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1.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802155

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Both SARS-CoV-2 and influenza virus share similarities such as clinical features and outcome, laboratory, and radiological findings. METHODS: Literature search was done using PubMed to find MEDLINE indexed articles relevant to this study. As of 25 November 2020, the search has been conducted by combining the MeSH words "COVID-19" and "Influenza". RESULTS: Eighteen articles were finally selected in adult patients. Comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and obesity were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients, while pulmonary diseases and immunocompromised conditions were significantly more common in influenza patients. The incidence rates of fever, vomiting, ocular and otorhinolaryngological symptoms were found to be significantly higher in influenza patients when compared with COVID-19 patients. However, neurologic symptoms and diarrhea were statistically more frequent in COVID-19 patients. The level of white cell count and procalcitonin was significantly higher in influenza patients, whereas thrombopenia and elevated transaminases were significantly more common in COVID-19 patients. Ground-grass opacities, interlobular septal thickening, and a peripheral distribution were more common in COVID-19 patients than in influenza patients where consolidations and linear opacities were described instead. COVID-19 patients were significantly more often transferred to intensive care unit with a higher rate of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study estimated differences of COVID-19 and influenza patients which can help clinicians during the co-circulation of the two viruses.


Subject(s)
/virology , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , /physiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , /mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnostic imaging , Influenza, Human/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , Young Adult
3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(13): e100, 2021 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821595

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak on excess in-hospital mortality among patients who visited emergency departments (EDs) and to assess whether the excess mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic varies by community income level. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study using the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS) database in Korea. The study population was defined as patients who visited all 402 EDs with medical conditions other than injuries between January 27 and May 31, 2020 (after-COVID) and for the corresponding time period in 2019 (before-COVID). The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. The main exposure was the COVID-19 outbreak, and the interaction variable was county per capita income tax. We calculated the risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality rates by COVID-19 outbreak, as well as the difference-in-difference of risk-adjusted rates between the before-COVID and after-COVID groups according to the county income tax using a multilevel linear regression model with the interaction term. RESULTS: A total of 11,662,167 patients (6,765,717 in before-COVID and 4,896,450 in after-COVID) were included in the study with a 1.6% crude in-hospital mortality rate. The risk-adjusted mortality rate in the after-COVID group was higher than that in the before-COVID group (1.82% vs. 1.50%, difference: 0.31% [0.30 to 0.33]; adjusted odds ratio: 1.22 [1.18 to 1.25]). The excess in-hospital mortality rate of the after-COVID in the lowest quartile group of county income tax was significantly higher than that in the highest quartile group (difference-in-difference: 0.18% (0.14 to 0.23); P-for-interaction: < 0.01). CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was excess in-hospital mortality among patients who visited EDs, and there were disparities in excess mortality depending on community socioeconomic positions.


Subject(s)
/pathology , Hospital Mortality , Social Class , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Databases, Factual , Disease Outbreaks , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 89, 2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 spread may have a dramatic impact in countries with vulnerable economies and limited availability of, and access to, healthcare resources and infrastructures. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, a low prevalence and mortality have been observed so far. METHODS: We collected data on individuals' social contacts in the South West Shewa Zone (SWSZ) of Ethiopia across geographical contexts characterized by heterogeneous population density, work and travel opportunities, and access to primary care. We assessed how socio-demographic factors and observed mixing patterns can influence the COVID-19 disease burden, by simulating SARS-CoV-2 transmission in remote settlements, rural villages, and urban neighborhoods, under school closure mandate. RESULTS: From national surveillance data, we estimated a net reproduction number of 1.62 (95% CI 1.55-1.70). We found that, at the end of an epidemic mitigated by school closure alone, 10-15% of the population residing in the SWSZ would have been symptomatic and 0.3-0.4% of the population would require mechanical ventilation and/or possibly result in a fatal outcome. Higher infection attack rates are expected in more urbanized areas, but the highest incidence of critical disease is expected in remote subsistence farming settlements. School closure contributed to reduce the reproduction number by 49% and the attack rate of infections by 28-34%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the relatively low burden of COVID-19 in Ethiopia observed so far may depend on social mixing patterns, underlying demography, and the enacted school closures. Our findings highlight that socio-demographic factors can also determine marked heterogeneities across different geographical contexts within the same region, and they contribute to understand why sub-Saharan Africa is experiencing a relatively lower attack rate of severe cases compared to high-income countries.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Quarantine/trends , Schools/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 654587, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33841438

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 occurs in the majority of children as COVID-19, without symptoms or with a paucisymptomatic respiratory syndrome, but a small proportion of children develop the systemic Multi Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C), characterized by persistent fever and systemic hyperinflammation, with some clinical features resembling Kawasaki Disease (KD). Objective: With this study we aimed to shed new light on the pathogenesis of these two SARS-CoV-2-related clinical manifestations. Methods: We investigated lymphocyte and dendritic cells subsets, chemokine/cytokine profiles and evaluated the neutrophil activity mediators, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS), in 10 children with COVID-19 and 9 with MIS-C at the time of hospital admission. Results: Patients with MIS-C showed higher plasma levels of C reactive protein (CRP), MPO, IL-6, and of the pro-inflammatory chemokines CXCL8 and CCL2 than COVID-19 children. In addition, they displayed higher levels of the chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10, mainly induced by IFN-γ. By contrast, we detected IFN-α in plasma of children with COVID-19, but not in patients with MIS-C. This observation was consistent with the increase of ISG15 and IFIT1 mRNAs in cells of COVID-19 patients, while ISG15 and IFIT1 mRNA were detected in MIS-C at levels comparable to healthy controls. Moreover, quantification of the number of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), which constitute the main source of IFN-α, showed profound depletion of this subset in MIS-C, but not in COVID-19. Conclusions: Our results show a pattern of immune response which is suggestive of type I interferon activation in COVID-19 children, probably related to a recent interaction with the virus, while in MIS-C the immune response is characterized by elevation of the inflammatory cytokines/chemokines IL-6, CCL2, and CXCL8 and of the chemokines CXCL9 and CXL10, which are markers of an active Th1 type immune response. We believe that these immunological events, together with neutrophil activation, might be crucial in inducing the multisystem and cardiovascular damage observed in MIS-C.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Chemokine CXCL10/immunology , Chemokine CXCL9/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Plasma Cells/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies
6.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852710

ABSTRACT

Despite the widespread use of chlorhexidine (CHX) to prevent infection, data regarding the in vitro action of CHX against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are limited. Clinical isolates from Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, identified during 2002/2003 and 2012/2013 were studied to describe the susceptibility to CHX and mupirocin, molecular characteristics, and virulence profile of MRSA. Susceptibility test to Mupirocin was performed by the disk diffusion method and to CHX by the agar dilution technique. PCR for virulence genes, mecA gene and Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) types were investigated as well. Mupirocin- and CHX-resistant isolates were sequenced using the IlluminaTM plataform. Two hundred and sixteen MRSA clinical isolates were evaluated: 154 from infected and 62 from colonized patients. Resistance to mupirocin was observed in four isolates assigned as SCCmec type III and STs (ST05; ST239 and ST105) carrying mupA and blaZ, two of them co-harboring the ileS gene. Only one isolate assigned as SCCmec type III was resistant to CHX (MIC of 8.0 µg.mL-1) and harbored the qacA gene. Resistance to chlorhexidine and mupirocin were found in isolates carrying qacA and mupA in our hospital. Since these genes are plasmid-mediated, this finding draws attention to the potential spread of resistance to mupirocin in our hospital.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Mupirocin/pharmacology , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Brazil , Child , Child, Preschool , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Female , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Infant , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Virulence , Young Adult
7.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852712

ABSTRACT

To estimate the prevalence of cases of trachoma in the population at social risk aged 1-9 years in Pernambuco State and its mesoregions. This was a cross-sectional study in which secondary data from the National Household Survey on Trachoma (2014-2015) were analyzed. The study covered 96 census tracts distributed across the mesoregions of Pernambuco State (Metropolitan Region of Recife, Zona da Mata, Agreste, Sertao do Sao Francisco and Sertao Pernambucano). The study included all homes with children aged 1-9 years, and all of them were examined for trachoma, using the WHO criteria. Among the total of 7,423 children aged 1-9 years who participated in this survey, 446 presented with active trachoma. Thus, the prevalence of trachoma in Pernambuco State, in children between 1-9 years old was 6.65%, and it was higher among children aged 5-9 years (7.12%) and among girls (7.23%). This result was seen in the majority of the mesoregions studied, except in the Zona da Mata and Sertao do Sao Francisco, where there were higher prevalences in the age group of 1-4 years (5.55%) and among boys (5.90%). A tendency towards a higher prevalence between 1 and 6 years of age was observed. The follicular trachoma continues to be an important public health problem in Pernambuco State. It particularly affects poor people, including those living in urban areas of the State.


Subject(s)
Trachoma/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Trachoma/diagnosis
8.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(4): 465-470, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858057

ABSTRACT

Objective: The purpose of the study was to describe the prevalence of myopia and to explore the associated factors of myopia among Han and Yi students aged 5-16 years in Yunnan province, China. Methods: A total of 5 971 Han and Yi students were included in the data analysis from the Yunnan eye study which was conducted from March to August, 2014. Information regarding demographic factors, socioeconomic status and lifestyle-related exposures were collected by per-designed questionnaires. The ophthalmic examinations including distance visual acuity, anterior segment examination, cycloplegic auto-refraction, and ocular motility examination were conducted. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the risk factors for myopia. Results: The age of 5 971 subjects was (10.68±2.24)years old, and the total prevalence of myopia and high myopia was 48.05% and 0.59%. Myopia prevalence was found to be higher in Han students compared with Yi ethnicity (50.20% vs. 47.10%,P=0.029). In multivariate analysis, the occurrence of myopia was associated with age (OR=1.28, 95%CI: 1.25-1.31), girls (OR=1.32, 95%CI: 1.18-1.48), increasing reading and writing time per day (OR=1.13, 95%CI: 1.07-1.20), having self-reported myopia among friend(s) (OR=1.15, 95%CI: 1.02-1.29), having myopic father (OR=1.38, 95%CI: 1.06-1.79), having myopic mother (OR=1.43, 95%CI: 1.12-1.83) and higher educated mother (OR=1.24, 95%CI: 1.03-1.51). Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence of myopia among Mangshi students. The presence of myopia was associated with increasing age, girls, increasing reading and writing time per day, having self-reported myopia among friend(s), having myopic father, having myopic and high educated mother.


Subject(s)
Myopia , Refraction, Ocular , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Myopia/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Visual Acuity
9.
Libyan J Med ; 16(1): 1910195, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797350

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of corona virus disease (COVID-19) caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 began in Wuhan, China, resulting in respiratory disorders. In January of 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a pandemic owing to its global spread. Because no studies have investigated COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia, this study investigated similarities and differences between demographic data during the COVID-19 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective trend analysis was performed to assess demographic data of all laboratory-confirmed MERS and COVID-19 cases. Patients' charts were reviewed for data on demographics, mortality, citizenship, sex ratio, and age groups with descriptive and comparative statistics; the data were analyzed using a non-parametric binomial test and chi-square test. Of all COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia,78%were male patients and 22% were female patients. This proportion of male COVID-19 patients was similar to that of male MERS patients, which also affected male patients more frequently than female patients. The number of COVID-19-positive Saudi cases was lower than that of non-Saudi cases, which were in contrast to that of MERS; COVID-19 appeared to be remarkably similar to MERS with respect to recovered cases. However, the numbers of critical and dead COVID-19 patients have been much lower than those of MERS patients. The largest proportion of COVID-19 and MERS cases (44.05% and 40.8%, respectively) were recorded in the Western region. MERS and COVID-19 exhibited similar threats to the lives of adults and the elderly, despite lower mortality rates during the COVID-19 epidemic. Targeted prevention of and interventions against MERS should be allocated populations according to the areas where they inhabit. However, much more information regarding the dynamics and epidemiology of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia is needed.Abbrevation : MERS: Middle East Respiratory syndrome; COVID-19: Corona Virus Disease 2019.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Demography , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Young Adult
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800150

ABSTRACT

Celiac disease (CD) is a frequent intestinal inflammatory disease occurring in genetically susceptible individuals upon gluten ingestion. Recent studies point to a role in CD for genes involved in cell shape, adhesion and actin rearrangements, including a Rho family regulator, Rho GTPase-activating protein 31 (ARHGAP31). In this study, we investigated the morphology and actin cytoskeletons of peripheral monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) from children with CD and controls when in contact with a physiological substrate, fibronectin. DCs were generated from peripheral blood monocytes of pediatric CD patients and controls. After adhesion on fibronectin, DCs showed a higher number of protrusions and a more elongated shape in CD patients compared with controls, as assessed by immunofluorescence actin staining, transmitted light staining and video time-lapse microscopy. These alterations did not depend on active intestinal inflammation associated with gluten consumption and were specific to CD, since they were not found in subjects affected by other intestinal inflammatory conditions. The elongated morphology was not a result of differences in DC activation or maturation status, and did not depend on the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 haplotype. Notably, we found that ARH-GAP31 mRNA levels were decreased while RhoA-GTP activity was increased in CD DCs, pointing to an impairment of the Rho pathway in CD cells. Accordingly, Rho inhibition was able to prevent the cytoskeleton rearrangements leading to the elongated morphology of celiac DCs upon adhesion on fibronectin, confirming the role of this pathway in the observed phenotype. In conclusion, adhesion on fibronectin discriminated CD from the controls' DCs, revealing a gluten-independent CD-specific cellular phenotype related to DC shape and regulated by RhoA activity.


Subject(s)
Actins/metabolism , Celiac Disease/metabolism , Cell Shape , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , Celiac Disease/pathology , Cell Adhesion , Child , Child, Preschool , Dendritic Cells/pathology , Female , Fibronectins/metabolism , GTPase-Activating Proteins/metabolism , HLA-DQ Antigens/metabolism , Humans , Male , Monocytes/pathology , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , rhoA GTP-Binding Protein/metabolism
12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850037

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) is a severe immune-mediated disorder. We aim to report the neurologic features of children with PIMS-TS. METHODS: We identified children presenting to a large children's hospital with PIMS-TS from March to June 2020 and performed a retrospective medical note review, identifying clinical and investigative features alongside short-term outcome of children presenting with neurologic symptoms. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients with PIMS-TS were identified, 9 (12%) had neurologic involvement: altered conciseness (3), behavioral changes (3), focal neurology deficits (2), persistent headaches (2), hallucinations (2), excessive sleepiness (1), and new-onset focal seizures (1). Four patients had cranial images abnormalities. At 3-month follow-up, 1 child had died, 1 had hemiparesis, 3 had behavioral changes, and 4 completely recovered. Systemic inflammatory and prothrombotic markers were higher in patients with neurologic involvement (mean highest CRP 267 vs 202 mg/L, p = 0.05; procalcitonin 30.65 vs 13.11 µg/L, p = 0.04; fibrinogen 7.04 vs 6.17 g/L, p = 0.07; d-dimers 19.68 vs 7.35 mg/L, p = 0.005). Among patients with neurologic involvement, these markers were higher in those without full recovery at 3 months (ferritin 2284 vs 283 µg/L, p = 0.05; d-dimers 30.34 vs 6.37 mg/L, p = 0.04). Patients with and without neurologic involvement shared similar risk factors for PIMS-TS (Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic ethnicity 78% vs 70%, obese/overweight 56% vs 42%). CONCLUSIONS: Broad neurologic features were found in 12% patients with PIMS-TS. By 3-month follow-up, half of these surviving children had recovered fully without neurologic impairment. Significantly higher systemic inflammatory markers were identified in children with neurologic involvement and in those who had not recovered fully.


Subject(s)
/complications , Inflammation/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , Brain/diagnostic imaging , /psychology , Child , Child Behavior Disorders/epidemiology , Child Behavior Disorders/etiology , Child, Preschool , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Inflammation/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/psychology , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/psychology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology
13.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 90, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858472

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan and spread rapidly worldwide. Despite the high number of people affected, data on clinical features and prognostic factors in children and adolescents are limited. We propose a retrospective study aimed to evaluate clinical characteristics of children infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Italy. METHODS: A pediatric population admitted with COVID-19 to Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital of Rome (Italy) in the period from the end of February to July 2020 has been studied. Medical history, comorbidities, symptoms and laboratory findings were obtained from patients' electronic medical records. RESULTS: In 66 patients (35 males and 31 females) we found that: i) fever and cough were the dominant symptoms, while vomit and convulsions were rare symptoms; and ii) all ages of childhood were susceptible to COVID-19. Furthermore, we found that, compared to females, males with COVID-19, although not significantly, had higher values of inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and ESR. Conversely, we found that COVID-19 positive females were older than males and required more days of hospitalization. Both males and females COVID-19 positives had procalcitonin values within the normal range and D-Dimer values slightly higher than the normal range. With regard to this latter marker, the value measured in females, although not significant, was higher than that measured in males. Interestingly, the presence of leukopenia was found in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the adults we found that COVID-19 infection in children is a non-severe inflammatory disease in both males and females. In any case, many detailed studies should be conducted.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Infant , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 367, 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33874896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, clinical data from various parts of the world have been reported. Up till now, there has been no clinical data with regards to COVID-19 from Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). The aim was to report on the first cohort of patients from B&H and to analyze factors that influence COVID-19 patient's length of hospitalization (LOH). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted at Tuzla University Clinical Center (UKC), B&H. It involved 25 COVID-19 positive patients that needed hospitalisation between March 28th and April 27th 2020. The LOH was measured from the time of admission to discharge. Factors analyzed induced age, BMI, presence of known comorbidities, serum creatinine and O2 saturation upon admission. RESULTS: The mean age was 52.92 ± 19.15 years and BMI 28.80 ± 4.22. LOH for patients with BMI < 25 was 9 ± SE2.646 days (CI 95% 3.814-14.816) vs 14.182 ± SE .937 (CI 95% 12.346-16.018 p < 0.05; HR 5.148 CI95% 1.217 to 21.772 p = 0.026) for ≥25 BMI. The mean LOH of patients with normal levels of O2 ≥ 95% was 11.667 ± SE1.202 (CI95% 8.261 to 13.739; p = 0.046), while LOH for patients with < 95% was 14.625 ± SE 1.231 CI95% 12.184 to 16.757 p = 0.042; HR 3.732 CI95%1.137-12.251 p = 0.03). Patients without known comorbidities had a mean LOH of 11.700 ± SE1.075 (CI 95% 9.592-13.808), while those with comorbidities had a mean of 14.8 ± 1.303 (CI 95% 12.247-17.353; p = 0.029) with HR2.552. CONCLUSION: LOH varied among COVID-19 patients and was prolonged when analyzed for BMI ≥25, comorbidities, elevated creatinine, and O2 saturation < 95%. Furthermore, risk factors for COVID-19 patients in B&H do not deviate from those reported in other countries.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bosnia and Herzegovina/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
15.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 95, 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33874991

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki disease (KD) is a vasculitis of unknown origin of small and medium caliber blood vessels, especially involving coronary arteries and is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in childhood in developed countries. Although rarely, it can recur: most recurrences occur within 2 years of the initial episode. No data are available on incidence of recurrent KD in Europe and multiple recurrences are rarely seen. We reviewed the medical literature on Kawasaki disease recurrence and reported a new case of Kawasaki disease recurrence in a child with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We believe that in our case SARS Cov2 acted as a trigger capable to determine, in a genetically susceptible individual, a second recurrence of the disease. In the Covid-19 era we affirm the importance for Kawasaki disease to be tested for SARS Cov2 infection.


Subject(s)
/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , /epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Pandemics , Recurrence
16.
Neurosciences (Riyadh) ; 26(2): 186-191, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814372

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of seizures in children with GDD and identify the characteristics of such patients; to examine the association of GDD with epilepsy and to determine the effect of certain risk factors on this association. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study conducted at the pediatric neurology and developmental assessment clinic at King Fahad specialist hospital (KFSH), Saudi Arabia. All data were collected by reviewing the electronic medical records of 200 pediatric patients who presented with global developmental delay from February 2016 to April 2018. RESULTS: The sample includes 200 children (113 males, 87 females) aged zero to 12 years. The largest group of participants came from the Dammam region, representing 27.5% of the sample. The prevalence of epilepsy in GDD patients was 56%; the epilepsy and non-epilepsy groups differed significantly in age. The most common type of seizure was generalized onset motor, which were observed in 37.5% of the sample. Problems during labor occurred in 15% of the sample; consanguineous marriage occurred in 61.6% of the participants. Neither of these factors differed significantly in the epilepsy and non-epilepsy groups. Advanced paternal age did differ significantly in the two groups (p=0.003). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of epilepsy is high in children with GDD, and of the factors studied here, the most significant variables affecting this correlation are the type of seizure and advanced paternal age.


Subject(s)
Developmental Disabilities/epidemiology , Seizures/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 663074, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33815424

ABSTRACT

Routine childhood immunizations are proven to be one of the most effective public health interventions at controlling numerous deadly diseases. Therefore, the CDC recommends routine immunizations for children and adolescent populations against vaccine-preventable diseases e.g., tetanus, pertussis, diphtheria, etc. This current review sought to examine barriers to pediatric vaccine uptake behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also explored the implications for parental vaccine hesitancy/delay during an ongoing health crisis and proposed recommendations for increasing vaccine confidence and compliance. Our review determined that the receipt for vaccinations steadily improved in the last decade for both the United States and Tennessee. However, this incremental progress has been forestalled by the COVID-19 pandemic and other barriers i.e. parental vaccine hesitancy, social determinants of health (SDoH) inequalities, etc. which further exacerbate vaccination disparities. Moreover, non-compliance to routine vaccinations could cause an outbreak of diseases, thereby, worsening the ongoing health crisis and already strained health care system. Healthcare providers are uniquely positioned to offer effective recommendations with presumptive languaging to increase vaccination rates, as well as, address parental vaccine hesitancy. Best practices that incorporate healthcare providers' quality improvement coaching, vaccination reminder recall systems, adherence to standardized safety protocols (physical distancing, hand hygiene practices, etc.), as well as, offer telehealth and outdoor/drive-through/curbside vaccination services, etc. are warranted. Additionally, a concerted effort should be made to utilize public health surveillance systems to collect, analyze, and interpret data, thereby, ensuring the dissemination of timely, accurate health information for effective health policy decision-making e.g., vaccine distribution, etc.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Parents , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Tennessee , United States , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases/immunology , Vaccines/immunology
18.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 39(2): 182-187, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834673

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate and analyze children,s choice of environment in oral clinics so as to provide evidence for improving the oral clinic environment. METHODS: A total of 110 children in the Pediatric Dentistry of Qingdao Stomatological Hospital Affiliated to Qingdao University were selected as the research subjects from September to December 2019 to conduct a questionnaire survey, and the results were statistically analyzed by using a Chi-square test. RESULTS: A total of 107 effective questionnaires were collected. The children surveyed liked the room with pink and blue walls (61.68%), cartoon murals (57.94%), and arranged toys (61.68%). Most of them did not dislike the special smell in the room (62.62%) and liked the smell of orange essential oil (52.34%). During treatment, the children liked watching cartoons the best (61.68%), expected doctors to be dressed in white (51.40%), and expected doctors to be treated by female doctors (68.22%). Most children wanted to be accompanied by family members during treatment (62.62%). The Chi-square test showed statistically significant differences in seven questions between preschool and school-age children: the environment of the clinic room, the color of the walls, the clinic decoration, the entertainment during treatment, color of the doctors' dress and gender, and company of the family members during treatment (P<0.05). The difference of children's choice of color of the wall and clinic decoration during the first and subsequent visit was statistically significant (P<0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in the choice of clinic environment between different genders (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Children have their own preferences for the environment in the oral clinic. For preschool children, we need to create a soothing and warm atmosphere with warm colors liked by children. For school-age children, a calm and relaxed clinic atmosphere with cold colors should be created.


Subject(s)
Emotions , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7811, 2021 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837241

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) outbreak that emerged in late 2019 has posed a severe threat to human health and social and economic development, and thus has become a major public health crisis affecting the world. The spread of COVID-19 in population and regions is a typical geographical process, which is worth discussing from the geographical perspective. This paper focuses on Shandong province, which has a high incidence, though the first Chinese confirmed case was reported from Hubei province. Based on the data of reported confirmed cases and the detailed information of cases collected manually, we used text analysis, mathematical statistics and spatial analysis to reveal the demographic characteristics of confirmed cases and the spatio-temporal evolution process of the epidemic, and to explore the comprehensive mechanism of epidemic evolution and prevention and control. The results show that: (1) the incidence rate of COVID-19 in Shandong is 0.76/100,000. The majority of confirmed cases are old and middle-aged people who are infected by the intra-province diffusion, followed by young and middle-aged people who are infected outside the province. (2) Up to February 5, the number of daily confirmed cases shows a trend of "rapid increase before slowing down", among which, the changes of age and gender are closely related to population migration, epidemic characteristics and intervention measures. (3) Affected by the regional economy and population, the spatial distribution of the confirmed cases is obviously unbalanced, with the cluster pattern of "high-low" and "low-high". (4) The evolution of the migration pattern, affected by the geographical location of Wuhan and Chinese traditional culture, is dominated by "cross-provincial" and "intra-provincial" direct flow, and generally shows the trend of "southwest → northeast". Finally, combined with the targeted countermeasures of "source-flow-sink", the comprehensive mechanism of COVID-19 epidemic evolution and prevention and control in Shandong is revealed. External and internal prevention and control measures are also figured out.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Young Adult
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2046, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824347

ABSTRACT

Bone formation represents a heritable trait regulated by many signals and complex mechanisms. Its abnormalities manifest themselves in various diseases, including sclerosing bone disorder (SBD). Exploration of genes that cause SBD has significantly improved our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate bone formation. Here, we discover a previously unknown type of SBD in four independent families caused by bi-allelic loss-of-function pathogenic variants in TMEM53, which encodes a nuclear envelope transmembrane protein. Tmem53-/- mice recapitulate the human skeletal phenotypes. Analyses of the molecular pathophysiology using the primary cells from the Tmem53-/- mice and the TMEM53 knock-out cell lines indicates that TMEM53 inhibits BMP signaling in osteoblast lineage cells by blocking cytoplasm-nucleus translocation of BMP2-activated Smad proteins. Pathogenic variants in the patients impair the TMEM53-mediated blocking effect, thus leading to overactivated BMP signaling that promotes bone formation and contributes to the SBD phenotype. Our results establish a previously unreported SBD entity (craniotubular dysplasia, Ikegawa type) and contribute to a better understanding of the regulation of BMP signaling and bone formation.


Subject(s)
Bone Morphogenetic Proteins/metabolism , Bone and Bones/pathology , Proteins/metabolism , Sclerosis/pathology , Signal Transduction , Smad Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Base Sequence , Cell Differentiation , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Mice, Mutant Strains , Mutation/genetics , Osteoblasts/pathology , Pedigree , Phosphorylation , Proteins/genetics , Skull/pathology , Young Adult
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