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J Exp Child Psychol ; 237: 105757, 2024 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37566958


A growing literature suggests that preverbal infants are sensitive to sociomoral scenes and prefer prosocial agents over antisocial agents. It remains unclear, however, whether and how emotional processes are implicated in infants' responses to prosocial/antisocial actions. Although a recent study found that infants and toddlers showed more positive facial expressions after viewing helping (vs. hindering) events, these findings were based on naïve coder ratings of facial activity; furthermore, effect sizes were small. The current studies examined 18- and 24-month-old toddlers' real-time reactivity to helping and hindering interactions using three physiological measures of emotion-related processes. At 18 months, activity in facial musculature involved in smiling/frowning was explored via facial electromyography (EMG). At 24 months, stress (sweat) was explored via electrodermal activity (EDA). At both ages, arousal was explored via pupillometry. Behaviorally, infants showed no preferences for the helper over the hinderer across age groups. EMG analyses revealed that 18-month-olds showed higher corrugator activity (more frowning) during hindering (vs. helping) actions, followed by lower corrugator activity (less frowning) after hindering (vs. helping) actions finished. These findings suggest that antisocial actions elicited negativity, perhaps followed by brief disengagement. EDA analyses revealed no significant event-related differences. Pupillometry analyses revealed that both 18- and 24-month-olds' pupils were smaller after viewing hindering (vs. helping), replicating recent evidence with 5-month-olds and suggesting that toddlers also show less arousal following hindering than following helping. Together, these results provide new evidence with respect to whether and how arousal/affective processes are involved when infants process sociomoral scenarios.

Emotions , Problem Solving , Infant , Humans , Child, Preschool , Emotions/physiology , Face , Facial Muscles , Arousal , Facial Expression
J Exp Child Psychol ; 237: 105716, 2024 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37603980


Cross-classification, the ability to categorize multifaceted entities in many ways, is a remarkable cognitive milestone for children. Past work has focused primarily on documenting the timeline for when children reach cross-classification competence. However, it is not well understood what cognitive factors underpin children's improvements. The current study aimed to examine the contributions of age, theory of mind, and rule switching to children's cross-classification development. We tested 3- to 5-year-old children (N = 75) using a cross-classification task, the Theory of Mind Task Battery, and the Three-Dimensional Change Card Sort test. The results revealed that age and theory of mind predict children's cross-classification over and above the effects of rule switching. The results also revealed that advanced-level theory of mind reasoning is a particularly strong predictor of cross-classification development. These findings increase understanding of cross-classification within children's broader cognitive development.

Theory of Mind , Humans , Child, Preschool , Child Development , Cognition
J Exp Child Psychol ; 237: 105763, 2024 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37647841


The ability to manage frustration induced by having to wait for valued outcomes emerges across childhood and is an important marker of self-regulatory capacity. However, approaches to measure this capacity in preschool children are lacking. In this study, we introduced a new task, the Preschool Delay Frustration Task (P-DeFT), designed specifically to identify children's behavioral and emotional markers of waiting-induced frustration during the imposed wait period and after the release from waiting. We then explored how waiting-induced frustration relates to individual differences in delay sensitivity and whether it differs between two cultural groups thought to have different attitudes toward children's conduct and performance: Hong Kong (HK) and the United Kingdom (UK). A total of 112 preschool children (mean age = 46.22 months) completed the P-DeFT in a quiet laboratory. Each trial had two stages; first, a button press elicited a Go signal; second, this Go signal allowed children to go to a "supermarket" to pick a target toy. On most trials, the Go signal occurred immediately on the first press. On 6 trials, an unexpected/unsignaled 5- or 10-s pre-Go-signal period was imposed. Frustration was indexed by performance (button presses and press duration), behavioral agitation, and negative affect during the pre-Go-signal wait period and the post-Go-signal shopping task. Parents rated their children's delay sensitivity. Waiting-related frustration expressed during both the pre-Go-signal wait period and the post-Go-signal task varied with (a) the length of wait and (b) individual differences in parent-rated delay sensitivity. UK children displayed more negative affect during delay than their HK counterparts, although the relationship between delay sensitivity and frustration was culturally invariant.

Frustration , Schools , Child, Preschool , Humans , Child , Educational Status , Emotions , Hong Kong
J Exp Child Psychol ; 237: 105764, 2024 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37690347


We report two experiments on children's tendency to enhance their reputations through communicative acts. In the experiments, 4-year-olds (N = 120) had the opportunity to inform a social partner that they had helped him in his absence. In a first experiment, we pitted a prosocial act ("Let's help clean up for Doggie!") against an instrumental act ("Let's move these out of our way"). Children in the prosocial condition were quicker to inform their partner of the act and more likely to protest when another individual was given credit for it. In a second experiment, we replicated the prosocial condition but with a new manipulation: high-cost versus low-cost helping. We manipulated both the language surrounding cost (i.e., "This will be pretty tough to clean up" vs. "It will be really easy to clean this up") and how difficult the task itself was. As predicted, children in the high-cost condition were quicker to inform their partner of the act and more likely to take back credit for it. These results suggest that even 4-year-old children make active attempts to elicit positive reputational judgments for their prosocial acts, with cost as a moderating factor.

Communication , Judgment , Male , Humans , Child, Preschool , Language
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856


Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.

Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Models, Statistical
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(2): 611-624, Maio-Ago. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1419225


INTRODUÇÃO: A imobilização prolongada acarreta prejuízos sistêmicos que repercute diretamente em maiores agravos aos pacientes, dentre eles se encontra a redução da VFC, indicativo de maior morbimortalidade clínica. OBJETIVO: Analisar se o tempo de internação hospitalar influencia a modulação autonômica da frequência cardíaca em pacientes pediátricos. METODOLOGIA: Estudo longitudinal, quantitativo e prospectivo, realizado em uma enfermaria pediátrica. A amostra foi de pacientes entre 4 a 11 anos, ambos gêneros, internados dentro das primeiras 48 horas. A coleta iniciou após a assinatura do TCLE pelo responsável, seguida do colhimento dos dados pessoais e clínicos dos pacientes seguida da coleta da VFC, repetida no último dia de internação. A captação da VFC foi realizada pelo monitor Polar RS800CX. Os dados foram transferidos e passados por uma análise matemática no programa Kubios HRV2.2. Por fim, os dados foram tabulados e analisados pelo Microsoft Excel 2013 e software BioEstat® 5.3 respectivamente. RESULTADOS: Os valores lineares no domínio do tempo obtiveram média pré (IRR=644,7 com P=0,42; RMSSD= 46,1 com P=0,017 e SDNN=43,5 com P=0,017) e pós (IRR=656,3; RMSSD=34,8; SDNN=35,38) e no domínio da frequência média pré (LF=41,9 com P=0,013; HF=58,0 com P=0,013; LF/HF=1,03 com P=0,04) e pós (LF=52,2; HF=47,7; LF/HF=3,56). A correlação de Pearson na análise tanto de RMSSD pós x tempo de internação, quanto SDNN pós x tempo de internação demonstraram R=0,55 e R=0,59 respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Foi observado que o tempo de internação exerce influência negativa sobre a modulação autonômica da frequência cardíaca em pacientes pediátricos.

INTRODUCTION: Prolonged immobilization causes systemic damage that has a direct impact on greater harm to patients, among which is the reduction in HRV, indicative of greater clinical morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether the length of hospital stay influences the autonomic modulation of heart rate in pediatric patients. METHODOLOGY: Longitudinal, quantitative and prospective study, carried out in a pediatric ward. The sample consisted of patients between 4 and 11 years old, both genders, hospitalized within the first 48 hours. The collection began after the signature of the TCLE by the guardian, followed by the collection of the patients' personal and clinical data, followed by the HRV collection, repeated on the last day of hospitalization. HRV capture was performed by the Polar RS800CX monitor. The data were transferred and passed through a mathematical analysis in the Kubios HRV2.2 program. Finally, data were tabulated and analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2013 and BioEstat® 5.3 software, respectively. RESULTS: Linear values in the time domain obtained mean pre (IRR=644.7 with P=0.42; RMSSD=46.1 with P=0.017 and SDNN=43.5 with P=0.017) and post (IRR=656.3; RMSSD=34.8; SDNN=35.38) and in the pre mean frequency domain (LF=41.9 with P=0.013; HF=58.0 with P=0.013; LF/HF=1,03 with P=0.04) and powders (LF=52.2; HF=47.7; LF/HF=3.56). Pearson's correlation in the analysis of both the RMSSD post x length of stay and the SDNN post x length of stay showed R=0.55 and R=0.59 respectively. CONCLUSION: It was observed that the length of stay has a negative influence on the autonomic modulation of heart rate in pediatric patients.

INTRODUCCIÓN: La inmovilización prolongada provoca daños sistémicos que repercuten directamente en un mayor perjuicio para los pacientes, entre los que se encuentra la disminución de la VFC, indicativa de una mayor morbimortalidad clínica. OBJETIVO: Analizar si la duración de la estancia hospitalaria influye en la modulación autonómica de la frecuencia cardiaca en pacientes pediátricos. METODOLOGÍA: Estudio longitudinal, cuantitativo y prospectivo, realizado en una planta de pediatría. La muestra consistió en pacientes entre 4 y 11 años, de ambos sexos, hospitalizados dentro de las primeras 48 horas. La recogida se inició tras la firma del TCLE por el tutor, seguida de la recogida de los datos personales y clínicos de los pacientes, seguida de la recogida de la VFC, repetida el último día de hospitalización. La captura de la VFC se realizó con el monitor Polar RS800CX. Los datos se transfirieron y pasaron por un análisis matemático en el programa Kubios HRV2.2. Finalmente, los datos fueron tabulados y analizados utilizando Microsoft Excel 2013 y el software BioEstat® 5.3, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvieron valores lineales en el dominio temporal medios pre (TIR=644,7 con P=0,42; RMSSD=46,1 con P=0,017 y SDNN=43,5 con P=0,017) y post (TIR=656,3; RMSSD=34. 8; SDNN=35,38) y en el dominio de la frecuencia media pre (LF=41,9 con P=0,013; HF=58,0 con P=0,013; LF/HF=1,03 con P=0,04) y polvos (LF=52,2; HF=47,7; LF/HF=3,56). La correlación de Pearson en el análisis tanto de la RMSSD post x duración de la estancia como de la SDNN post x duración de la estancia mostró R=0,55 y R=0,59 respectivamente. CONCLUSIÓN: Se observó que la duración de la estancia influye negativamente en la modulación autonómica de la frecuencia cardíaca en pacientes pediátricos.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Pediatrics , Hospitalization , Autonomic Nervous System , Child , Prospective Studies , Hospitals , Length of Stay
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(2): 979-995, Maio-Ago. 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1425164


Objetivo: Essa pesquisa teve como objetivo determinar o perfil clínico, epidemiológico e espacial daLeishmaniose Visceral, bem como, sua associação com o desmatamento nos municípios pertencentesao 12º centro regional de saúde no Sudeste do Estado do Pará, Brasil de 2016 a 2020. Método: Trata-se de um estudo analítico ecológico, realizado com dados provenientes de 15 municípios do 12º Centro Regional de Saúde, obtidos por meio do banco de dados do Data-SUS-TABNET, através do SINAN. Resultados: Para o período do estudo foram notificados 415 casos de LV nos municípios analisados, o que correspondeu a uma média anual de 83 casos. O ano com maior número de notifi- cações foi 2017, apresentando 34,7%, sendo o município de Redenção com o maior número de casos.Conclusões: Portanto, há necessidade de ampliação das medidas de controle e vigilância da LV, comfoco na notificação de casos, a fim de realizar a obtenção do panorama fidedigno da LV e elaborar estratégias mais assertivas para seu controle e mitigação.

Objective: This research aimed to determine the clinical, epidemiological and spatial profile of Vis- ceral Leishmaniasis, as well as its association with deforestation in the municipalities belonging to the 12th regional health center in the Southeast of Pará State, Brazil from 2016 to 2020. Method: Thisis an ecological analytical study, conducted with data from 15 municipalities of the 12th Regional Health Center, obtained through the Data-SUS-TABNET database, through SINAN. Results: For thestudy period, 415 cases of VL were reported in the analyzed municipalities, corresponding to an an-nual average of 83 cases. The year with the highest number of notifications was 2017, present- ing 34.7%, being the municipality of Redenção with the highest number of cases. Conclu- sion: Therefore,there is a need to expand VL control and surveillance measures, focusing on the notification of casesin order to obtain a reliable picture of VL and develop more assertive strategies for its control and mitigation.

Objetivo: Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar el perfil clínico, epidemiológico y espacial de la Leishmaniasis Visceral, así como su asociación con la deforestación en municipios pertenecientes al 12º Centro Regional de Salud del Sudeste del Estado de Pará, Brasil, de 2016 a 2020. Método: Trata-se de um estudo analítico ecológico, realizado com dados provenientes de 15 municípios do 12º Centro Regional de Saúde, obtidos por meio do banco de dados do Data-SUS-TABNET, através do SINAN. Resultados: Durante el período de estudio, fueron notificados 415 casos de LV en los municipios analizados, correspondiendo a una media anual de 83 casos. El año con mayor número de notificaciones fue 2017, 34,7%, y el municipio de Redenção presentó el mayor número de casos. Conclusiones: Por lo tanto, es necesario ampliar las medidas de control y vigilancia de la LV, centrándose en la notificación de casos con el fin de obtener una imagen fiable de la LV y desarrollar estrategias más asertivas para su control y mitigación.

Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Health Surveillance/statistics & numerical data , Clinical Studies as Topic/methods , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Unified Health System , Health Strategies , Notification/statistics & numerical data , Spatial Analysis , One Health/statistics & numerical data
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3941, ene.-dic. 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF - Nursing | ID: biblio-1441981


Objetivo: caracterizar el perfil sociofamiliar de niños y adolescentes negros con problemas de salud mental y describir desde un enfoque interseccional quién es responsable de su cuidado. Método: estudio exploratorio descriptivo de enfoque cualitativo, llevado a cabo en un Centro de Atención Psicosocial Infantil y Juvenil de la región norte del municipio de São Paulo. La recolección de datos se realizó con 47 familiares de niños y adolescentes negros, con el soporte de un guion con variables predefinidas, sometidas a análisis estadístico. Resultados: se realizaron 49 entrevistas, 95,5% con mujeres, con edad promedio de 39 años, 88,6% madres, 85,7% negras. La renta familiar procede del salario para el 100% de los cuidadores hombres y el 59% de las mujeres. Entre las cuidadoras negras, 25% tienen casa propia y, entre las pardas, 46,2%. Del total de cuidadores, el 10% vive en casas ocupadas, el 20% vive en viviendas cedidas, el 35% tiene casa propia y el 35% alquila. La red de contención social es mayor entre los blancos (16,7%), seguidos por los pardos (3,8%) y está ausente entre los negros (0%). Conclusión: las responsables por el cuidado de niños y e adolescentes negros atendidos en el CAPSij, son, casi en su totalidad mujeres, "madres o abuelas" negras (o mulatas), con acceso desigual a educación, trabajo y vivienda, derechos sociales constitucionales en Brasil.

Objective: to characterize the sociofamily profile of black-skinned children and adolescents with mental health problems and to intersectionally describe who assumes responsibility for their care. Method: a descriptive and exploratory study with a quantitative approach, developed in the Psychosocial Care Center for Children and Adolescents from the North region of the municipality of São Paulo. The data were collected from 47 family members of black-skinned children and adolescents, using a script with predefined variables submitted to statistical analysis. Results: a total of 49 interviews were conducted: 95.5% women with a mean age of 39 years old, 88.6% mothers and 85.7% black-skinned. Family income comes from wages for all the male caregivers and for 59% of the women. Among the black-skinned female caregivers, 25% live in their own house, whereas this percentage is 46.2% among the brown-skinned ones. Of all the caregivers, 10% have a job, 20% live in transferred properties, 35% in houses of their own and 35% in rented places. The social support network is larger among white-skinned people (16.7%), followed by brown-skinned (3.8%), and absent among black-skinned individuals (0%). Conclusion: those responsible for the care of black-skinned children and adolescents monitored by the CAPS-IJ are almost entirely women, black-skinned (black or brown) "mothers or grandmothers", with unequal access to education, work and housing, constitutional social rights in Brazil.

Objetivo: caracterizar o perfil sociofamiliar de crianças e adolescentes negros com problemas de saúde mental e descrever interseccionalmente quem se responsabiliza por seus cuidados. Método: estudo descritivo exploratório de abordagem quantitativa, desenvolvido em um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infantojuvenil da região norte do município de São Paulo. Os dados foram coletados com 47 familiares de crianças e adolescentes negros, utilizando um roteiro com variáveis pré-definidas, submetidas à análise estatística. Resultados: foram realizadas 49 entrevistas, sendo 95,5% com mulheres, média de idade de 39 anos, 88,6% mães, 85,7% negras. A renda familiar é proveniente de salário, para 100% dos cuidadores homens e para 59% das mulheres. Dentre as cuidadoras pretas, 25% possuem casa própria, sendo que, dentre as pardas, 46,2%. Do total de cuidadores, 10% vivem em condições de ocupação, 20% habitam moradias cedidas, 35% casas próprias e 35% alugadas. A rede social de suporte é maior entre os brancos (16,7%), seguido pelos pardos (3,8%) e ausente entre os pretos (0%). Conclusão: as responsáveis pelo cuidado de crianças e adolescentes negros acompanhados pelo CAPSij, são na quase totalidade mulheres, "mães ou avós" negras (pretas ou pardas), com acesso desigual à educação, trabalho e moradia, direitos sociais constitucionais no Brasil.

Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adult , Brazil , Mental Health , Educational Status , Grandparents , Gender Identity , Mothers
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3896, ene.-dic. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF - Nursing | ID: biblio-1441984


Objetivo: identificar los factores que promueven y amenazan la Esperanza en cuidadores familiares de niños de 2 a 3 años con condiciones crónicas. Método: estudio cualitativo, incluyendo 46 cuidadores familiares de niños con condición crónica de 2 a 3 años, egresados de dos Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales. La recolección de datos ocurrió mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas guiadas por el Modelo de Intervención en Ayuda Mutua Promotora de Esperanza. Los datos fueron sometidos a análisis temático deductivo. Resultados: se identificaron como factores promotores de la Esperanza: la experiencia compartida con los miembros de la red social de apoyo; la relación con el niño; mejoría clínica del niño; espiritualidad; orientación positiva para el futuro. Se identificaron como factores amenazadores de la Esperanza: relaciones conflictivas y incredulidad con relación al niño por parte de personas cercanas; incertidumbres sobre el futuro; inseguridades sobre la capacidad de cuidar al niño. Conclusión: los factores amenazadores de Esperanza generaron sufrimiento, dolor, angustia, ansiedad y soledad en los cuidadores. Los factores promotores de Esperanza generaron consuelo, motivación, fuerza y alegría. Los hallazgos permiten a los enfermeros reconocer las fortalezas y debilidades de los cuidadores y promover la adopción de comportamientos que promuevan la Esperanza en los cuidadores de niños con condiciones crónicas.

Objective: to identify the factors that promote and threaten Hope in family caregivers of 2- to 3-year-old children with chronic conditions. Method: qualitative study with 46 family caregivers of children between 2 and 3 years old with a chronic condition, discharged from two Neonatal Intensive Care Units. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews guided by the Model for Intervention in Mutual Help Promoter of Hope. Data were submitted to deductive thematic analysis. Results: the following were identified as factors that promote Hope: The experience shared with members of the social support network; The relationship with the child; Clinical improvement of the child; Spirituality; Positive guidance for the future. The following were identified as factors that threaten Hope: Conflictual relationships and discredit of the child by close people; Uncertainties about the future; Insecurities about the ability to care for the child. Conclusion: the threatening factors of Hope generated suffering, pain, anguish, anxiety, and loneliness in caregivers. The promoting factors of Hope generated comfort, motivation, strength and joy. The findings allow Nurses to recognize the strengths and weaknesses of caregivers and adopt behaviors that promote Hope in caregivers of children with chronic conditions.

Objetivo: identificar quais são os fatores promotores e ameaçadores da Esperança em cuidadores familiares de crianças de 2 a 3 anos com condições crônicas. Método: estudo qualitativo, incluindo 46 cuidadores familiares de crianças com condição crônica de 2 a 3 anos egressas de duas Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal. A coleta de dados se deu por meio de entrevista semiestruturada orientada pelo Modelo de Intervenção em Ajuda Mútua Promotor de Esperança. Os dados foram submetidos à análise temática dedutiva. Resultados: foram identificados como fatores promotores da Esperança: A experiência compartilhada com membros da rede de apoio social; A relação com a criança; Melhora clínica da criança; Espiritualidade; Orientação positiva para o futuro. Foram identificados como fatores ameaçadores da Esperança: Relações conflituosas e descrença da criança por pessoas próximas; Incertezas sobre o futuro; Inseguranças sobre a capacidade de prestar os cuidados à criança. Conclusão: os fatores ameaçadores da Esperança geraram sofrimento, dor, angústia, ansiedade e solidão nos cuidadores. Os fatores promotores da Esperança geraram conforto, motivação, força e alegria. Os achados possibilitam que Enfermeiros reconheçam as potencialidades e fragilidades dos cuidadores e promovam a adoção de comportamentos promotores de Esperança em cuidadores de crianças com condições crônicas.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Anxiety , Social Support , Chronic Disease , Caregivers , Spirituality , Qualitative Research
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 31: e3780, Jan.-Dec. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF - Nursing | ID: biblio-1424053


Abstract Objective: to synthesize the care provided by health professionals, at different care levels, to the families of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Method: a qualitative study, based on the Family-Centered Care philosophical theoretical framework and developed with 22 professionals from three multidisciplinary teams from the Health Care Network of a municipality in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The data were collected through two focus groups with each team, organized with the support of the Atlas.ti 8 Qualitative Data Analysis® software and submitted to Thematic Content Analysis. Results: the findings show actions centered on specific situations, especially on the demands and needs arising from the child's care and atypical behavior. Influencing factors for family care, such as work overload and little professional experience, show the weakness of multiprofessional care and the invisibility of the family as a care unit. Conclusion: the need is highlighted to review functioning of the network for the multiprofessional care of children and their families and how such network is organized. It is recommended to offer permanent education actions that contribute to the qualification of multiprofessional teams in the care of families of children in the autism spectrum.

Resumo Objetivo: sintetizar o cuidado prestado por profissionais de saúde, nos diferentes níveis de atenção, às famílias de crianças com Transtornos do Espectro Autista. Método: estudo qualitativo, baseado no referencial teórico filosófico do Cuidado Centrado na Família, desenvolvido com 22 profissionais de três equipes multidisciplinares de serviços da Rede de Atenção à Saúde de um município do estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por meio de dois grupos focais com cada equipe, organizados com apoio do software Atlas.ti 8 Qualitative Data Analysis e submetidos à Análise Temática de Conteúdo. Resultados: as descobertas mostram ações centradas em situações pontuais, principalmente nas demandas e necessidades advindas do cuidado da criança e de seu comportamento atípico. Fatores influenciadores para o cuidado à família, como a sobrecarga de trabalho e a pouca experiência profissional, evidenciam a fragilidade da assistência multiprofissional e a invisibilidade da família enquanto unidade de cuidado. Conclusão: destaca-se a necessidade de rever o funcionamento e modo como a rede para o cuidado multiprofissional da criança e sua família está organizada. Recomenda-se a oferta de ações de educação permanente que contribuam com a qualificação das equipes multiprofissionais no cuidado às famílias de crianças no espectro do autismo.

Resumen Objetivo: resumir la atención que brindan los profesionales de la salud, en los diferentes niveles de atención, a las familias de niños con Trastornos del Espectro Autista. Método: estudio cualitativo, basado en el marco teórico filosófico de la Atención Centrada en la Familia, desarrollado con 22 profesionales de tres equipos multidisciplinarios de servicios de la Red de Atención de la Salud en un municipio del estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de dos grupos focales con cada equipo y organizados con la ayuda del software Atlas.ti 8 Qualitative Data Analysis ® y sometidos al Análisis de Contenido Temático. Resultados: los hallazgos muestran acciones enfocadas en situaciones específicas, principalmente en las demandas y necesidades que genera el cuidado del niño y su comportamiento atípico. Factores que influyen en la atención a la familia, como la sobrecarga de trabajo y la poca experiencia profesional, revelan las falencias que tiene la asistencia multidisciplinaria y la invisibilidad de la familia como unidad de atención. Conclusión: es necesario examinar el funcionamiento y la forma en que está organizada la red para la atención multidisciplinaria de los niños y sus familias. Se recomienda implementar acciones de educación continua que contribuyan a la capacitación de los equipos multidisciplinarios para la atención a las familias de niños con espectro autista.

Humans , Child, Preschool , Patient Care Team , Autistic Disorder/therapy , Brazil , Family Support
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 77(6): 141-145, Juli-Dic. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-225559


Introducción: La encefalopatía KIF1A-associated-neurological-disorder (KAND) es un grupo de patologías neurodegenerativas progresivas de diversa gravedad ocasionadas por mutaciones en el gen KIF1A (kinesin family member 1A) situado en el cromosoma 2q37.3. Dicho gen codifica una proteína de la familia de las cinesinas 3 que participa en el transporte anterógrado de las vesículas presinápticas dependientes del trifosfato de adenosina a través de microtúbulos neuronales. Casos clínicos: Se describen cuatro pacientes, con edades entre 1 y 13 años, con mediana de inicio de los síntomas de cinco meses (rango intercuartílico: 0-11 meses), lo que supone una prevalencia aproximada de 1 de cada 64.000 menores de 14 años para nuestra población pediátrica. Clínicamente, destacaron discapacidad intelectual, hipotonía axial y paraparesia espástica en 4/4, y síntomas cerebelosos en 2/4. Otras manifestaciones fueron incontinencia urinaria, polineuropatía sensitivomotora y alteración conductual. Destaca, en el caso 2, la alteración en el videoelectroencefalograma, que mostraba epilepsia focal con generalización secundaria y focalidad paroxística occipitoparietal posterior derecha con transmisión contralateral. También mostraba crisis oculógiras en supraversión instantáneas pluricotidianas sin correlato electroencefalográfico. Conclusiones: En nuestra serie, la encefalopatía KAND, fenotipo trastorno neurodegenerativo con retraso global del desarrollo, de la marcha y espasticidad progresiva de los miembros inferiores, atrofia cerebelosa y/o afectación de la corteza visual, fue predominante, y en uno de los casos asoció polineuropatía sensitivomotora. La mutación de novo missense fue más frecuente y en tres casos es la primera descripción conocida. Un caso mostraba epilepsia focal y crisis oculógiras no epilépticas.(AU)

Introduction: KIF1A-associated-neurological-disorder (KAND) encephalopathy is a group of progressive neurodegenerative pathologies of varying severity caused by mutations in the KIF1A gene (Kinesin family member 1A) located on chromosome 2q37.3. This gene encodes a protein of the kinesin-3 family that participates in the ATP-dependent anterograde transport of presynaptic vesicles through neuronal microtubules. Case report: Four patients are described, aged 1-13 years, with a median onset of symptoms of 5 months (IQR 0-11 months), which represents an approximate prevalence of 1 per 64,000 children under 14 years of age for our pediatric population. Clinically, intellectual disability (ID), axial hypotonia and spastic paraparesis stood out in 4/4 and cerebellar symptoms in 2/4. Other manifestations were urinary incontinence, sensory-motor polyneuropathy, and behavioral alteration. In case 2, the alteration in the video-EEG stands out, which showed focal epilepsy with secondary generalization and right posterior occipito-parietal paroxysmal focality with contralateral transmission. She also showed instantaneous pluricotidian supraversion oculogyric seizures without EEG correlates. Conclusions: In our series, KAND encephalopathy had a predominant neurodegenerative disorder phenotype with global developmental delay, gait delay, and progressive spasticity of the lower limbs, cerebellar atrophy, and/or involvement of the visual cortex, which in one case was associated with sensory-motor polyneuropathy. The de novo missense mutation was more frequent and in three cases it is the first known description. One case showed focal epilepsy and nonepileptic oculogyric seizures.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Mutation, Missense , Kinesins , Intellectual Disability , Phenotype , Microtubules , Neurology , Nervous System Diseases , Inpatients , Physical Examination , Prevalence
Porto Alegre; Editora Rede Unida; jun. 2023. 381 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437749


A proteção dos dados pessoais é um tema crucial para o controle social da saúde nesses tempos de capitalismo de vigilância em que há uma troca constante da privacidade dos indivíduos por serviços. Os capítulos dessa publicação são fruto de autores especialistas e convidados que participaram do Seminário online e gratuito intitulado "LGPD na Saúde: o CNS como articulador dos interesses da sociedade brasileira em Defesa da Vida", realizado em 2021. O evento foi promovido pelo Conselho Nacional de Saúde e nove mesas redondas conformaram três eixos de discussão: Acesso Universal à Saúde na Sociedade da Informação; Governo, Transformação Digital, Cidadania e o Controle Social da Saúde e Aspectos da Saúde Digital e da Ética em Pesquisa à Luz da LGPD. Enfim, esta coletânea visa contribuir com o cenário da governança das informações em saúde e a literacia dos atores do controle social na transição digital da saúde, suas práticas e tecnologias emergentes associadas.

Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Electronic Data Processing , Social Protection in Health
Nefrología (Madrid) ; 43(5)sep.-oct. 2023. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-224872


Introducción y objetivos: Actualmente no hay duda de que un trasplante renal con buena función es el mejor tratamiento que podemos ofrecer a un niño con insuficiencia renal severa, mejorando su crecimiento, su desarrollo y su actividad en general. Pero hay pocos trabajos que sigan a estos pacientes a lo largo de los años para conocer cómo es su vida de adultos, sus logros y si hay dificultades que han podido derivarse de su enfermedad. Este ha sido el objetivo del presente trabajo. Material y métodos: Hemos recogido la evolución de 287 pacientes que recibieron al menos un trasplante renal en edad pediátrica en nuestra unidad, analizando no solo la supervivencia de los injertos y receptores sino, fundamentalmente, su calidad de vida actual. Resultados: En un periodo de 40años (1979-2019) se realizaron 345 trasplantes renales en 287 receptores pediátricos, con una tasa de retrasplantes antes de cumplir la mayoría de edad del 16,7%. La supervivencia, tanto de los pacientes como de los injertos, ha mejorado notablemente en los últimos 20años. La supervivencia de los pacientes trasplantados en el periodo de 1979 a 1996 a los 10, 20 y 25años de la intervención fue del 83, del 76 y del 65%, respectivamente, y del 94 y del 82% a los 10 y 20años, respectivamente, en los trasplantados en el periodo de 1997 a 2019. La supervivencia del injerto en el periodo de 1979 a 1996 a los 10 y 20años fue del 39 y del 18%, aumentando en el segundo periodo al 68 y al 34%, respectivamente. La supervivencia del primer injerto con donante vivo a los 5 y 10años fue del 94 y del 89%. Actualmente son adultos 150 de estos pacientes. De ellos, el 32% tienen pareja estable y el 6,6% tienen hijos. El nivel de formación es menor que el de la población general, y muchos de ellos tienen otras comorbilidades. (AU)

Introduction and objectives: There is currently no doubt that a kidney transplant with good function is the best treatment we can offer a child with severe kidney failure, improving their growth, development and life in general. But there are few works that follow these patients over the years to find out what their life is like as adults, their achievements and if there are any difficulties that may have arisen from their illness. That has been the objective of this work. Material and methods: We have collected the evolution of 287 patients who received at least one kidney transplant in pediatric age, analyzing not only the survival of grafts and recipients but, fundamentally, their current quality of life. Results: Over a 40-year period (1979-2019), 345 kidney transplants were performed in 287 pediatric recipients, with a rate of retransplantation before reaching the age of majority of 16.7%. Survival, both of patients and grafts, has improved remarkably in the last 20years. The survival of transplanted patients in the period from 1979 to 1996 at 10, 20 and 25years after the intervention was 83%, 76% and 65% respectively, and 94% and 82% at 10 and 20years respectively in those transplanted in the period from 1997 to 2019. Graft survival in the period from 1979 to 1996 at 10 and 20years was 39% and 18%, increasing in the second period to 68% and 34% respectively. Survival of the first living donor graft at 5 and 10years was 94% and 89%.Currently 150 of these patients are adults. Of these, 32% have a stable partner and 6.6% have children. The level of training is lower than that of the general population and many of them have other comorbidities.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Kidney Transplantation , Pediatrics , Life Expectancy , Quality of Life , Survivorship
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(9)2023 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37763660


Background and Objectives: Baloxavir marboxil is a novel cap-dependent endonuclease inhibitor prescribed for influenza treatment. Unlike neuraminidase inhibitors like oseltamivir, which impair viral release from infected host cells, baloxavir blocks influenza virus proliferation by inhibiting viral mRNA transcription. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of baloxavir and oseltamivir for the treatment of early childhood influenza. Materials and Methods: Of 1410 patients diagnosed with influenza between 2015 and 2018 at a Japanese primary care outpatient clinic, 1111 pediatric patients aged 0-6 years who were treated with baloxavir (n = 555) or oseltamivir (n = 556) were enrolled retrospectively. The following clinical factors were compared between patients treated with baloxavir and oseltamivir: age, sex, time from fever onset to drug administration (<24 h or 24-48 h), time from drug administration to fever reduction, influenza type (A or B), and influenza vaccination before disease onset. The duration of the fever, which was used as an index of clinical effectiveness, was compared using the log-rank test. Clinical factors associated with fever duration were determined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Median age (3.0 vs. 2.5 years), influenza type A (99% vs. 47%), median duration from drug administration to fever resolution (1 day vs. 2 days), and influenza vaccination (done, 41% vs. not done, 65%) were significantly different between the baloxavir and oseltamivir groups (p < 0.001). The number of patients with a fever duration of one day was 553 (99.6%) in the baloxavir group and 6 (1.1%) in the oseltamivir group (p < 0.001). Baloxavir use was only significantly associated with fever duration in the multivariate analysis (odds ratio 50,201, p < 0.001). Apparent adverse effects were not observed in the baloxavir-treated group. Conclusions: Baloxavir treatment resulted in a shorter fever duration than oseltamivir treatment in early childhood influenza.

Dibenzothiepins , Influenza, Human , Child, Preschool , Humans , Child , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Dibenzothiepins/therapeutic use , Fever/drug therapy
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(9)2023 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37763712


Background and Objectives: The current study aims to determine the impact of fasciotomy on mortality and morbidity in children and adults with crush-related AKI following the 2023 Kahramanmaras earthquakes. Materials and Methods: The study included individuals who had suffered crush injuries after the 2023 Kahramanmaras earthquakes and were identified as having an acute kidney injury (AKI). Patients with an AKI were divided into two groups based on age: those under 18 years and those over 18 years. A comparative analysis was conducted between the mortality and morbidity rates of patients who underwent fasciotomy and those who did not. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), sepsis, and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have all been identified as contributors to morbidity. Results: The study was conducted with a total of 40 patients (21 males and 19 females) aged between 4 and 83 years. A total of 21 patients underwent fasciotomy, and the patients underwent varying numbers of fasciotomy, ranging from 0 to 11. The mortality rate was 12.5%, corresponding to five adult patients. No instances of mortality were reported in the paediatric cohort. The application of fasciotomy in instances of crush-induced AKI did not result in elevated levels of mortality in either the paediatric or adult demographic. Within the adult population, a substantial difference in the duration of dialysis was observed between individuals who underwent fasciotomy and those who did not. A statistically significant increase in the number of fasciotomy incisions was observed in patients diagnosed with sepsis compared with those without sepsis. The study found a significant positive correlation between the number of fasciotomy incisions and dialysis days. Conclusions: Neither adult nor paediatric patients with crush-induced AKI showed an increased risk of death after fasciotomy. The number of fasciotomy incisions significantly correlated with the development of sepsis. Despite experiencing delays in hospital admission for paediatric patients, the incidence of both crush syndrome and mortality rates among children remained relatively low.

Acute Kidney Injury , Earthquakes , Sepsis , Female , Male , Adult , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Child, Preschool , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Fasciotomy , Renal Dialysis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology
Nutrients ; 15(18)2023 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37764854


At present, energy surplus and micronutrient deficiency coexist in preschool children in China. The low intake of dairy products accompanied by an increased consumption of soft drinks in this age group reveals some of the reasons for this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the improvement of key micronutrients in preschool children by quantifying the dietary nutritional gap before and after simulating the use of dairy products instead of equal amounts of soft drinks. In the cross-sectional dietary intake survey of infants and young children in China (2018-2019), 676 preschool children aged 3-6 years were randomly selected. Four days of dietary data were collected through an online diary for simulation. The individual intake of soft drinks was substituted at a corresponding volume by soymilk, cow's milk, or formulated milk powder for preschool children (FMP-PSC). In these three models, the simulated nutrient intake and nutrient inadequacy or surplus were compared with the actual baseline data of the survey. The results of this study indicated that all three models made the nutrient intakes of this group more in line with the recommendations. For the whole population, the replacement of soymilk improved the intake of zinc (from 4.80 to 4.85 mg/d), potassium (from 824.26 to 836.82 mg/d), vitamin A (from 211.57 to 213.92 µg retinol activity equivalent/d), and vitamin B9 (from 115.94 to 122.79 µg dietary folate equivalent/d); the simulation of cow's milk improved the intake of calcium (from 311.82 to 330.85 mg/d), zinc (from 4.80 to 4.87 mg/d), potassium (from 824.26 to 833.62 mg/d), vitamin A (from 211.57 to 215.12 µg retinol activity equivalent/d), vitamin B2 (from 0.53 to 0.54 mg/d), and vitamin B12 (from 1.63 to 1.67 µg/d); and the substitution of FMP-PSC improved the intake of calcium (from 311.82 to 332.32 mg/d), iron (from 9.91 to 9.36 mg/d), zinc (from 4.80 to 4.96 mg/d), potassium (from 824.26 to 828.71 mg/d), vitamin A (from 211.57 to 217.93 µg retinol activity equivalent/d), vitamin B2 (from 0.53 to 0.54 mg/d), vitamin B9 (from 115.94 to 118.80 µg RA dietary folate equivalent/d), and vitamin B12 (from 1.63 to 1.70 µg/d). Therefore, correct nutritional information should be provided to parents and preschool children. In addition to changing the consumption behavior of soft drinks, it is also necessary to have a diversified and balanced diet. When necessary, the use of food ingredients or nutritional fortifiers can be encouraged.

Calcium , Carbonated Beverages , Dairy Products , Micronutrients , Animals , Child, Preschool , Humans , Cholecalciferol , Cross-Sectional Studies , East Asian People , Folic Acid , Vitamin A , Vitamins , Child , Milk , Diet
Nutrients ; 15(18)2023 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37764872


Surveys have indicated that preschool children do not consume adequate amounts of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and nuts. This cross-sectional intervention study aimed to investigate whether a meticulously crafted meal plan for children of kindergarten age (5-6 years) could effectively enhance their daily intake of nutritious foods. Ninety-four healthy children from six kindergartens were enrolled in the study and were randomly assigned to a prototype group (PG) and a control group (CG). The PG kindergartens (n = 4) received a prototype 5-day meal plan that included regulated portions of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and nuts adhering to dietary guidelines. Conversely, the CG kindergartens (n = 2) adhered to their standard meal plan. Participants maintained their usual eating habits outside of kindergarten and during weekends. Using the dietary assessment tool Open Platform for Clinical Nutrition (OPEN), combined with a 7-day dietary record of food consumed inside and outside the kindergarten, the average daily intake of specific food groups was assessed and compared with the Dietary Guidelines for Children. A total of 57 participants completed the study, 40 from the PG and 17 from the CG. Among the PG participants, the average daily intake of vegetables, whole grains, and nuts compared with the guideline recommendations was significantly higher than in the CG. Notably, only meals consumed within the kindergarten setting significantly improved the overall intake, with the outside intake having no significant effect. This study underscores the vital role of a well-designed and precisely executed meal plan in kindergartens in improving children's intake of healthy foods. The findings could help drive positive changes in child nutrition within educational environments.

Nuts , Vegetables , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Whole Grains , Cross-Sectional Studies , Meals
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(18)2023 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37765953


Toddlers face serious health hazards if they fall from relatively high places at home during everyday activities and are not swiftly rescued. Still, few effective, precise, and exhaustive solutions exist for such a task. This research aims to create a real-time assessment system for head injury from falls. Two phases are involved in processing the framework: In phase I, the data of joints is obtained by processing surveillance video with Open Pose. The long short-term memory (LSTM) network and 3D transform model are then used to integrate key spots' frame space and time information. In phase II, the head acceleration is derived and inserted into the HIC value calculation, and a classification model is developed to assess the injury. We collected 200 RGB-captured daily films of 13- to 30-month-old toddlers playing near furniture edges, guardrails, and upside-down falls. Five hundred video clips extracted from these are divided in an 8:2 ratio into a training and validation set. We prepared an additional collection of 300 video clips (test set) of toddlers' daily falling at home from their parents to evaluate the framework's performance. The experimental findings revealed a classification accuracy of 96.67%. The feasibility of a real-time AI technique for assessing head injuries in falls through monitoring was proven.

Craniocerebral Trauma , Learning , Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Craniocerebral Trauma/diagnosis , Acceleration , Computer Systems , Neural Networks, Computer
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 27(9): 306-316, 2023 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37768330


Introduction: Human adenovirus (HAdV) is a common pathogen that can cause acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in children. Adenovirus pneumonia is the most severe respiratory disease associated with HAdV. Objective: We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of children hospitalized with adenovirus pneumonia in Quanzhou, China, in 2019. We also sought to determine the viral genotype in these cases and explore cases associated with severe adenovirus pneumonia. Methods: We collected oropharyngeal swabs from 99 children who were hospitalized with pneumonia in Quanzhou Women and Children's Hospital, these samples were tested for the presence of HAdV. Genotyping of the viruses was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Logistic regression analysis was employed to analyze risk factors related to severe adenovirus pneumonia. The epidemiological data were examined using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (SPSS). Results: Among the 99 patients in our study, the median age was 21 months. We observed a 4% mortality rate among those diagnosed with adenovirus pneumonia. Adenovirus pneumonia often presents as a coinfection. Lactate dehydrogenase and neutrophil percentages of WBC's were significantly increased in patients with severe adenovirus pneumonia compared with mild HAdV disease. The predominant viral genotypes identified were type 3 and type 7. Conclusions: In the Quanzhou area of southeast China, the incidence of adenovirus pneumonia was found to be high among children younger than two years old. Type 7 HAdV was identified as the primary pathogen. A long duration of fever, dyspnea and digestive system complications were risk factors for severe adenovirus pneumonia after HAdV infection. Clinical Trial Registration number: ChiCTR2200062358.

Coinfection , Pneumonia, Viral , Child , Humans , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/epidemiology , Genotype , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , China/epidemiology , Adenoviridae/genetics
Dev Psychol ; 59(10): 1881-1891, 2023 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37768620


Previous research has suggested that infants are able to distinguish between possible and impossible events and make basic probabilistic inferences. However, much of this research has focused on children's intuitions about past events for which the outcome is already determined but unknown. Here, we investigated children's ability to use probabilistic information to guide their choices and actively shape future events. In two experiments, we examined whether children could successfully direct a marble through a series of tubes, selecting between routes where success was possible, impossible, or guaranteed (i.e., 50% vs. 0%, or 50% vs. 100%; Experiment 1), and routes where success was mutually possible but probabilistically distinct (e.g., 33% vs. 50%; Experiment 2). In total, we tested 136 two- to five-year-old children (76 males), recruited predominantly through a museum in Brisbane, Australia. In Experiment 1, we found that while younger children typically did not perform above chance, the vast majority of 4- and 5-year-olds consistently distinguished between possible and impossible or guaranteed outcomes. In Experiment 2, children of all ages had greater difficulty with distinguishing between two possible outcomes with different likelihoods than between possible and impossible/guaranteed outcomes, although some individual 4- and 5-year-olds demonstrated competence when making both distinctions. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).

Museums , Child , Infant , Male , Humans , Child, Preschool , Australia , Probability