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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Models, Statistical
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248778, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339371

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to analyze the socio-environmental characteristics, executive and nutritional functions in children aged 6 to 7 years, from public schools in Alagoas, Brazil. A quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study was performed involving 64 children of the mentioned age group, from public schools located in Alagoas: Maceió, on the coast; Major Isidoro, in the hinterland and Palmeira dos Índios, in the country. Such analyzes were made through the application of neuropsychological tests and anthropometric assessment with children and food and socio-environmental surveys with their parents. As for the type of housing, 100% were made of masonry, with a bathroom present in 98.4%. All children reported with the habit of bathing in the river / lagoon, presented some pathology. There was no significant difference between cities in terms of the sociodemographic characteristics evaluated, with the same result occurring with the factors associated with the occurrence of diseases in children. The subtests of WISC-IV, were below the average in all municipalities, and the TAC and SCC were classified within the average. However, even though the ranking were divided between below average and average, it is possible to identify from the subtests of WISC-IV, that the general IQ showed a cognitive level below the average. There was also no significant difference in the anthropometric assessment (weight, height, BMI and IMCI) between the evaluated students. The average weight was 23.3 kg to 25 kg, the height between 1.23 m to 1.24 m, the BMI between 16.4 to 17; the IMCI from 2.8 to 3.0. Children were classified within the average. Regarding micronutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na, and vitamins A, C, D, B1, B9 and B12) and calories, there was also no significant difference between the cities evaluated. The same occurred with macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids). This study showed that in general there was no difference between the students of the three municipalities. Probably, even though they are all public schools and from different cities, children have similar social conditions.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar as características socioambientais, funções executivas e nutricionais de crianças de 6 a 7 anos, de escolas públicas de Alagoas, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo quantitativo, transversal e descritivo envolvendo 64 crianças, na referida faixa etária, de escolas públicas localizadas em Alagoas: Maceió, no litoral; Major Isidoro, no sertão e Palmeira dos Índios, no país. Tais análises foram feitas por meio da aplicação de testes neuropsicológicos e avaliação antropométrica com crianças e inquéritos alimentares e socioambientais com seus pais. Quanto ao tipo de habitação, 100% eram de alvenaria, com banheiro presente em 98,4%. Todas as crianças relataram o hábito de tomar banho no rio / lagoa, apresentavam alguma patologia. Não houve diferença significativa entre os municípios quanto às características sociodemográficas avaliadas, ocorrendo o mesmo resultado com os fatores associados à ocorrência de doenças em crianças. Os subtestes do WISC-IV, ficaram abaixo da média em todos os municípios, e o TAC e SCC foram classificados dentro da média. Porém, mesmo que a classificação tenha sido dividida entre abaixo da média e média, é possível identificar a partir dos subtestes do WISC-IV, que o QI geral apresentou um nível cognitivo abaixo da média. Também não houve diferença significativa na avaliação antropométrica (peso, altura, IMC e AIDPI) entre os alunos avaliados. O peso médio foi de 23,3 kg a 25 kg, a altura entre 1,23 ma 1,24 m, o IMC entre 16,4 a 17; A AIDPI de 2.8 a 3.0. As crianças foram classificadas dentro da média. Em relação aos micronutrientes (Ca, Fe, K, Mg e Na e vitaminas A, C, D, B1, B9 e B12) e calorias, também não houve diferença significativa entre os municípios avaliados. O mesmo ocorreu com os macronutrientes (proteínas, carboidratos e lipídios). Este estudo mostrou que de maneira geral não houve diferença entre os alunos dos três municípios. Provavelmente, mesmo sendo todas escolas públicas e de diferentes cidades, as crianças têm condições sociais semelhantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Energy Intake , Executive Function , Sodium , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249911, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339366

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.


Resumo As neoplasias hematológicas e de células hematopoiéticas dos genes e as células hematopoiéticas estão associadas à mutação genética, geralmente em nível cromossômico. O estudo citogenético padrão é amplamente aceito como um dos principais determinantes diagnósticos e prognósticos em pacientes. Portanto, o presente estudo descritivo e transversal buscou determinar a análise citogenética de neoplasias hematológicas frequentes no Paquistão. Um total de 202 amostras de medula óssea periférica ou sangue de pacientes com malignidade hematológica benigna e maligna foi coletado usando uma técnica convencional de banda G. Entre os pacientes inscritos, a média de idade foi de 21,5 anos ± 23,4, e a distribuição por gênero mostrou uma marcada predominância da população masculina de 147 (73%) em comparação com a feminina de 55 (27%). Pacientes na faixa etária (2-10 anos) tiveram a maior frequência, 48 (24%), de neoplasias hematológicas, seguida da idade (11-20 anos) com 40 (20%). Cariótipos normais (46, XX / 46, XY) foram encontrados em 51% (n = 103) dos pacientes. Além disso, a frequência de cariótipo complexo foi de 30 (15%), enquanto normal foi observada em 171 (85%) pacientes. Leucemia linfoblástica aguda pré-B (LLA Pré-B) foi a doença maligna mais prevalente de 66 (33%), seguida por leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) de 41 (20%) e leucemia linfocítica aguda de 29 (14%). A translocação foi o 50 mais prevalente (25%), seguido por hipotriploidia 14 (7%) e monossomia 8 (4%) na análise de aberração cromossômica. Além disso, a translocação t (9:22) encontrada foi de 20 (10%) na LMC, com a maioria na faixa etária (31-40 anos). Este estudo recomenda que o cariótipo deve ser testado com frequência em condições hematológicas porque pode fornecer informações sobre as alterações cromossômicas relativas associadas a doenças malignas específicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Chromosome Aberrations , Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Karyotyping
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244435, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285619

ABSTRACT

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Resumo A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia hemorrágica em crianças. Essas infecções podem ser fatais para crianças pequenas e idosos. Há um incentivo para encontrar medidas de controle alternativas, como extratos de plantas e ervas, especialmente em países menos desenvolvidos, onde os antibióticos tradicionais podem não estar prontamente disponíveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Aged , Pomegranate , Staphylococcus aureus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Escherichia coli , Anti-Infective Agents
6.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(12): e98, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is quite difficult to distinguish retractile testis from gliding testis, which requires different treatment planning in the clinic setting. We evaluated practice patterns of urologists in Korea regarding the diagnosis and management of retractile and gliding testes. METHODS: We mailed or e-mailed self-completion questionnaires consisting of 20 items to 106 urologists practicing in Korean hospitals concerning the diagnosis and treatment of cryptorchidism. We collected and analyzed the responses statistically. RESULTS: Responses were received from 62 urologists. The response rate was 58.5%. Thirty-seven urologists (59.7%) actually felt they had difficulty in distinguishing retractile testis from gliding testis in the clinic setting. This rate was higher for non-pediatric urologists (78.1%) than for pediatric urologists (40.0%) (P = 0.006). In cases of infant retractile testis, only five urologists (8.1%) said that they would perform orchiopexy immediately, with 54 (87.1%) urologists saying they would do follow-up. In cases of preschool-age children with retractile testis, 17 urologists (27.4%) said that they would perform orchiopexy immediately with 41 (66.1%) urologists saying they would do follow-up. In cases of infant gliding testis, 37 urologists (59.7%) said that they would perform orchiopexy immediately with 24 (38.7%) urologists saying they would do a follow-up. CONCLUSION: More than half (59.7%) of Korean urologists revealed it challenging to distinguish retractile testis and gliding testis in the clinical setting. The more it was difficult to diagnose retractile testis with certainty, the more frequent surgical correction was chosen for treatment. Therefore, it is essential to prevent unnecessary surgical treatment by establishing a practical guideline.


Subject(s)
Cryptorchidism , Urologists , Child , Child, Preschool , Comprehension , Cryptorchidism/diagnosis , Cryptorchidism/surgery , Humans , Infant , Male
8.
J Nutr ; 152(4): 1149-1158, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34982817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty about whether children with moderate wasting should receive supplementary feeding. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether supplementary feeding compared with counseling alone in children with moderate wasting prevented progression to severe acute malnutrition (SAM) or death. METHODS: This was a retrospective, dual-cohort study in which 1791 children with moderate wasting were drawn from 2 prior randomized controlled trials that took place in the same location in rural Sierra Leone. A total of 1077 children received supplementary feeding, whereas 714 children received counseling alone. Children in both cohorts were followed for ≥24 wk from enrollment. The primary outcome was time to SAM or death using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Secondary outcomes included time to death as well as proportions of children with healthy midupper arm circumference (MUAC), moderate wasting, SAM, or death at 6, 12, and 24 wk from enrollment. RESULTS: Children who received supplementary feeding were less likely to develop SAM or die across the entire follow-up period (HR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.65; P < 0.001). Time to event for death alone also revealed a lower risk for children who received supplementary feeding (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.94; P = 0.03). Children who received supplementary feeding were more likely to have a healthy MUAC at 6 wk (RR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.7, 2.2) and 12 wk (RR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.2, 1.5), were less likely to develop SAM at 6 (RR: 0.7; 95% CI: 0.6, 0.9), 12 (RR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3, 0.8), and 24 wk (RR: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.5), and had higher rates of gain in weight and MUAC at 6 and 12 wk. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementary feeding of children with moderate wasting reduces risk of SAM and death across 24 wk of follow-up.


Subject(s)
Malnutrition , Severe Acute Malnutrition , Child , Cohort Studies , Counseling , Humans , Infant , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Sierra Leone/epidemiology
10.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 219: 105392, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248812

ABSTRACT

Previous research has suggested that moral stories depicting realistic characters may better facilitate children's prosocial behavior than those containing anthropomorphized animal characters. The current study is a conceptual replication with a different sample and an extended age range. We examined the relationships among story character realism (anthropomorphized animal or human), theme (sharing or busyness), age, and prosocial behavior (i.e., resource allocation). Four versions of an illustrated storybook were created: an Animal Sharing book, an Animal Busy book, a Human Sharing book, and a Human Busy book. A total of 179 children aged 3-7 years listened to one of the four versions of the story. Children's sticker donating behavior was measured prior to hearing the story and again following a story recall task. All groups donated more stickers post-story than pre-story. Younger children were more likely to increase their donation than older children, and children who had made higher human internal state attributions in a previous experimental session donated more stickers post-story. In contrast to previous research, we found that a sharing-themed narrative depicting human characters was no more influential for sticker donation than the other stories.


Subject(s)
Child Behavior , Morals , Adolescent , Altruism , Animals , Books , Child , Humans , Mental Recall
11.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 62(2): 206-219, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435684

ABSTRACT

Population pharmacokinetic (PK) and exposure-safety analyses of alisertib were performed in children enrolled in 2 clinical trials: NCT02444884 and NCT01154816. NCT02444884 was a dose-finding study in children with relapsed/refractory solid malignancies (phase 1) or neuroblastomas (phase 2). Patients received oral alisertib 45 to 100 mg/m2 as powder-in-capsule once daily or twice daily for 7 days in 21-day cycles. Serial blood samples were collected up to 24 hours after dosing on cycle 1, day 1. NCT01154816 was a phase 2 single-arm study evaluating efficacy in children with relapsed/refractory solid malignancies or acute leukemias. Patients received alisertib 80 mg/m2 as enteric-coated tablets once daily for 7 days in 21-day cycles. Sparse PK samples were collected up to 8 hours after dosing on cycle 1, day 1. Sources of alisertib PK variability were characterized and quantified using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling to support dosing recommendations in children and adolescents. A 2-compartment model with oral absorption described by 3 transit compartments was developed using data from 146 patients. Apparent oral clearance and central distribution volume were correlated with body surface area across the age range of 2 to 21 years, supporting the use of body surface area-based alisertib dosing in the pediatric population. The recommended dose of 80 mg/m2 once daily enteric-coated tablets provided similar alisertib exposures across pediatric age groups and comparable exposure to that in adults receiving 50 mg twice daily (recommended adult dose). Statistically significant relationships (P < .01) were observed between alisertib exposures and incidence of grade ≥2 stomatitis and febrile neutropenia, consistent with antiproliferative mechanism-related toxicities.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacokinetics , Azepines/pharmacokinetics , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Pyrimidines/pharmacokinetics , Adolescent , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Azepines/adverse effects , Body Surface Area , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Male , Maximum Tolerated Dose , Models, Biological , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasms/pathology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pyrimidines/adverse effects , Young Adult
12.
J Neurotrauma ; 39(1-2): 86-92, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626946

ABSTRACT

This case-control study using baseline data from the population cohort Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study® compared lifetime history of concussion between children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that children with ADHD would have a greater lifetime history of concussion than children without ADHD. Children were recruited from schools across the United States, sampled to provide strong generalizability to the US population. The current sample included 10,585 children (age: mean = 9.9; standard deviation = 0.6; range 9-10 years; 48.9% girls; 64.6% White), including 1085 with ADHD and 9500 without ADHD. The prevalence of prior concussion among children with ADHD was 7.2% (95% CI: 6.6-7.8%) compared with 3.2% (3.1-3.3%) among children without ADHD, meaning current ADHD status was associated with twice the odds of experiencing a prior concussion [χ2 = 44.54; p < 0.001; odds ratio = 2.34 (1.81-3.03)]. No significant differences were observed in proportion of boys and girls with ADHD who had a prior concussion history. The number of current ADHD symptoms were not meaningfully associated with prior concussion history. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with lower rates of reported concussion, but not differentially in association with ADHD. ADHD is associated with twice the lifetime prevalence of prior concussion before age 11 among children from the general U.S. population. Boys and girls with ADHD did not differ in proportions with prior concussion and concussion history was not related to the number of ADHD symptoms reported by parents.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Brain Concussion , Adolescent , Athletes/psychology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Brain Concussion/psychology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology
13.
Schizophr Res ; 241: 24-35, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074529

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Maternal schizophrenia is linked to complications in offspring near the time of birth. Whether there is also a higher future risk of the child having a complex chronic condition (CCC) - a pediatric condition affecting any bodily system expected to last at least 12 months that is severe enough to require specialty care and/or a period of hospitalization - is not known. METHODS: In this population-based health administrative data cohort study (Ontario, Canada, 1995-2018), the risk for CCC was compared in 5066 children of women with schizophrenia (the exposed) vs. 2,939,320 unexposed children. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) were generated for occurrence of any CCC, by CCC category, and stratified by child sex, and child prematurity. RESULTS: CCC was more frequent in the exposed (7.7 per 1000 person-years [268 children]) than unexposed (4.2 per 100 person-years [124,452 children]) - an aHR of 1.25 (95% CI 1.10-1.41). aHRs were notably higher in 5 of 9 CCC categories: neuromuscular (1.73, 1.28-2.33), cardiovascular (1.94, 1.64-2.29), respiratory (1.83, 1.32-2.54), hematology/immunodeficiency (2.24, 1.24-4.05) and other congenital or genetic defect (1.59, 1.16-2.17). The aHR for CCC was more pronounced among boys (1.32, 1.13-1.55) than girls (1.16, 0.96-1.40), and of similar magnitude in term (1.22, 1.05-1.42) and preterm infants (1.18, 0.95-1.46). CONCLUSIONS: The risk for a CCC appears to be higher in children born to women with schizophrenia. This finding introduces opportunities for targeted preconception counselling, optimization of maternal risk factors, and intervention to support a vulnerable parent population who will experience unique challenges caring for a child with CCCs.


Subject(s)
Schizophrenia , Child , Chronic Disease , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Male , Ontario , Schizophrenia/epidemiology
14.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 35(3): 333-339, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952557

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate of gynecomastia, determine mean glandular breast tissue sizes, and evaluate whether there is any difference in the prevalence rate of gynecomastia according to age using three different reference values of glandular breast tissue size (≥5, ≥10, ≥20 mm) in the pediatric age group. METHODS: Glandular breast tissue sizes were measured retrospectively from thoracic computed tomography (CT) images taken for other reasons in 961 boys aged 1-18 years. RESULTS: When each breast was evaluated separately (1,922 breasts), gynecomastia was observed in 1,001 (52.1%), 719 (37.4%), and 216 (11.2%) breasts with ≥5, ≥10, and ≥20 mm considered as reference values, respectively. A significant difference was found in terms of gynecomastia (p<0.001) and mean glandular breast tissue size (p<0.001) with respect to age. CONCLUSIONS: New studies are currently needed to determine the glandular breast tissue size and the prevalence rate of gynecomastia in boys, and thoracic CT images can be used for this purpose.


Subject(s)
Gynecomastia , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Gynecomastia/diagnostic imaging , Gynecomastia/epidemiology , Humans , Incidental Findings , Infant , Male , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
15.
J Sch Health ; 92(4): 337-344, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35067924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To determine if school engagement is a viable target for early prevention of adolescent substance use, this study investigated whether school engagement in early adolescence (ages 12-14) is a cause of alcohol and cannabis use during middle to late adolescence (ages 15-19). METHODS: To facilitate causal inference, inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTWs), which are based on estimated probabilities of treatment selection (ie, school engagement), were created based on a robust set of potential confounders. Using the IPTWs, a cumulative link mixed model was fit to examine the impact of school engagement on alcohol and cannabis use among an ethnically diverse sample of adolescents (N = 360). RESULTS: School engagement was associated with a lower level of alcohol and cannabis use from age 15 to 18. School engagement was not associated with change in alcohol and cannabis use over time, suggesting that school engagement emits its effect early in the developmental course of substance use and offers protection throughout adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports a compensatory role of early school engagement in substance use across middle and late adolescence. School engagement is a malleable factor and thus offers an avenue for prevention efforts.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Humans , Schools , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Young Adult
16.
Scand J Immunol ; 95(4): e13143, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35067952

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: For many patients with primary immune deficiency (PID), stem-cell transplantation (SCT) may be life-saving. OBJECTIVE: To review our experience of 11 years transplanting children with PID in Mexico. METHODS: Chart review of patients who underwent SCT from 2008 to 2018, to describe their diagnoses, time to transplant, conditioning regime, survival rate and outcomes. All patients received post-transplant cyclophosphamide as graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. RESULTS: 19 patients with combined, phagocytic or syndromic PID from 5 states. Twelve of them were male (58%) and 14 survive (79%). Mean age at HSCT was 41.9 months; mean time from diagnosis was 31.2 months. Seven grafts were umbilical cord and 12 haploidentical. The conditioning regime was myeloablative, with five primary graft failures. Two patients had partial and 10 full chimerism. Five patients died within 2 months after transplant. Immune reconstitution was complete in 11 of 19 patients. We found a prevalence of 21% GVHD. DISCUSSION: We describe 19 patients from Mexico with 8 PID diagnoses who underwent allogenic HSCT over a period of 11 years. Survival rate and other outcomes compare well with industrialized countries. We recommend the use of post-transplant cyclophosphamide to prevent GVHD in scenarios of resource scarcity and a lack of HLA-identical donors.


Subject(s)
Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases , Child , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Mexico , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Transplantation Conditioning
17.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 67-75, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130567

ABSTRACT

Resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome (RTHS) is defined as increased thyroxine and triiodothyronine associated with normal or increased thyrotropin. This is usually due to a pathogenic variant of the gene coding for thyroid hormone receptor B (THRB). THRB is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an altered response of target tissue to the thyroid hormone action. Retrospective cross-sectional observational study with diagnosis of RTHS evaluated in secondary and tertiary hospitals for 6 years, from 2014 to 2020, in order to describe variables including age, sex, anthropometric data, clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients, who were divided according to age, in a pediatric group from 0 to 14 years (index cases), and an adult group composed of adult relatives of index cases. A molecular analysis of the THRB gene was performed. The total retrospective cohort included 7 pediatric patients and 15 adults. We found 22 cases with a clear male predominance (14/22). Mean age is 24.8 years old (22 days-70 years). Patients were referred because of symptoms 18.2% (4/22), analysis results 22.7% (5/22), or familial study 59.1% (13/22). About 31.8% (7/22) cases show goiter, 31.8% (7/22) sympathetic symptoms and 13.6% (3/22) abnormalities in behavior. In most cases, 77.3%, (17/22) show familial background of thyroid abnormalities. It is important to remark that 18.2% (4/22) relatives received previous incorrect treatments such as thyroidectomy, because of wrong diagnosis. In conclusion, a better understanding of RTHS, its prompt molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling, could avoid unnecessary tests and inappropriate treatments.


Subject(s)
Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mutation , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta/genetics , Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome/diagnosis , Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome/genetics , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine , Young Adult
18.
Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther ; 54(1): 1-2, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193330

ABSTRACT

I have attentively read the article "Minute Zero: an essential assessment in peri-operative ultrasound for anaesthesia" by Elena Segura-Grau et al. [1]. The authors have suggested using point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) as part of a comprehensive anaesthetic assessment in the perioperative period. Such an extension of the standard perioperative examination aimed at searching for pathologies that may affect the intra- and postoperative course performed by an anaes-thesiologist seems fully justified and may have a significant impact on treatment outcomes [2]. In the "Minute Zero" model, the authors have suggested that POCUS assessment of anaesthetised patients should be carried out twice - on admission to the operating theatre and before transfer to the postoperative ward. The described scheme is based on the well-known eFAST, FATE and BLUE protocols (assessment to determine the presence of free fluid in the body cavities, basic cardiac assessment, including IVC, and lung ultrasound assessment). The examination conducted in the manner specified by the authors provides a general but holistic picture of the patient, focused at detecting life-threatening pathologies. It is right to include a preoperative assessment of the filling of the stomach in the protocol, as the surface area of the pylorus found on ultrasound scans indicates the risk of aspiration during the induction of general anaesthesia [3, 4]. This may be of particular importance in patients undergoing emergency procedures, with gastrointestinal obstruction or in those with difficult contact (mainly children and the elderly). In the algorithm described, the assessment of bladder filling in the postoperative period has been emphasised. This is a huge asset, which is often overlooked and, as the authors rightly point out, can cause postoperative delirium, especially in the elderly. The authors have developed an examination card that enables to document the examination in a simple and transparent manner based on markings of the appropriate blanks, which makes the protocol very friendly. The additional pros of the publication are the attached sample ultrasound images, which perfectly illustrate the ease of diagnosis of basic pathologies.


Subject(s)
Anesthesiology , Anesthetics , Aged , Anesthesia, General , Child , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , Ultrasonography/methods
19.
Transl Psychiatry ; 12(1): 76, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35197458

ABSTRACT

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood mental disorder with undetermined pathophysiological mechanisms. The gut microbiota and immunological dysfunction may influence brain functions and social behaviours. In the current study, we aimed to explore the correlation of gut microbiome imbalance and inflammation in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Forty-one children with ADHD and thirty-nine healthy-control (HC) individuals were recruited. Faecal samples from all participants were collected and submitted for 16 S rRNA V3-V4 amplicon microbiome sequencing analysis. The plasma levels of 10 cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17A, IFN-α2, IFN-γ, and MCP-1, were determined using a custom-made sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed by Luminex Flowmetrix. There was no significant difference between the ADHD and HC groups in species diversity in the faeces, as determined with α-diversity and ß-diversity analysis. In the ADHD group, three differentially abundant taxonomic clades at the genus level were observed, namely Agathobacter, Anaerostipes, and Lachnospiraceae. Top differentially abundant bacteria and representative biological pathways were identified in children with ADHD using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe), and the phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) analysis, respectively. The plasma levels of TNF-α were significantly lower in children with ADHD than in HCs. Within the ADHD group, the levels of TNF-α were negatively correlated with ADHD symptoms and diversity of the gut microbiome. Our study provides new insights into the association between gut microbiome dysbiosis and immune dysregulation, which may contribute to the pathophysiology of ADHD.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Child , Cytokines/genetics , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Humans , Phylogeny
20.
JBJS Case Connect ; 12(1)2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35108237

ABSTRACT

CASE: We describe a patient with incomplete high median nerve palsy after surgical treatment of pediatric supracondylar humeral fracture (SCHF). Preoperative images after 11 months after the surgical treatment of the SCHF showed rotational deformity and an isolated median nerve entrapped between the proximal humerus anteriorly and callus posteriorly in the bony tunnel of the distal humerus. Two years after neurolysis, he showed clinical recovery. Four cases similar to our case were reported previously. CONCLUSION: Common pediatric fractures may cause unusual neuropathy. Rotational deformity of fracture might be an important factor for isolated median nerve entrapment after SCHF.


Subject(s)
Elbow Joint , Humeral Fractures , Median Neuropathy , Bony Callus , Child , Elbow Joint/surgery , Humans , Humeral Fractures/complications , Humeral Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Humeral Fractures/surgery , Humerus , Male , Median Neuropathy/etiology
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