Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.022.850
Filter
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Models, Statistical
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249911, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339366

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.


Resumo As neoplasias hematológicas e de células hematopoiéticas dos genes e as células hematopoiéticas estão associadas à mutação genética, geralmente em nível cromossômico. O estudo citogenético padrão é amplamente aceito como um dos principais determinantes diagnósticos e prognósticos em pacientes. Portanto, o presente estudo descritivo e transversal buscou determinar a análise citogenética de neoplasias hematológicas frequentes no Paquistão. Um total de 202 amostras de medula óssea periférica ou sangue de pacientes com malignidade hematológica benigna e maligna foi coletado usando uma técnica convencional de banda G. Entre os pacientes inscritos, a média de idade foi de 21,5 anos ± 23,4, e a distribuição por gênero mostrou uma marcada predominância da população masculina de 147 (73%) em comparação com a feminina de 55 (27%). Pacientes na faixa etária (2-10 anos) tiveram a maior frequência, 48 (24%), de neoplasias hematológicas, seguida da idade (11-20 anos) com 40 (20%). Cariótipos normais (46, XX / 46, XY) foram encontrados em 51% (n = 103) dos pacientes. Além disso, a frequência de cariótipo complexo foi de 30 (15%), enquanto normal foi observada em 171 (85%) pacientes. Leucemia linfoblástica aguda pré-B (LLA Pré-B) foi a doença maligna mais prevalente de 66 (33%), seguida por leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) de 41 (20%) e leucemia linfocítica aguda de 29 (14%). A translocação foi o 50 mais prevalente (25%), seguido por hipotriploidia 14 (7%) e monossomia 8 (4%) na análise de aberração cromossômica. Além disso, a translocação t (9:22) encontrada foi de 20 (10%) na LMC, com a maioria na faixa etária (31-40 anos). Este estudo recomenda que o cariótipo deve ser testado com frequência em condições hematológicas porque pode fornecer informações sobre as alterações cromossômicas relativas associadas a doenças malignas específicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Chromosome Aberrations , Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Karyotyping
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246062, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339355

ABSTRACT

Abstract A group of inherited blood defects is known as Thalassemia is among the world's most prevalent hemoglobinopathies. Thalassemias are of two types such as Alpha and Beta Thalassemia. The cause of these defects is gene mutations leading to low levels and/or malfunctioning α and β globin proteins, respectively. In some cases, one of these proteins may be completely absent. α and β globin chains form a globin fold or pocket for heme (Fe++) attachment to carry oxygen. Genes for alpha and beta-globin proteins are present in the form of a cluster on chromosome 16 and 11, respectively. Different globin genes are used at different stages in the life course. During embryonic and fetal developmental stages, γ globin proteins partner with α globin and are later replaced by β globin protein. Globin chain imbalances result in hemolysis and impede erythropoiesis. Individuals showing mild symptoms include carriers of alpha thalassemia or the people bearing alpha or beta-thalassemia trait. Alpha thalassemia causes conditions like hemolytic anemia or fatal hydrops fetalis depending upon the severity of the disease. Beta thalassemia major results in hemolytic anemia, growth retardation, and skeletal aberrations in early childhood. Children affected by this disorder need regular blood transfusions throughout their lives. Patients that depend on blood transfusion usually develop iron overload that causes other complications in the body systems like renal or hepatic impairment therefore, thalassemias are now categorized as a syndrome. The only cure for Thalassemias would be a bone marrow transplant, or gene therapy with currently no significant success rate. A thorough understanding of the molecular basis of this syndrome may provide novel insights and ideas for its treatment, as scientists have still been unable to find a permanent cure for this deadly disease after more than 87 years since it is first described in 1925.


Resumo Um grupo de defeitos sanguíneos hereditários é conhecido como talassemia e está entre as hemoglobinopatias mais prevalentes do mundo. As talassemias são de dois tipos, como talassemia alfa e beta. As causas desses defeitos são as mutações genéticas que levam a níveis baixos e/ou proteínas de globina com mau funcionamento, respectivamente. Em alguns casos, uma dessas proteínas pode estar completamente ausente. As cadeias de globina α e β formam uma dobra ou bolsa de globina para a fixação de heme (Fe ++) para transportar oxigênio. Os genes das proteínas alfa e beta globina estão presentes na forma de um cluster nos cromossomos 16 e 11, respectivamente. Diferentes genes de globina são usados ​​em diferentes estágios do curso de vida. Durante os estágios de desenvolvimento embrionário e fetal, as proteínas γ globina se associam à α globina e, posteriormente, são substituídas pela proteína β globina. Os desequilíbrios da cadeia de globina resultam em hemólise e impedem a eritropoiese. Indivíduos que apresentam sintomas leves incluem portadores de talassemia alfa ou as pessoas com traços de talassemia alfa ou beta. A talassemia alfa causa condições como anemia hemolítica ou hidropsia fetal fatal, dependendo da gravidade da doença. A beta talassemia principal resulta em anemia hemolítica, retardo de crescimento e aberrações esqueléticas na primeira infância. As crianças afetadas por esse distúrbio precisam de transfusões de sangue regulares ao longo da vida. Os pacientes que dependem de transfusão de sangue geralmente desenvolvem sobrecarga de ferro que causa outras complicações nos sistemas do corpo, como insuficiência renal ou hepática, portanto as talassemias agora são classificadas como uma síndrome. A única cura para as talassemias seria um transplante de medula óssea ou terapia genética sem atualmente uma taxa de sucesso significativa. Uma compreensão completa da base molecular dessa síndrome pode fornecer novos insights e ideias para seu tratamento, já que os cientistas ainda não conseguiram encontrar uma cura permanente para essa doença mortal depois de mais de 87 anos desde que foi descrita pela primeira vez em 1925.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Thalassemia/genetics , beta-Thalassemia/genetics , Hemoglobins
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248717, 2023. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339344

ABSTRACT

Abstract The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the most common cause of severe lower respiratory tract diseases in young children worldwide, leading to a high number of hospitalizations and significant expenditures for health systems. Neutrophils are massively recruited to the lung tissue of patients with acute respiratory diseases. At the infection site, they release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that can capture and/or inactivate different types of microorganisms, including viruses. Evidence has shown that the accumulation of NETs results in direct cytotoxic effects on endothelial and epithelial cells. Neutrophils stimulated by the hRSV-F protein generate NETs that are able to capture hRSV particles, thus reducing their transmission. However, the massive production of NETs obstructs the airways and increases disease severity. Therefore, further knowledge about the effects of NETs during hRSV infections is essential for the development of new specific and effective treatments. This study evaluated the effects of NETs on the previous or posterior contact with hRSV-infected Hep-2 cells. Hep-2 cells were infected with different hRSV multiplicity of infection (MOI 0.5 or 1.0), either before or after incubation with NETs (0.5-16 μg/mL). Infected and untreated cells showed decreased cellular viability and intense staining with trypan blue, which was accompanied by the formation of many large syncytia. Previous contact between NETs and cells did not result in a protective effect. Cells in monolayers showed a reduced number and area of syncytia, but cell death was similar in infected and non-treated cells. The addition of NETs to infected tissues maintained a similar virus-induced cell death rate and an increased syncytial area, indicating cytotoxic and deleterious damages. Our results corroborate previously reported findings that NETs contribute to the immunopathology developed by patients infected with hRSV.


Resumo O vírus sincicial respiratório humano (hRSV) é a causa mais comum de doenças graves do trato respiratório inferior em crianças pequenas em todo o mundo, resultando em grande número de hospitalizações e gastos significativos para os sistemas de saúde. Neutrófilos são recrutados em massa para o tecido pulmonar de pacientes com doenças respiratórias agudas. No local da infecção, eles liberam armadilhas extracelulares de neutrófilos (NETs) que podem capturar e/ou inativar diferentes tipos de microrganismos, incluindo vírus. Evidências demonstraram que o acúmulo de NETs resulta em efeitos citotóxicos diretos nas células endoteliais e epiteliais. Os neutrófilos estimulados pela proteína F do vírus sincicial respiratório (hRSV-F) geram NETs que são capazes de capturar partículas virais, reduzindo assim sua transmissão. No entanto, a produção maciça de NETs obstrui as vias aéreas e aumenta a gravidade da doença. Assim, um maior conhecimento sobre os efeitos das NETs durante as infecções por hRSV é essencial para o desenvolvimento de novos tratamentos específicos e eficazes. Este estudo avaliou os efeitos das NETs no contato prévio ou posterior à infecção de células Hep-2 com hRSV. As células Hep-2 foram infectadas com diferentes quantidades de hRSV (multiplicidade de infecção ou MOI 0,5 ou 1,0), antes ou após a incubação com NETs (0,5-16 μg/mL). Células infectadas e não tratadas mostraram redução da viabilidade celular e intensa coloração com azul de tripano, que foi acompanhada pela formação de sincícios numerosos e grandes. O contato prévio entre as NETs e as células não resultou em efeito protetor. As células em monocamadas mostraram um número e área de sincícios reduzidos, mas a morte celular foi semelhante àquela apresentada por células infectadas e não tratadas. A adição de NETs aos tecidos infectados manteve taxa de morte celular e formação de sincícios semelhantes àqueles induzidos pelo vírus em células não tratadas, indicando danos citotóxicos e deletérios. Nossos resultados corroboram achados relatados anteriormente de que as NETs contribuem para a imunopatologia desenvolvida por pacientes infectados com hRSV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Extracellular Traps , Epithelial Cells , Lung
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244435, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285619

ABSTRACT

Abstract Increasing trend in antimicrobial resistance and failure of chemically synthesized antibiotics lead to discover alternative methods for the treatment of bacterial infections. Various medicinal plants are in use traditionally and their active compounds can be further applied for treatment of bacterial diseases. This study was designed to determine the antibacterial activity of Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (pomegranate) peel extract against Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae)] and gram-positive bacterium [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. Methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus method. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents from the extract were determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The antibacterial activity of P. granatum L. peel extract was evaluated through agar well diffusion method. HPLC showed the range of phenolics (gallic acid, caffeic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) and flavonoid compounds. The chemical structures of flavonoid and phenolics found in the methanolic extract of P. granatum L. peel have been reported for the first time. The methanolic peel extract (50 ul) of yellow P. granatum L. showed 26, 10, 10 and 9mm zones of inhibition (ZOI) against S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. The methanolic extract of red P. granatum L. (100 ul) showed 27, 8, 12 and 15 mm ZOI against Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae and E. coli, respectively. Highest ZOI was observed against Staph. aureus. Many of the bacteria studied in the present work may cause serious gastrointestinal infections, which can lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea in children. These infections can be life-threatening to young children and the elderly. There is an incentive to find alternative control measures, such as plant and herbal extracts, especially in lesser-developed countries where traditional antibiotics may not be readily available.


Resumo A tendência crescente na resistência antimicrobiana e na falha dos antibióticos sintetizados quimicamente leva à descoberta de métodos alternativos para o tratamento de infecções bacterianas. Várias plantas medicinais estão em uso tradicionalmente e seus compostos ativos podem ser posteriormente aplicados para o tratamento de doenças bacterianas. Este estudo foi desenhado para determinar a atividade antibacteriana do extrato de casca de Punica granatum (P. granatum L.) (romã) contra Enterobacteriaceae [Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) e Shigella Dysenteriae (S. Dysenteriae) ] e bactéria gram-positiva [Staphylococcus aureus (Staph aureus)]. O extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foi preparado pelo método do aparelho de Soxhlet. O conteúdo total de flavonoides e fenólicos do extrato foi determinado por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC). A atividade antibacteriana do extrato da casca de P. granatum L. foi avaliada através do método de difusão em ágar. HPLC mostrou a gama de compostos fenólicos (ácido gálico, ácido cafeico, ácido benzoico, ácido cinâmico) e flavonoides. As estruturas químicas de flavonoides e fenólicos encontradas no extrato metanólico da casca de P. granatum L. foram relatadas pela primeira vez. O extrato metanólico da casca (50 ul) de P. granatum L. amarelo apresentou zonas de inibição (ZOI) de 26, 10, 10 e 9mm contra S. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O extrato metanólico de P. granatum L. vermelho (100 ul) apresentou 27, 8, 12 e 15 mm IOI contra Staph. aureus, S. Typhimurium, S. Dysenteriae e E. coli, respectivamente. O ZOI mais alto foi observado contra Staph. aureus. Muitas das bactérias estudadas no presente trabalho podem causar infecções gastrointestinais graves, que podem levar à diarreia hemorrágica em crianças. Essas infecções podem ser fatais para crianças pequenas e idosos. Há um incentivo para encontrar medidas de controle alternativas, como extratos de plantas e ervas, especialmente em países menos desenvolvidos, onde os antibióticos tradicionais podem não estar prontamente disponíveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Aged , Pomegranate , Staphylococcus aureus , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Escherichia coli , Anti-Infective Agents
6.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(12): e98, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is quite difficult to distinguish retractile testis from gliding testis, which requires different treatment planning in the clinic setting. We evaluated practice patterns of urologists in Korea regarding the diagnosis and management of retractile and gliding testes. METHODS: We mailed or e-mailed self-completion questionnaires consisting of 20 items to 106 urologists practicing in Korean hospitals concerning the diagnosis and treatment of cryptorchidism. We collected and analyzed the responses statistically. RESULTS: Responses were received from 62 urologists. The response rate was 58.5%. Thirty-seven urologists (59.7%) actually felt they had difficulty in distinguishing retractile testis from gliding testis in the clinic setting. This rate was higher for non-pediatric urologists (78.1%) than for pediatric urologists (40.0%) (P = 0.006). In cases of infant retractile testis, only five urologists (8.1%) said that they would perform orchiopexy immediately, with 54 (87.1%) urologists saying they would do follow-up. In cases of preschool-age children with retractile testis, 17 urologists (27.4%) said that they would perform orchiopexy immediately with 41 (66.1%) urologists saying they would do follow-up. In cases of infant gliding testis, 37 urologists (59.7%) said that they would perform orchiopexy immediately with 24 (38.7%) urologists saying they would do a follow-up. CONCLUSION: More than half (59.7%) of Korean urologists revealed it challenging to distinguish retractile testis and gliding testis in the clinical setting. The more it was difficult to diagnose retractile testis with certainty, the more frequent surgical correction was chosen for treatment. Therefore, it is essential to prevent unnecessary surgical treatment by establishing a practical guideline.


Subject(s)
Cryptorchidism , Urologists , Child , Child, Preschool , Comprehension , Cryptorchidism/diagnosis , Cryptorchidism/surgery , Humans , Infant , Male
7.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 62(2): 206-219, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34435684

ABSTRACT

Population pharmacokinetic (PK) and exposure-safety analyses of alisertib were performed in children enrolled in 2 clinical trials: NCT02444884 and NCT01154816. NCT02444884 was a dose-finding study in children with relapsed/refractory solid malignancies (phase 1) or neuroblastomas (phase 2). Patients received oral alisertib 45 to 100 mg/m2 as powder-in-capsule once daily or twice daily for 7 days in 21-day cycles. Serial blood samples were collected up to 24 hours after dosing on cycle 1, day 1. NCT01154816 was a phase 2 single-arm study evaluating efficacy in children with relapsed/refractory solid malignancies or acute leukemias. Patients received alisertib 80 mg/m2 as enteric-coated tablets once daily for 7 days in 21-day cycles. Sparse PK samples were collected up to 8 hours after dosing on cycle 1, day 1. Sources of alisertib PK variability were characterized and quantified using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling to support dosing recommendations in children and adolescents. A 2-compartment model with oral absorption described by 3 transit compartments was developed using data from 146 patients. Apparent oral clearance and central distribution volume were correlated with body surface area across the age range of 2 to 21 years, supporting the use of body surface area-based alisertib dosing in the pediatric population. The recommended dose of 80 mg/m2 once daily enteric-coated tablets provided similar alisertib exposures across pediatric age groups and comparable exposure to that in adults receiving 50 mg twice daily (recommended adult dose). Statistically significant relationships (P < .01) were observed between alisertib exposures and incidence of grade ≥2 stomatitis and febrile neutropenia, consistent with antiproliferative mechanism-related toxicities.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacokinetics , Azepines/pharmacokinetics , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Pyrimidines/pharmacokinetics , Adolescent , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Azepines/adverse effects , Body Surface Area , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Male , Maximum Tolerated Dose , Models, Biological , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplasms/pathology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Pyrimidines/adverse effects , Young Adult
8.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 35(3): 333-339, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952557

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate of gynecomastia, determine mean glandular breast tissue sizes, and evaluate whether there is any difference in the prevalence rate of gynecomastia according to age using three different reference values of glandular breast tissue size (≥5, ≥10, ≥20 mm) in the pediatric age group. METHODS: Glandular breast tissue sizes were measured retrospectively from thoracic computed tomography (CT) images taken for other reasons in 961 boys aged 1-18 years. RESULTS: When each breast was evaluated separately (1,922 breasts), gynecomastia was observed in 1,001 (52.1%), 719 (37.4%), and 216 (11.2%) breasts with ≥5, ≥10, and ≥20 mm considered as reference values, respectively. A significant difference was found in terms of gynecomastia (p<0.001) and mean glandular breast tissue size (p<0.001) with respect to age. CONCLUSIONS: New studies are currently needed to determine the glandular breast tissue size and the prevalence rate of gynecomastia in boys, and thoracic CT images can be used for this purpose.


Subject(s)
Gynecomastia , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Gynecomastia/diagnostic imaging , Gynecomastia/epidemiology , Humans , Incidental Findings , Infant , Male , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
9.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 67-75, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130567

ABSTRACT

Resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome (RTHS) is defined as increased thyroxine and triiodothyronine associated with normal or increased thyrotropin. This is usually due to a pathogenic variant of the gene coding for thyroid hormone receptor B (THRB). THRB is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an altered response of target tissue to the thyroid hormone action. Retrospective cross-sectional observational study with diagnosis of RTHS evaluated in secondary and tertiary hospitals for 6 years, from 2014 to 2020, in order to describe variables including age, sex, anthropometric data, clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients, who were divided according to age, in a pediatric group from 0 to 14 years (index cases), and an adult group composed of adult relatives of index cases. A molecular analysis of the THRB gene was performed. The total retrospective cohort included 7 pediatric patients and 15 adults. We found 22 cases with a clear male predominance (14/22). Mean age is 24.8 years old (22 days-70 years). Patients were referred because of symptoms 18.2% (4/22), analysis results 22.7% (5/22), or familial study 59.1% (13/22). About 31.8% (7/22) cases show goiter, 31.8% (7/22) sympathetic symptoms and 13.6% (3/22) abnormalities in behavior. In most cases, 77.3%, (17/22) show familial background of thyroid abnormalities. It is important to remark that 18.2% (4/22) relatives received previous incorrect treatments such as thyroidectomy, because of wrong diagnosis. In conclusion, a better understanding of RTHS, its prompt molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling, could avoid unnecessary tests and inappropriate treatments.


Subject(s)
Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mutation , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta/genetics , Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome/diagnosis , Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome/genetics , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine , Young Adult
10.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226341, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO - Dentistry | ID: biblio-1354797

ABSTRACT

Treatment of dental caries in children still remains challenging due to lack of cooperation with conventional treatment modalities. Recently, the use of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) has proved useful in addressing this challenge. Aim: This clinical trial aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) in arresting caries in children in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods: This was a phase III balanced randomized controlled school based interventional study on 240 children. The study group was treated with SDF while GIC was used in the control group. Follow up visits in 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months were carried out to assess the treatment outcome. Inferential statistics with the use of Pearson Chi-square test and Independent Student t-test were used at 5% level of significance. Results: There was significant relationship between SDF and caries arrest in 2 weeks, 1 month and 3 months' assessment period (p = 0.001). The control group showed continuous decline (71.7%, 54.3% and 50.9%) in restorative success from 2 weeks to 3 months respectively. The mean ± SD and Confidence Interval (CI) of arrested caries in the SDF group were 113± 1.24 and 113.1 ­ 113.5 respectively. In the control group the mean ± SD and CI of restorative success were 69.3±11.8 and 67.2 ­ 71.4. The effect size was 5.24. Conclusion: The result of the study showed that SDF was effective in arresting caries in children without any harm and there was statistically significant difference in the use of 38% SDF in arresting caries in children


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Child , Fluorides, Topical , Dental Caries , Glass Ionomer Cements
11.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226288, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO - Dentistry | ID: biblio-1366204

ABSTRACT

Aim: To describe the pattern of toothache experience in a cohort of children aged 2-5 over 21 years and to find the relationship between previous toothache experience and later reports of toothache to get finding on the most critical period of toothache as a problem in life. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS). A total of 1,927 children from IFLS-1 with complete data were included as baseline participants. They were followed up four times within 21 years (age 6-9y, age 9-12y, age 16-19y, age 23- 26y). Toothache was based on the question of self-reported toothache experience during the last four weeks. After 21 years, a total of 1,098 individuals could be traced and completed every cohort of the survey. Toothache experiences were reported for frequencies in every cohort and accumulative experiences over 21 years. Logistic regression tests were performed to analyze the association of previous toothache experience and later toothache experience. Results: Almost 40% of the respondents reported toothache at least once in their life. The age of 6-9 years is the period when a high percentage of children had teeth-related pain. The experience of toothache at this period was significantly related to every period of age in life. Conclusions: The period of early mixed dentition is important. Oral health status in this period is associated with future oral health. A comprehensive dental health prevention program targeting this population is essential to increase the quality of life


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Toothache/epidemiology , Oral Health , Socioeconomic Factors , Dental Health Surveys , Prevalence , Longitudinal Studies , Indonesia/epidemiology
12.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 38(2): 311-317, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611762

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hydrocephalus persists in 10-40% of children with posterior fossa tumours (PFT). A delay in commencement of adjuvant therapy (AT) can negatively influence survival. The objective of this study was to determine whether postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion procedures caused potentially preventable delays in AT. METHODS: A retrospective study of children diagnosed with PFT requiring AT from 2004 to 2018 from two large centres was conducted. Data on histology, timing of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt (VPS) insertion, and AT was collected. The modified Canadian Preoperative Prediction Rule for Hydrocephalus (mCPPRH) score was calculated. The primary outcome was delay in AT beyond 40 days post-resection. Progression-free and overall survival were assessed. RESULTS: Out of 196 primary PFT resections, 144 fitted the inclusion criteria. Mean age was 6.57 ± 4.62. Histology was medulloblastoma (104), ependymoma (27), and others (13). Forty patients had a VPS inserted; 17 of these experienced a delay in AT. A total of 104 patients were not shunted; 15 of these had delayed AT (p = 0.0007). Patients who had a VPS insertion had longer intervals from surgery to commencement of AT (34.5 vs 30.8, p = 0.05). There was no significant difference in mCPPRH score between those who had a VPS (4.03) and those who did not (3.61; p = 0.252). Multivariable linear regression modelling did not show a significant effect of VPS or mCPPRH on progression-free survival or OS. CONCLUSION: CSF diversion procedures may cause a preventable delay in the initiation of adjuvant therapy. Early post-operative VP shunt insertion, rather than a 'wait and see policy' should be considered in order to reduce this delay.


Subject(s)
Cerebellar Neoplasms , Hydrocephalus , Infratentorial Neoplasms , Canada , Cerebellar Neoplasms/surgery , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Hydrocephalus/diagnosis , Hydrocephalus/etiology , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Infant , Infratentorial Neoplasms/complications , Infratentorial Neoplasms/surgery , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt/adverse effects
13.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 23(1): 103-116, jan.-jun. 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - journals | ID: biblio-1356773

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O uso das mídias digitais por bebês é um fenômeno recente. Algumas evidências apontam para associações do uso de telas na primeira infância e desfechos adversos no desenvolvimento. O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar o processo de construção, implementação e avaliação do estudo-piloto de uma intervenção educativa para pais, profissionais da saúde e educadores sobre uso de mídias digitais na primeira infância. A intervenção segue o modelo de educação continuada, consistiu em quatro encontros presenciais no formato expositivo seguido de discussão em grupo e foi avaliada em termos da aprendizagem dos participantes e satisfação com o curso. Participaram 16 pessoas, majoritariamente profissionais de saúde e educação. Os resultados indicaram melhora significativa nos conhecimentos do tema e satisfação com a intervenção, sendo discutidos de forma a subsidiar o desenvolvimento de novas intervenções sobre a temática.


ABSTRACT The use of digital media by babies is a recent phenomenon. Some evidence highlights associations between the use of screens in early childhood and adverse developmental outcomes. This study aims to report the development, implementation, and evaluation processes of an educational intervention for parents, health professionals, and educators on the use of digital media in early childhood. The intervention follows the model of continuing education, with four face-to-face meetings and presentations followed by group discussions. It was evaluated by participants' learning and satisfaction with the course. Sixteen people participated, mostly health and education professionals. The results indicate a significant improvement in participants’ knowledge and high satisfaction rates. Findings are discussed to support the development of new interventions on the subject.


RESUMEN El uso de medios digitales por parte de los bebés es un fenómeno reciente. Algunas evidencias apuntan asociaciones entre el uso de pantallas en la primera infancia y los resultados adversos del desarrollo. El objetivo del presente estudio es presentar el proceso de construcción, implementación y evaluación del estudio piloto de una intervención educativa para padres, profesionales de la salud y educadores sobre el uso de medios digitales en la primera infancia. La intervención sigue el modelo de educación continua y consistió en cuatro reuniones presenciales en formato expositivo, seguidas de discusión grupal y aún fue evaluada en términos del aprendizaje y satisfacción de los participantes con el curso. Participaron 16 personas, en su mayoría identificadas como profesionales de la salud y de la educación. Los resultados indicaron una mejora significativa en el conocimiento del tema y satisfacción con la intervención, siendo discutida con el fin de apoyar el desarrollo de nuevas intervenciones sobre el tema.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Parents , Child Development , Growth and Development , Video-Audio Media , Learning
14.
Span J Psychol ; 25: e17, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499095

ABSTRACT

Callous Unemotional (CU) traits are associated with different environmental risk factors, such as negative stressful life events (SLE). The most common studied SLE associated with CU trait has been childhood maltreatment, but less is known about how other SLE impact the development of CU traits. Therefore, this work examines risk factors, personal factors (executive functioning), and mental health outcomes associated with the trajectories of Callous Unemotional (CU) traits and Stressful Life Events (SLE) in a community sample of children. A cohort of 377 preschoolers were followed up between ages 3 and 10. Several risk factors and outcomes for three trajectory groups (high CU/SLE; high CU/low SLE; and the reference group with low CU/SLE) were analyzed by using multiple post-hoc comparisons. We hypothesized that children with high CU/SLE would face more contextual risk factors, more executive functioning difficulties and more mental health problems than children with high CU/low SLE or the reference group. At the age of 3, children who showed high CU/SLE faced more early contextual adversity, including socioeconomic difficulties and maternal antisocial behavior than the other groups of children. At the age of 10, children with high CU/SLE presented more peer problems and higher psychopathology symptoms than the reference group, but no differences on mental health outcomes in comparison to the high CU/low SLE group. These results have potential implications for clinical practice and studies attempting to identify different CU subtypes in children.


Subject(s)
Conduct Disorder , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Child , Child, Preschool , Conduct Disorder/diagnosis , Conduct Disorder/epidemiology , Conduct Disorder/psychology , Copper , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Risk Factors
15.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 21(2): 215-218, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35490275

ABSTRACT

A four-year-old female patient visited the pediatric hematologic clinic due to periodic generalized edema and eosinophilia. Laboratory assessment showed an eosinophil count of 40.02×109/L (73.6% of white blood cells). A bone marrow aspirate smear film showed no signs of malignant cells but had hypercellular marrow particles with eosinophilia (45% of all nucleated cells) and 52% of eosinophils were immature. Other laboratory tests showed an increased IgM level of 827 mg/dL, and lymphocyte phenotyping by flow cytometry revealed an aberrant CD3-CD4+ T-cell population of 27-53×109/L (1.9-3.6% of lymphocytes). Polymerase chain reaction analysis for the T-cell receptor gamma gene rearrangement showed a T-cell clonality peak. At the age of 13, allogeneic stem cell transplantation was performed, but with primary rejection. From the age of 17, she has continued receiving 3 mg/kg of reslizumab intravenously every 4 weeks for 21 months. Since reslizumab treatment was initiated, her eosinophil count remained consistently within the normal range. This is the first report describing the effective use of reslizumab in a Korean adolescent patient for the management of lymphocytic-variant hypereosinophilic syndrome (L-HES). Since the patient showed clinical manifestations of L-HES as well as episodic angioedema with eosinophilia (EAE), a continuous periodic examination is required given the higher risk of developing lymphoma or leukemia.


Subject(s)
Angioedema , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome , Adolescent , Angioedema/diagnosis , Angioedema/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Child , Child, Preschool , Eosinophils/pathology , Female , Humans , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome/diagnosis , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome/drug therapy , Infant, Newborn , Republic of Korea
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 760746, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493383

ABSTRACT

Influenza is a global serious public health threat. Seasonal influenza among children in Chongqing has been a heavy health burden. To date, few studies have examined the spatial and temporal characteristics of influenza. This research sheds new light on correlating them with influenza outbreaks with data of over 5 years (2014-2018). All cluster outbreaks among preschool and school-age children reported in Chongqing were collected through the Public Health Emergency Management Information System. The demographical, epidemiological, and clinical data of the cases were analyzed. From 2014 to 2018, a total of 111 preschool- and school-based influenza-like illness outbreaks involving 3,549 cases were identified. Several clinical symptoms that were analyzed in this study showed significant contrast between influenza A and B. Spatial autocorrelation analysis over the 5-year data detected Xiushan district being the most likely cluster. The exploration of the spatial distribution and clinical characteristics of influenza cluster of children in Chongqing could help the effective implementation of health policies. Future studies should be conducted to monitor the outbreaks of influenza among children.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Forecasting , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Schools
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 829176, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493393

ABSTRACT

Background: As the epidemic progresses, universal vaccination against COVID-19 has been the trend, but there are still some doubts about the efficacy and safety of COVID-19 vaccines in adolescents, children, and even infants. Purpose: To evaluate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in the population aged 0-17 years. Method: A comprehensive search for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from inception to November 9, 2021. All data were pooled by RevMan 5.3 statistical software, with risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval as the effect measure. This study protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42021290205). Results: There was a total of six randomized controlled trials included in this systematic review and meta-analysis, enrolling participants in the age range of 3-17 years, and containing three types of COVID-19 vaccines. Compared with mRNA vaccines and adenovirus vector vaccines, inactivated vaccines have a more satisfactory safety profile, both after initial (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04-1.90, P = 0.03) and booster (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.20-2.81, P = 0.005) vaccination. The risk of adverse reactions was significantly increased after the first and second doses, but there was no significant difference between the first two doses (RR 1.00, 95%CI 0.99-1.02, P = 0.60). Nevertheless, the two-dose regimen is obviously superior to the single-dose schedule for immunogenicity and efficacy. After booster vaccination, both neutralizing antibodies (RR 144.80, 95%CI 44.97-466.24, P < 0.00001) and RBD-binding antibodies (RR 101.50, 95%CI 6.44-1,600.76, P = 0.001) reach optimal levels, but the cellular immune response seemed not to be further enhanced. In addition, compared with younger children, older children and adolescents were at significantly increased risk of adverse reactions after vaccination, with either mRNA or inactivated vaccines, accompanied by a stronger immune response. Conclusion: The available evidence suggests that the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines are acceptable in people aged 3-17 years. However, there is an urgent need for additional multicenter, large-sample studies, especially in younger children under 3 years of age and even in infants, with long-term follow-up data. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42021290205, identifier: CRD42021290205.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Vaccination
19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 863149, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493465

ABSTRACT

Respiratory tract infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in newborns, infants, and young children. These early life infections present a formidable immunologic challenge with a number of possibly conflicting goals: simultaneously eliminate the acute pathogen, preserve the primary gas-exchange function of the lung parenchyma in a developing lung, and limit long-term sequelae of both the infection and the inflammatory response. The latter has been most well studied in the context of childhood asthma, where multiple epidemiologic studies have linked early life viral infection with subsequent bronchospasm. This review will focus on the clinical relevance of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and rhinovirus (RV) and examine the protective and pathogenic host responses within the neonate.


Subject(s)
Metapneumovirus , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Immunity , Infant , Infant, Newborn
20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 878430, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493728

ABSTRACT

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common and critical viral pathogen causing acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children and has a huge disease burden worldwide. At present, there are many studies on RSV transcriptomics exploring the mechanism of disease, but different studies show different gene expression patterns and results due to different sample collection platforms and data analysis strategies. A meta-analysis was performed on eight whole blood transcriptome datasets containing 436 children with acute RSV infection and 241 healthy children. A total of 319 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (P value <0.0001) were identified in a meta-analysis using a random effect model. Functional enrichment analysis showed that several pathways related to immunity were significantly altered, including the "chemokine signaling pathway", "natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity" and "cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction". Immune cell type analysis showed that the proportion of neutrophils in most RSV-infected children was higher than that in healthy children. These immune characteristics may help to provide new insights into RSV infection in children.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Immunity , Infant , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Transcriptome
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...