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1.
Univ. salud ; 27(1): 1-10, enero-abril 2025.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1555921

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) y los estados de ánimo son indicadores cruciales del bienestar en adolescentes, pero su relación con estudiantes de Antioquia, Colombia, no ha sido ampliamente estudiada. Objetivo: Determinar la CVRS y los estados de ánimo en escolares de Antioquia-Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio transversal con 1957 escolares de 9 a 20 años. Se aplicaron mediciones de CVRS, ansiedad, depresión, hostilidad y alegría, actividad física, comportamiento sedentario, apoyo social de padres y nivel socioeconómico. Resultados: La calidad de vida alta (CVA) es más elevada en hombres, personas con alegría, estudiantes con apoyo de padres, activos físicamente y personas de nivel socioeconómico alto y medio. AL aumentar un año de edad, disminuye en un 15 % la CVA, y al aumentar la depresión, la ansiedad y el comportamiento sedentario disminuye la CVA. Además, los niveles de depresión y ansiedad son mayores en mujeres, estudiantes mayores, sin apoyo de los padres y personas sedentarias. Conclusiones: La CVRS se asocia con estados de ánimo, actividad física, comportamiento sedentario y apoyo de los padres; mientras que los estados de ánimo se asocian con el sexo, el apoyo de los padres, la CVS y el sedentarismo.


Introduction: Even though health-related quality of life (HRQL) and mood states are key indicators of the well-being of adolescents, their relationship has not been analyzed in students from Antioquia, Colombia. Objective: To determine HRQL and mood states in schoolchildren from Antioquia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,957 schoolchildren and adolescents aged between 9 and 20 years. Measurements of HRQL, anxiety, depression, hostility and happiness, physical activity, sedentary behavior, parental social support, and socioeconomic status were applied. Results: A high quality of life (HQL) was observed more frequently in male participants, students with parental support, physically active, and those belonging to medium and high socioeconomic status. HQL decreased 15% as their age increased by one year. Also, HQL was reduced when depression, anxiety, and sedentary behavior increased. Furthermore, depression and anxiety levels were higher in women, older students, as well as in those without parental control and with sedentary behavior. Conclusions: HRQL is associated with mood states, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and parental support. In contrast, mood states are related to gender, parental support, HQL, and sedentary lifestyle.


Introdução: A qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (CVRS) e os estados de humor são indicadores cruciais de bem-estar em adolescentes, mas sua relação com estudantes de Antioquia, Colômbia, não foi amplamente estudada. Objetivo: Determinar a CVRS e os estados de humor em escolares de Antioquia-Colômbia. Materiais e métodos: Estudo transversal com 1.957 escolares de 9 a 20 anos. Foram aplicadas medidas de QVRS, ansiedade, depressão, hostilidade e felicidade, atividade física, comportamento sedentário, apoio social dos pais e nível socioeconômico. Resultados: A alta qualidade de vida (CVA) é maior em homens, pessoas com alegria, estudantes com apoio parental, fisicamente ativos e pessoas de nível socioeconômico alto e médio. À medida que a idade aumenta em um ano, diminui em 15% o CVA, e ao aumentar a depressão, a ansiedade e o comportamento sedentário aumentam, o CVA diminui. Além disso, os níveis de depressão e ansiedade são mais elevados nas mulheres, nos estudantes mais velhos, sem apoio dos pais e nas pessoas sedentárias. Conclusões: A QVRS está associada a estados de humor, atividade física, comportamento sedentário e apoio parental; enquanto os estados de humor estão associados ao sexo, apoio parental, CVS e estilo de vida sedentário.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Health , Emotions , Happiness , Hostility
2.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 29-48, oct.-dic. 2024.
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-229227

ABSTRACT

Esta investigación busca profundizar en la segregación escolar del alumnado con necesidades educativas especiales del segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil estimando su magnitud, determinando la incidencia de la titularidad del centro y de su adscripción al Programa Bilingüe y describiendo su evolución. Para ello, se realiza un estudio ex post facto con datos de los 10.182 estudiantes del segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil matriculados en alguno de los 77 centros ordinarios públicos y privados-concertados situados en dos ciudades de tamaño medio-grande de la Comunidad de Madrid. Los resultados indican que la magnitud de la segregación escolar está en torno al 0.20 (ISG); que la incidencia de la titularidad es baja (4.6 %), pero es alta la del Programa Bilingüe (17.2 % de promedio); y que la segregación ha descendido ligeramente en los últimos años, pero las diferencias entre centros atendiendo a su titularidad y adscripción al Programa Bilingüe han crecido. Con ello, se concluye que hay que prestar atención a la segregación en Educación Infantil y tomar medidas para combatirla. También se destaca la necesidad de replantear el Programa Bilingüe por su incidencia en la segregación escolar. (AU)


This research aims to explore the school segregation of students with special educational needs in the second cycle of Early Childhood Education by estimating its magnitude, determining the incidence of school ownership and affiliation to the Bilingual Program, and describing its evolution. To achieve this, we conduct an ex post facto study with data from the 10,182 students enrolled in one of the 77 public and private-subsidised schools in the Community of Madrid. The results indicate that the magnitude of school segregation is around 0.20 (ISG); that the incidence of school ownership is low (4.6 %), while the incidence of the Bilingual Program is high (17.2 % on average); and that segregation has slightly decreased in recent years, however the differences between schools based on ownership and affiliation to the Bilingual Program have increased. Therefore, we conclude that it is necessary to address segregation in Early Childhood Education and that measures need to be taken to combat it. We also highlight the importance of reconsidering the Bilingual Program due to its impact on school segregation. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Learning Disabilities , Education/statistics & numerical data
3.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 65-83, oct.-dic. 2024.
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-229229

ABSTRACT

La falta de información sobre el uso de la tecnología en niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) de diferentes perfiles puede dificultar que docentes y alumnos se estén beneficiando del apoyo tecnológico más eficaz y ajustado a sus necesidades. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar y sintetizar la evidencia científica sobre la eficacia de los recursos tecnológicos en la mejora de la comprensión emocional de estudiantes con TEA con perfiles de alto y bajo funcionamiento. Para ello se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones científicas indexadas en algunas de las bases de datos de mayor relevancia siguiendo los criterios establecidos en la declaración PRISMA. En total se analizaron 38 artículos que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión preestablecidos. Los resultados muestran la importancia de diseñar sistemas versátiles que puedan personalizarse y adaptarse en tiempo real y en contextos naturales con un enfoque claramente inclusivo. Pero también sugieren que la tecnología puede no ser una herramienta de intervención complementaria adecuada para todos los niños con TEA. Lo que subraya la necesidad de ensayos adicionales bien controlados sobre las características que permitan identificar qué estudiantes podrían o no beneficiarse de diferentes modalidades de tecnología. (AU)


The lack of information on the use of technology in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of different profiles can make it difficult for teachers and students to benefit from the most effective technology support tailored to their needs. The aim of this review was to analyze and synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of technological resources in improving the emotional understanding of students with high and low functioning ASD profiles. A systematic review of the scientific publications indexed in some of the most relevant databases was carried out following the criteria established in the PRISMA declaration. A total of 38 articles that met the pre-established inclusion criteria were analyzed. The results show the importance of designing versatile systems that can be customized and adapted in real time and in natural contexts with a clearly inclusive approach. But they also suggest that technology may not be an appropriate complementary intervention tool for all children with ASD. This underlines the need for additional well-controlled tests on the characteristics that would allow identifying which students might or might not benefit from different technology modalities. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Educational Technology , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder
4.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 29-48, oct.-dic. 2024.
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-557

ABSTRACT

Esta investigación busca profundizar en la segregación escolar del alumnado con necesidades educativas especiales del segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil estimando su magnitud, determinando la incidencia de la titularidad del centro y de su adscripción al Programa Bilingüe y describiendo su evolución. Para ello, se realiza un estudio ex post facto con datos de los 10.182 estudiantes del segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil matriculados en alguno de los 77 centros ordinarios públicos y privados-concertados situados en dos ciudades de tamaño medio-grande de la Comunidad de Madrid. Los resultados indican que la magnitud de la segregación escolar está en torno al 0.20 (ISG); que la incidencia de la titularidad es baja (4.6 %), pero es alta la del Programa Bilingüe (17.2 % de promedio); y que la segregación ha descendido ligeramente en los últimos años, pero las diferencias entre centros atendiendo a su titularidad y adscripción al Programa Bilingüe han crecido. Con ello, se concluye que hay que prestar atención a la segregación en Educación Infantil y tomar medidas para combatirla. También se destaca la necesidad de replantear el Programa Bilingüe por su incidencia en la segregación escolar. (AU)


This research aims to explore the school segregation of students with special educational needs in the second cycle of Early Childhood Education by estimating its magnitude, determining the incidence of school ownership and affiliation to the Bilingual Program, and describing its evolution. To achieve this, we conduct an ex post facto study with data from the 10,182 students enrolled in one of the 77 public and private-subsidised schools in the Community of Madrid. The results indicate that the magnitude of school segregation is around 0.20 (ISG); that the incidence of school ownership is low (4.6 %), while the incidence of the Bilingual Program is high (17.2 % on average); and that segregation has slightly decreased in recent years, however the differences between schools based on ownership and affiliation to the Bilingual Program have increased. Therefore, we conclude that it is necessary to address segregation in Early Childhood Education and that measures need to be taken to combat it. We also highlight the importance of reconsidering the Bilingual Program due to its impact on school segregation. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Learning Disabilities , Education/statistics & numerical data
5.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 65-83, oct.-dic. 2024.
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-559

ABSTRACT

La falta de información sobre el uso de la tecnología en niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) de diferentes perfiles puede dificultar que docentes y alumnos se estén beneficiando del apoyo tecnológico más eficaz y ajustado a sus necesidades. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar y sintetizar la evidencia científica sobre la eficacia de los recursos tecnológicos en la mejora de la comprensión emocional de estudiantes con TEA con perfiles de alto y bajo funcionamiento. Para ello se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones científicas indexadas en algunas de las bases de datos de mayor relevancia siguiendo los criterios establecidos en la declaración PRISMA. En total se analizaron 38 artículos que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión preestablecidos. Los resultados muestran la importancia de diseñar sistemas versátiles que puedan personalizarse y adaptarse en tiempo real y en contextos naturales con un enfoque claramente inclusivo. Pero también sugieren que la tecnología puede no ser una herramienta de intervención complementaria adecuada para todos los niños con TEA. Lo que subraya la necesidad de ensayos adicionales bien controlados sobre las características que permitan identificar qué estudiantes podrían o no beneficiarse de diferentes modalidades de tecnología. (AU)


The lack of information on the use of technology in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of different profiles can make it difficult for teachers and students to benefit from the most effective technology support tailored to their needs. The aim of this review was to analyze and synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of technological resources in improving the emotional understanding of students with high and low functioning ASD profiles. A systematic review of the scientific publications indexed in some of the most relevant databases was carried out following the criteria established in the PRISMA declaration. A total of 38 articles that met the pre-established inclusion criteria were analyzed. The results show the importance of designing versatile systems that can be customized and adapted in real time and in natural contexts with a clearly inclusive approach. But they also suggest that technology may not be an appropriate complementary intervention tool for all children with ASD. This underlines the need for additional well-controlled tests on the characteristics that would allow identifying which students might or might not benefit from different technology modalities. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Educational Technology , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder
6.
An. psicol ; 40(2): 227-235, May-Sep, 2024. tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-232717

ABSTRACT

El objetivo fue examinar, desde una aproximación multi-informante, las medidas del Síndrome de Desconexión Cognitiva (SDC) de padres/madres e hijos/as y su relación con síntomas internalizantes y externalizantes. 279 niños/as (9-13 años), y sus padres/madres completaron las evaluaciones sobre SDC, la inatención del trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) y otras medidas internalizadas y externalizadas. Los ítems de las tres medidas de SDC convergieron razonablemente bien en el factor SDC. Se aportaron pruebas discriminantes de la validez de las relaciones entre las puntuaciones de las pruebas y las medidas de los tres constructos diferentes (SDC, soledad y preferencia por la soledad). La asociación más estrecha estuvo entre la evaluación parental de las medidas de SDC con ansiedad y depresión, y entre inatención con hiperactividad/impulsividad y trastorno negativista desafiante. Se observó capacidad predictiva de la medida de SDC sobre la soledad y preferencia por estar solo autoinformadas. Se encontró una posible asociación entre la medida del SDC evaluado por padres/madres y sexo y edad de los niños. En conclusión, los datos apoyan la inclusión de medidas autoinformadas en la evaluación del SDC. Las medidas del SDC en niños se vinculan con medidas internalizantes y, la inatención con las externalizantes.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Child Health , Psychology, Child , Child Development , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Anxiety , Depression
7.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100490], jul.-sept2024. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-231868

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of anti-suppression exercises in children with small-angle esotropia in achieving binocular vision. Methods: A retrospective review of patients aged 3–8 years who underwent anti-suppression exercises for either monocular or alternate suppression between January 2016 and December 2021 was conducted. Patients with esotropia less than 15 prism diopters (PD) and visual acuity ≥ 6/12 were included. Patients with previous intra-ocular surgery or less than three-month follow-up were excluded. Success was defined as the development of binocular single vision (BSV) for distance, near, or both (measured clinically with either the 4 prism base out test or Worth four dot test) and maintained at two consecutive visits. Qualified success was defined as the presence of diplopia response for both distance and near. Additionally, improvement in near stereo acuity was measured using the Stereo Fly test. Results: Eighteen patients with a mean age of 5.4 ± 1.38 years (range 3–8 years) at the time of initiation of exercises were included in the study. The male female ratio was 10:8. The mean best corrected visual acuity was 0.18 LogMAR unit(s) and the mean spherical equivalent was +3.8 ± 0.14 diopters (D). The etiology of the esotropia was fully accommodative refractive esotropia (8), microtropia (1), post–operative infantile esotropia (4), partially accommodative esotropia (1), and post-operative partially accommodative esotropia (4). Patients received either office-based, home-based, or both modes of treatment for an average duration of 4.8 months (range 3–8). After therapy, BSV was achieved for either distance or near in 66.6 % of patients (95 % CI = 40.03–93.31 %). Binocular single vision for both distance and near was seen in 50 % of children. Qualified success was observed in 38.46% of patients. Persistence of suppression was observed in one patient (5.5 %)... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Suppression , Vision, Binocular , Esotropia , Visual Acuity , Therapeutics
8.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100491], jul.-sept2024. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-231873

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: The invention described herein is a prototype based on computer vision technology that measures depth perception and is intended for the early examination of stereopsis. Materials and methods: The prototype (software and hardware) is a depth perception measurement system that consists on: (a) a screen showing stereoscopic models with a guide point that the subject must point to; (b) a camera capturing the distance between the screen and the subject's finger; and (c) a unit for recording, processing and storing the captured measurements. For test validation, the reproducibility and reliability of the platform were calculated by comparing results with standard stereoscopic tests. A demographic study of depth perception by subgroup analysis is shown. Subjective comparison of the different tests was carried out by means of a satisfaction survey. Results: We included 94 subjects, 25 children and 69 adults, with a mean age of 34.2 ± 18.9 years; 36.2 % were men and 63.8 % were women. The DALE3D platform obtained good repeatability with an interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between 0.94 and 0.87, and coefficient of variation (CV) between 0.1 and 0.26. Threshold determining optimal and suboptimal results was calculated for Randot and DALE3D test. Spearman's correlation coefficient, between thresholds was not statistically significant (p value > 0.05). The test was considered more visually appealing and easier to use by the participants (90 % maximum score). Conclusions: The DALE3D platform is a potentially useful tool for measuring depth perception with optimal reproducibility rates. Its innovative design makes it a more intuitive tool for children than current stereoscopic tests. Nevertheless, further studies will be needed to assess whether the depth perception measured by the DALE3D platform is a sufficiently reliable parameter to assess stereopsis.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Vision, Binocular , Depth Perception , Vision, Ocular , Vision Tests
9.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 299(1): 66, 2024 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980418

ABSTRACT

PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) is an umbrella term to describe a diverse range of developmental disorders. Research to date has predominantly emerged from Europe and North America, resulting in a notable scarcity of studies focusing on East Asian populations. Currently, the prevalence and distribution of PIK3CA variants across various genetic loci and their correlation with distinct phenotypes in East Asian populations remain unclear. This study aims to elucidate the phenotype-genotype correlations of PROS in East Asian populations. We presented the phenotypes and genotypes of 82 Chinese patients. Among our cohort, 67 individuals carried PIK3CA variants, including missense, frameshift, and splice variants. Six patients presented with both PIK3CA and an additional variant. Seven PIK3CA-negative patients exhibited overlapping PROS manifestations with variants in GNAQ, AKT1, PTEN, MAP3K3, GNA11, or KRAS. An integrative review of the literature pertaining to East Asian populations revealed that specific variants are uniquely associated with certain PROS phenotypes. Some rare variants were exclusively identified in cases of megalencephaly and diffuse capillary malformation with overgrowth. Non-hotspot variants with undefined oncogenicity were more common in CNS phenotypes. Diseases with vascular malformation were more likely to have variants in the helical domain, whereas phenotypes involving adipose/muscle overgrowth without vascular abnormalities predominantly presented variants in the C2 domain. Our findings underscore the unique phenotype-genotype patterns within the East Asian PROS population, highlighting the necessity for an expanded cohort to further elucidate these correlations. Such endeavors would significantly facilitate the development of PI3Kα selective inhibitors tailored for the East Asian population in the future.


Subject(s)
Asian People , Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Genotype , Phenotype , Humans , Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics , Female , Male , Child , Child, Preschool , Asian People/genetics , Genetic Association Studies , Infant , Growth Disorders/genetics , Growth Disorders/pathology , Adolescent , Mutation , Asia, Eastern , East Asian People
10.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(8): 296, 2024 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980420

ABSTRACT

Fine particular matter (PM2.5) and lead (Pb) exposure can induce insulin resistance, elevating the likelihood of diabetes onset. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanism remains ambiguous. Consequently, we assessed the association of PM2.5 and Pb exposure with insulin resistance and inflammation biomarkers in children. A total of 235 children aged 3-7 years in a kindergarten in e-waste recycling areas were enrolled before and during the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown. Daily PM2.5 data was collected and used to calculate the individual PM2.5 daily exposure dose (DED-PM2.5). Concentrations of whole blood Pb, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in serum were measured. Compared with that before COVID-19, the COVID-19 lockdown group had lower DED-PM2.5 and blood Pb, higher serum HMGB1, and lower blood glucose and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Decreased DED-PM2.5 and blood Pb levels were linked to decreased levels of fasting blood glucose and increased serum HMGB1 in all children. Increased serum HMGB1 levels were linked to reduced levels of blood glucose and HOMA-IR. Due to the implementation of COVID-19 prevention and control measures, e-waste dismantling activities and exposure levels of PM2.5 and Pb declined, which probably reduced the association of PM2.5 and Pb on insulin sensitivity and diabetes risk, but a high level of risk of chronic low-grade inflammation remained. Our findings add new evidence for the associations among PM2.5 and Pb exposure, systemic inflammation and insulin resistance, which could be a possible explanation for diabetes related to environmental exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Waste , Environmental Exposure , Insulin Resistance , Lead , Particulate Matter , Humans , Child , Lead/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Male , Female , Blood Glucose/analysis , Inflammation/blood , Recycling , HMGB1 Protein/blood , Insulin/blood , Air Pollutants , SARS-CoV-2
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(7): e2418217, 2024 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980678

ABSTRACT

Importance: Untreated tooth decay is disproportionately present among low-income young children. While American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines require pediatric clinicians to implement oral health care, the effectiveness of these oral health interventions has been inconclusive. Objective: To test the effectiveness of multilevel interventions in increasing dental attendance and reducing untreated decay among young children attending well-child visits (WCVs). Design, Setting, and Participants: The Pediatric Providers Against Cavities in Children's Teeth study is a cluster randomized clinical trial that was conducted at 18 pediatric primary care practices in northeast Ohio. The trial data were collected between November 2017 and July 2022, with data analyses conducted from August 2022 to March 2023. Eligible participants included Medicaid-enrolled preschoolers aged 3 to 6 years attending WCVs at participating practices who were enrolled at baseline (WCV 1) and followed-up for 2 consecutive examinations (WCV 2 and WCV 3). Interventions: Clinicians in the intervention group received both the practice-level (electronic medical record changes to document oral health) and clinician-level (common-sense model of self-regulation theory-based oral health education and skills training) interventions. Control group clinicians received AAP-based standard oral health education alone. Main Outcomes and Measures: Dental attendance was determined through clinical dental examinations conducted by hygienists utilizing International Caries Detection and Assessment System criteria and also from Medicaid claims data. Untreated decay was determined through clinical examinations. A generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach was used for both clinical examinations and Medicaid claims data. Results: Eighteen practices were randomized to either intervention or control. Participants included 63 clinicians (mean [SD] age, 47.0 [11.3] years; 48 female [76.2%] and 15 male [23.8%]; 28 in the intervention group [44.4%]; 35 in the control group [55.6%]) and 1023 parent-child dyads (mean [SD] child age, 56.1 [14.0] months; 555 male children [54.4%] and 466 female children [45.6%]; 517 in the intervention group [50.5%]; 506 in the control group [49.5%]). Dental attendance from clinical examinations was significantly higher in the intervention group (170 children [52.0%]) vs control group (150 children [43.1%]) with a difference of 8.9% (95% CI, 1.4% to 16.4%; P = .02). The GEE model using clinical examinations showed a significant increase in dental attendance in the intervention group vs control group (adjusted odds ratio, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.69). From Medicaid claims, the control group had significantly higher dental attendance than the intervention group at 2 years (332 children [79.6%] vs 330 children [73.7%]; P = .04) but not at 3 years. A clinically but not statistically significant reduction in mean number of untreated decay was found in the intervention group compared with controls (B = -0.27; 95% CI, -0.56 to 0.02). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cluster randomized clinical trial, children in the intervention group had better dental outcomes as was evidenced by increased dental attendance and lower untreated decay. These findings suggest that intervention group clinicians comprehensively integrated oral health services into WCVs. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03385629.


Subject(s)
Dental Caries , Primary Health Care , Humans , Child, Preschool , Male , Female , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Child , Dental Caries/therapy , Medicaid/statistics & numerical data , Ohio , United States , Dental Care for Children/statistics & numerical data , Dental Care for Children/methods , Oral Health/statistics & numerical data
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(7): e2420792, 2024 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980679

ABSTRACT

This cohort study evaluates the association between the 2020 COVID-19 lockdown and rates of wheezing and use of respiratory medications among children in Italy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Sounds , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiratory Sounds/etiology , Female , Male , Child , Child, Preschool , Infant , Quarantine , Pandemics
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(7): e2420717, 2024 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980674

ABSTRACT

Importance: Air pollution is associated with structural brain changes, disruption of neurogenesis, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The association between prenatal exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of cerebral palsy (CP), which is the most common motor disability in childhood, has not been thoroughly investigated. Objective: To evaluate the associations between prenatal residential exposure to ambient air pollution and risk of CP among children born at term gestation in a population cohort in Ontario, Canada. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based cohort study in Ontario, Canada using linked, province-wide health administrative databases. Participants were singleton full term births (≥37 gestational weeks) born in Ontario hospitals between April 1, 2002, and March 31, 2017. Data were analyzed from January to December 2022. Exposures: Weekly average concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter with a diameter 2.5 µm (PM2.5) or smaller, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) during pregnancy assigned by maternal residence reported at delivery from satellite-based estimates and ground-level monitoring data. Main outcome and measures: CP cases were ascertained by a single inpatient hospitalization diagnosis or at least 2 outpatient diagnoses for children from birth to age 18 years. Results: The present study included 1 587 935 mother-child pairs who reached term gestation, among whom 3170 (0.2%) children were diagnosed with CP. The study population had a mean (SD) maternal age of 30.1 (5.6) years and 811 745 infants (51.1%) were male. A per IQR increase (2.7 µg/m3) in prenatal ambient PM2.5 concentration was associated with a cumulative hazard ratio (CHR) of 1.12 (95% CI, 1.03-1.21) for CP. The CHR in male infants (1.14; 95% CI, 1.02-1.26) was higher compared with the CHR in female infants (1.08; 95% CI, 0.96-1.22). No specific window of susceptibility was found for prenatal PM2.5 exposure and CP in the study population. No associations or windows of susceptibility were found for prenatal NO2 or O3 exposure and CP risk. Conclusions and relevance: In this large cohort study of singleton full term births in Canada, prenatal ambient PM2.5 exposure was associated with an increased risk of CP in offspring. Further studies are needed to explore this association and its potential biological pathways, which could advance the identification of environmental risk factors of CP in early life.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Cerebral Palsy , Particulate Matter , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Humans , Pregnancy , Female , Cerebral Palsy/epidemiology , Cerebral Palsy/etiology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , Adult , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/analysis , Infant , Child, Preschool , Infant, Newborn , Child , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Maternal Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollutants/analysis , Adolescent , Nitrogen Dioxide/adverse effects , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis
14.
Minerva Pediatr (Torino) ; 76(4): 507-516, 2024 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38975958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are rare metabolic diseases that impair respiratory function leading to respiratory failure. This study aimed to compare maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP and MEP) obtained in children with MPS and compare with predicted values from previous studies involving healthy children. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, in which the chest deformity was evaluated; MIP, MEP through digital manometer, and lung function through spirometry. MIP and MEP were compared with five different predict equations and with a control group of healthy children. Agreement between respiratory muscle weakness regarding absolute values of MIP and MEP in relation to predictive values by the equations included in the study were assessed by Kappa coefficient. RESULTS: MPS group was composed of 22 subjects. 45.5% had pectus carinatum, 36.4% pectus excavatum, and presented lower MIP (37.14±36.23 cmH2O) and MEP (60.09±22.3 cmH2O) compared with control group (22 healthy subjects) (MIP: 91.45±35.60; MEP: 95.73±22.38). Only the MEP equations proposed by Tomalak et al. were close to those found in our MPS children (P=0.09). In the MPS group it was observed a weak agreement between inspiratory weakness through absolute and predicted values in only two equations: Tomalak et al. and Domenèch-Clar et al. (for both: k=0.35, P value =0.03); and for MEP a moderate agreement was found using all predictive equations. CONCLUSIONS: In MPS children MRP data should not be normalized using the reference equations for healthy ones, is more coherent to longitudinally follow absolute pressures and lung volumes in this group.


Subject(s)
Mucopolysaccharidoses , Muscle Strength , Respiratory Muscles , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Child , Male , Respiratory Muscles/physiopathology , Female , Adolescent , Mucopolysaccharidoses/diagnosis , Mucopolysaccharidoses/physiopathology , Mucopolysaccharidoses/complications , Spirometry , Maximal Respiratory Pressures , Case-Control Studies , Respiratory Function Tests , Predictive Value of Tests
15.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 409(1): 207, 2024 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38976070

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the results of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) and mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (mini-PCNL) for the treatment of 1-2 cm kidney stones in pediatric patients. METHODS: The records of patients under the age of 18 years who were diagnosed with unilateral 1-2 cm kidney stones for the first time and underwent endoscopic surgery between February 2008 and April 2022 were retrospectively examined. The patients were divided into two groups: mini-PCNL and RIRS surgery. Parameters such as age, gender, number of stones, side, size and localization were examined. The main endpoint of the study was to compare stone-free rates (SFR) one month after both surgeries. Surgery and fluoroscopy times, postoperative hospital stay, hemoglobin decrease and complication rates were compared between the groups. SFR was evaluated one month after surgery by direct urinary system radiography and USG or CT. RESULTS: A total of 58 patients were included in the study. There were 35 patients in the mini-PCNL group and 23 patients in the RIRS group. Table 1 shows the demographic and clinical characteristics of both groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of age, gender, stone size, location, side and density. Calcium oxalate stones were observed at a higher rate in both groups. Mean fluoroscopy time was higher in the mini-PCNL group (p = 0.001). The mean surgery time was lower in the mini-PCNL group (p = 0.024). The mean hemoglobin decrease was greater in the percutaneous group (p = 0.039). There were no differences between the groups in terms of postoperative hospital stay, complication rates, and SFR one month after surgery. CONCLUSION: Although mini-PCNL seems to be more advantageous in terms of operation time compared to RIRS, it is disadvantageous in terms of average fluoroscopy time, radiation received and average hemoglobin decrease.


Subject(s)
Kidney Calculi , Nephrolithotomy, Percutaneous , Humans , Kidney Calculi/surgery , Female , Male , Child , Retrospective Studies , Nephrolithotomy, Percutaneous/methods , Nephrolithotomy, Percutaneous/adverse effects , Adolescent , Treatment Outcome , Child, Preschool , Operative Time , Length of Stay , Fluoroscopy
16.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(8): 291, 2024 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38976115

ABSTRACT

Potential toxic elements emanating from extracted ores during gold processing present occupational and unintentional health hazards in communities, the general populace, and the environment. This study investigated the concentrations and potential health effects of metal content in the topsoils of Obuasi municipality, which has been mined for gold over the past century. Surface topsoil samples, sieved to 250 µm, were initially scanned for metals using x-ray fluorescence techniques, followed by confirmation via ICP-MS. In vitro bioaccessibility assays were conducted using standard methods. The geoaccumulation indices (Igeo) indicate high enrichment of As (Igeo = 6.28) and Cd (Igeo = 3.80) in the soils, especially in the eastern part of the municipality where illegal artisanal mining is prevalent. Additionally, the southern corridor, situated near a gold mine, exhibited significant levels of As and Mn. Results obtained for the total metal concentrations and contamination indices confirmed the elevation of the studied potential toxic elements in the Obuasi community. A hazard index value of 4.42 and 3.30 among children and adults, respectively, indicates that indigens, especially children, are susceptible to non-cancer health effects.


Subject(s)
Gold , Mining , Soil Pollutants , Humans , Ghana , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Child , Adult , Metals, Heavy/analysis , Biological Availability , Arsenic/analysis , Environmental Exposure , Risk Assessment
17.
Environ Geochem Health ; 46(8): 292, 2024 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38976118

ABSTRACT

Groundwater, as an essential resource, holds significant importance for human production and livelihoods. With the deterioration of the water environment, the issue of groundwater quality has become an urgent international concern. This study focused on the Fenghuang Mountain Area (FMA) and collected a total of 41 sets of samples including pore groundwater (PGW), fissure groundwater (FGW), karst groundwater (KGW), and river water (RW). Hydrochemical analysis methods were employed to identify the hydrochemical characteristics and controlling factors. The entropy-weighted water quality index (EWQI) and health risk assessment model were utilized to assess the groundwater quality and nitrate health risk, respectively. The results indicated that the dominant anion and cation in both groundwater and surface water in the FMA were HCO3- and Ca2+, respectively, with the main hydrochemical type being HCO3-Ca. Groundwater and surface water in the FMA were primarily controlled by rock weathering process, with ion concentrations influenced mainly by the dissolution of halite, sylvite, carbonates (calcite and dolomite), silicates, and gypsum, as well as by reverse anion exchange process. PGW was significantly affected by agricultural activities, with NO3- concentration closely related to human activities. The water quality of FGW was relatively good, with Class I and Class II water accounting for the highest proportion, reaching 84.62%. The high-value area of EWQI in PGW was influenced by human activities. The impact of nitrate health risk on children was significantly greater than on adults, with FGW having the lowest health risk and PGW having the highest health risk. The research results can provide important guarantees for the rational development and utilization of water resources in the FMA and the sustainable development of the economy in Northeast China.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring , Groundwater , Nitrates , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Quality , China , Risk Assessment , Groundwater/chemistry , Humans , Nitrates/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Child , Adult , Rivers/chemistry
19.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0306651, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, Tuberculosis (TB) is the main cause of morbidity and mortality among infectious disease. TB and Human Immune Virus (HIV) are the two deadly pandemics which interconnected each other tragically, and jeopardize the lives of children; particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, this review was aimed to determine the aggregated national pooled incidence of tuberculosis among HIV- infected children and its predictors in Ethiopia. METHODS: An electronic search engine (HINARI, PubMed, Scopus, web of science), Google scholar and free Google databases were searched to find eligible studies. Quality of the studies was checked using the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) quality assessment checklists for cohort studies. Heterogeneity between studies was evaluated using Cochrane Q-test and the I2 statistics. RESULT: This review revealed that the pooled national incidence of tuberculosis among children with HIV after initiation of ART was 3.63% (95% CI: 2.726-4.532) per 100-person-years observations. Being Anemic, poor and fair ART adherence, advanced WHO clinical staging, missing of cotrimoxazole and isoniazid preventing therapy, low CD4 cell count, and undernutrition were significant predictors of tuberculosis incidence. CONCLUSION: The study result indicated that the incidence of TB among HIV- infected children is still high. Therefore, parents/guardians should strictly follow and adjust nutritional status of their children to boost immunity, prevent undernutrition and opportunistic infections. Cotrimoxazole and isoniazid preventive therapy need to continually provide for HIV- infected children for the sake of enhancing CD4/immune cells, reduce viral load, and prevent from advanced disease stages. Furthermore, clinicians and parents strictly follow ART adherence.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Tuberculosis , Humans , Ethiopia/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , Incidence , Child , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Child, Preschool , Risk Factors
20.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0304240, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Half of the world's children experience violence every year, but the meaning of violence is not universally agreed. We may therefore risk failing to measure, and address, the acts that matter most to children and adolescents. In this paper, we describe and synthesise evidence on how children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa conceptualise different behavioural acts which are deemed violence in childhood under WHO and UN CRC definitions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies. We searched PsychINFO, CINAHL, Embase, Global Health, Medline and ERIC for all publications released prior to March 2023. 30 papers met inclusion criteria. We synthesised primary data from children and adolescents and drew upon theoretical and contextual interpretations of authors of included studies. Only 12 of more than 45 sub-Saharan African countries were represented with relevant research. Of the 30 included papers, 25 came from three countries: South Africa, Uganda and Ghana. Only 10 of 30 papers reported data from young children (pre-adolescence), and 18 of 30 papers primarily focused on sexual violence. 14 studies used child friendly and/or participatory methods. From this limited evidence, we identified six overarching themes in how children and adolescents conceptualised their experiences of acts internationally recognised as violence: 1) adults abusing or neglecting responsibility; 2) sexual violence from peers, family and community members; 3) violence in established intimate relationships; 4) emotional violence surrounding sex from peers and community members; 5) fighting and beating between peers; 6) street and community dangers. No studies meeting our inclusion criteria specifically examined children or adolescents' conceptualisations of homophobic or transphobic violence; violence against children with disabilities; boys' experiences of sexual violence from male perpetrators; trafficking, modern slavery or conflict; child labour; or female genital mutilation. We found that three dimensions were important in how children and adolescents constructed conceptualisations of violence: their age, relationship to the perpetrator, and the physical location of acts they had experienced. These dimensions were interrelated and gendered. CONCLUSION: The current limited evidence base suggests children and adolescents' conceptualisations of violence overlapped with, but were also distinct from, the WHO and UNCRC definitions of violence. Currently international survey tools focus on measuring types and frequencies of particular acts and neglect to focus on children's understandings of those acts. Relationship to perpetrator, age of child, physical location are all important in how children conceptualise their experiences of acts internationally recognised as violence, and therefore might be important for their health and social outcomes. Those developing measures should account for these dimensions when developing items for testing.


Subject(s)
Qualitative Research , Violence , Humans , Adolescent , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Child , Violence/psychology , Female , Male
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