide in-class intervention. Future work is needed to understand how workplace characteristics, including opportunities for interprofessional collaboration, and the heterogeneity of children with SLI, inform teacher educational decision making.


Subject(s)
Language Development Disorders , Specific Language Disorder , Child , Child Language , Decision Making , Humans , Language Development Disorders/diagnosis , Language Development Disorders/therapy , Language Tests , Linguistics , Reading
20.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(3): 1001-1024, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35104424

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Language sampling analysis (LSA) plays an important role in evaluating language skills; hence, the study aimed to develop new assessment measures for the LSA in Turkish as alternatives to mean length of utterance (MLU) and the Language Assessment, Remediation and Screening Procedure. With this aim, Developmental Sentence Scoring (DSS) and the Index of Productive Syntax (IPSyn) were adapted to Turkish. METHOD: Eighty monolingual Turkish children were included in the study, and the age range was from 2;0 to 5;11 (years;months). The children were grouped with 6-month intervals, and each group had an equal number of participants in terms of gender. Their general and language development were tested with standardized tests, and language sampling was recorded during play with farm toys for 15-20 min. Reviewing literature and observing participants' production schemas were created for DSS for Turkish (DSS-TR) and the IPSyn for Turkish (IPSyn-TR) separately, and final versions were determined in consultation with experts. RESULTS: DSS-TR and IPSyn-TR were significantly correlated with standardized tests, and MLU values were statistically significant (p < .05). Total scores increased with age; however, grammatical categories did not go up. No difference was observed between genders (p > .05). In DSS-TR, the "sentence point" did not affect the participants' total scores because of language characteristics (p > .05). Finally, DSS-TR and IPSyn-TR were seen to be correlated with each other (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: DSS-TR and IPSyn-TR are valid, being correlated with other assessment tools, and reliable, showing a high correlation with other raters, to reflect morphosyntactic skills. Therefore, they both are alternative assessment measures that will be used in LSA and give an opportunity to clinicians to plan their intervention goals. Also, they enable clinicians to observe progress not only specific to grammatical category but also in the total scores of the children either during or at the end of the therapy.


Subject(s)
Child Language , Language Disorders , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Language , Language Development , Language Disorders/diagnosis , Language Tests , Male
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