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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248281, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350304

ABSTRACT

Abstract The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.


Resumo A covid-19 é uma doença viral contagiosa, que surgiu pela primeira vez em Wuhan, China, em dezembro de 2019, e deixou o mundo todo em alerta. A taxa de mortalidade na maioria dos principais países da Ásia, com referência especial ao Paquistão, foi enfocada. De 26 de fevereiro a setembro de 2020, o total de casos confirmados e a taxa de mortalidade foram medidos por meio da Wikipedia e de periódicos notáveis. O Irã é o único país com maior número de mortes (5,73%), seguido pela Indonésia (3,77%), enquanto a Arábia Saudita mostra o menor número de mortes, 1,39%. No Paquistão, o primeiro caso foi confirmado em 26 de fevereiro de 2020. O nCov-19 está intimamente relacionado à síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS), daí o nome SARS COV-2. Esse vírus é responsável por mais de 33,9 milhões de mortes em todo o mundo em 20 de setembro de 2020. O número de novos casos está aumentando de tempos em tempos. A província de Sindh, no Paquistão, registrou o maior número de casos até 20 de setembro de 2020, em comparação com outras partes do país, e tem o maior número de mortes, seguida por Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Por causa do contato pessoa a pessoa, a doença está se espalhando rapidamente. Indivíduos que já foram diagnosticados com outras doenças, como câncer ou diabetes, etc. são mais vulneráveis. O nCOV-19 é o mais contagioso devido ao seu modo de transmissão. Ainda não há vacina disponível para o tratamento da doença causada pelo nCoV-2019. Portanto, a única opção para controlar essa pandemia é a adoção de medidas preventivas eficazes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Pakistan/epidemiology , China , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247181, 2023. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339388

ABSTRACT

Abstract The protozoans include many intracellular human pathogens. Accurate detection of these pathogens is necessary to treat the diseases. In clinical epidemiology, molecular identification of protozoan is considered a more reliable and rapid method for identification than microscopy. Among these protozoans, Cryptosporidium considered being one of the important water-borne zoonotic pathogens and a major cause of a diarrheal disease named cryptosporidiosis in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. This study was aimed to identify Cryptosporidium in zoo felids (N= 56) belonging to different zoo of China, but accidentlly Colpodella was encountered in the zoo felids sample and phylogenetic data confirmed this unexpected amplification from fecal samples using two-step nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the fact about the specific primers used previously by many researchers and cross-genera amplification. We came to know that genetically sequenced amplicon gives more accurate identification of species. This study suggests more investigation on Colpodella which has been neglected previously but gains the attention of researchers after identified from humans and animals and has been known to correlate with neurological symptoms in patients.


Resumo Os protozoários incluem muitos patógenos humanos intracelulares. A detecção acurada desses patógenos é necessária para tratar as doenças. Na epidemiologia clínica, a identificação molecular de protozoários é considerada o método de identificação mais confiável e rápido do que a microscopia. Entre esses protozoários, o Cryptosporidium é considerado um dos importantes patógenos zoonóticos transmitidos pela água e uma das principais causas de uma doença diarreica denominada criptosporidiose em humanos, animais domésticos e selvagens. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar Cryptosporidium em zoofelídeos (N = 56) pertencentes a diferentes zoológicos da China, mas acidentalmente Colpodella foi encontrada na amostra de zoofelídeos e os dados filogenéticos confirmaram essa amplificação inesperada de amostras fecais usando nested-PCR em duas etapas. A análise filogenética revelou o fato sobre os primers específicos usados ​​anteriormente por muitos pesquisadores e a amplificação entre gêneros. Ficamos sabendo que o amplicon sequenciado geneticamente fornece uma identificação mais acurada das espécies. Este estudo sugere mais investigação sobre Colpodella, que foi negligenciada anteriormente, mas ganha a atenção dos pesquisadores depois de identificada em humanos e animais e é conhecida por se correlacionar com sintomas neurológicos em pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cryptosporidiosis/epidemiology , Cryptosporidium/genetics , Phylogeny , China , Feces , Genotype
3.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 11(2): 165-172, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453416

ABSTRACT

Tadalafil is an effective, reversible, and competitive phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor mainly used to treat erectile dysfunction. This study investigated the bioequivalence of generic and marketed formulations of 10-mg tadalafil tablets under fasted and fed conditions. This open-label, randomized, single-dose, 2-period crossover study included 53 healthy Chinese men (aged 20-43 years). Plasma samples were collected from 0.5 hours before treatment to 72 hours after each dose and analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental analysis. Safety assessments were performed throughout the study. For the fasted state, the 90% confidence intervals of the geometric mean ratios between the generic and marketed formulations were 86.1% to 99.1% for the maximum plasma concentration and 88.4% to 100.3% for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity, and the corresponding values under the fed state were and 99.9% to 108.4% and 95.7% to 104.3%, respectively. All data were within the accepted bioequivalence range of 80% to 125%. After consuming high-fat, high-calorie meals in the fed condition, the time to the maximum plasma concentration was similar between the formulations, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity and maximum plasma concentration were 10.2% and 6.55% higher, respectively, for the marketed formulation. Thus, food had no clinically relevant effect on tadalafil exposure following a single oral dose in healthy Chinese men. No serious adverse reactions were reported. These results indicated that the analyzed generic and marketed tadalafil tablets were bioequivalent with similar safety profiles.


Subject(s)
Fasting , Adult , China , Cross-Over Studies , Humans , Male , Tablets , Tadalafil/adverse effects , Therapeutic Equivalency , Young Adult
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 424, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The "4 + 7" volume-based procurement is a "large group purchase" led by the Chinese government, with the aim of reducing the price of medicines by trading volume for price. Although the "4 + 7" drugs had passed the national consistency evaluation, the adverse drug reactions need to be further evaluated to ensure the safety of the "4 + 7" drugs with low prices. We aimed to analyze the occurrence characteristics and related influencing factors of adverse reactions of psychiatric drugs under the chinese drug volume-based procurement policy(4 + 7 policy), and provide references for clinical medication. METHODS: 137 cases of adverse drug reactions of four psychotropic drugs reported under the "4 + 7" policy in Wuxi Mental Health Center in 2020 were collected. The gender and age of patients, related "4 + 7" drugs, involving organs / systems, clinical manifestations, distribution of new / serious adverse reactions, clinic outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 137 cases of adverse drug reactions, the incidence of adverse drug reactions was the highest in patients aged 61-70 (25.38%). Mainly involved 4 "4 + 7" psychiatric drugs, of which olanzapine tablets caused the most adverse reactions (54, 39.24%). The adverse reactions mainly involved the digestive system, nervous system, cardiovascular system, blood and lymphatic system, among which the digestive system was the most common (61, 44.53%). A total of 8 cases (6.16%) of new and 26 cases of serious adverse reactions were reported, all of which led to the prolongation of disease course. Except for the transient side effects, most of that were improved or cured with no death, disability or teratogenicity after stopping or reducing the dose with symptomatic treatment. CONCLUSION: Since more and more drugs will be included in "4 + 7" for clinic, clinical pharmacists should strengthen the publicity and training of the knowledge of "4 + 7" drugs, strengthen the monitoring of adverse drug reactions, and provide timely feedback to the clinic, in order to achieve early prevention, early identification, timely diagnosis and reasonable intervention of the adverse drug reactions under the context of "4 + 7" policy.


Subject(s)
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Aged , China/epidemiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Psychotropic Drugs/adverse effects , Public Policy
5.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(4): 1017-1024, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951095

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Variants in the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene are recognized as a common and important genetic risk factor for Parkinson disease (PD). However, the impact of variant severity on the clinical phenotype of PD in the Chinese population remains unclear. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the frequency of GBA-related PD (GBA-PD) and the relationship of GBA variant severity with clinical characteristics in a large Chinese cohort. METHODS: Long-range polymerase chain reaction and next generation sequencing were performed for the entire GBA gene. GBA variant severity was classified into five classes: mild, severe, risk, complex, and unknown. RESULTS: Among the total 737 PD patients, 47 GBA variants were detected in 79 (10.72%) patients, and the most common GBA variants were R163Q, L444P, and R120W. Complete demographic and clinical data were obtained for 673 patients, which revealed that 18.50% of early onset PD patients had GBA variants. Compared with patients without GBA variants, GBA-PD patients experienced PD onset an average of 4 years earlier and had more severe motor and nonmotor symptoms. Patients carrying severe and complex variants had a higher burden of nonmotor symptoms, especially depression, and more mood/cognitive and gastrointestinal symptoms than patients carrying mild variants. CONCLUSIONS: GBA-PD is highly prevalent in the Chinese population. The severity of GBA variants underlies distinct phenotypic spectrums, with PD patients carrying severe and complex variants seeming to have similar phenotypes. PD patient stratification by GBA variant severity should become a prerequisite for selecting specific treatments.


Subject(s)
Glucosylceramidase , Parkinson Disease , China/epidemiology , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Glucosylceramidase/genetics , Humans , Mutation/genetics , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , Parkinson Disease/genetics , Parkinson Disease/psychology , Prevalence
6.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682239

ABSTRACT

This quasi-experimental study used a cancer prevention program delivered by community health workers (CHWs) as an intervention to improve health literacy and increase screening uptake. The intervention group was educated by trained CHWs and received information about the nearby hospitals. After education, participants received telephone counseling once a month for 6 months. In the intervention group, CHWs met the participants individually and delivered the CD-ROM containing conversation scenarios with voice during the cancer screening test. The control group was provided educational materials related to breast and cervical cancers and a booklet containing information on mammography and Pap test. This study assessed the difference in mammography and Pap tests between the intervention and control groups. The results showed that the participants' knowledge improved, and the rate of cancer screening tests did not decrease in the intervention group. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and apply various programs that train CHWs and apply them to immigrant women to promote health-related behaviors under the health system that they are not familiar with while living in another country.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Emigrants and Immigrants , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , China , Community Health Workers , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Promotion , Humans , Mass Screening , Republic of Korea , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control
7.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682244

ABSTRACT

Cultural ecosystem services (CESs) are an important part of ecosystem services (ESs). Correctly understanding the supply and demand relationship of CES is the premise of ES sustainable management and helps to improve human well-being. However, the evaluation and mapping of CES supply and demand represents a significant gap in ES research. Using the Shigou Township of Mizhi County in China as an example, in this study, we evaluated CES supply and demand at the village scale. We first considered three aspects of supply potential, accessibility and quality to construct an indicator system of six types of CES supply, including aesthetic (Aest), sense of place (SP), social relations (SR), cultural heritage (Cult), education (Edu) and recreation (Recr) and obtained demand data through a questionnaire. Then, we identified the imbalance in the supply and demand of CES by Z-score standardization based on the quantification of the CES supply and demand. Secondly, bivariate spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to identify tradeoffs/synergies on the CES supply side, and chi-square tests were used to identify CES demand differences between stakeholder groups. The results indicated that the supply-demand patterns of CES presented evident spatial differences. The low-supply-high-demand patterns of Aest, SR and Recr accounted for the largest proportions, with values of 33.33%, 33.33% and 30.95%, respectively. The low-supply-low-demand patterns of SP and Cult accounted for the largest proportions, with values of 30.95% and 38.10%, respectively. The low-supply-low-demand pattern of Edu accounted for the smallest proportion (21.43%) and was mainly located in the south of Shigou Township. The southwest, northeast and central areas of Shigou Township were the key regions of tradeoffs/synergies of CES supply. There were significant differences in CES demand for SR, Cult and Edu among stakeholder groups. The results could contribute to optimizing regional ecosystem management and provide effective information for improving the imbalance between the supply and demand of CES.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Ecosystem , China , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Esthetics , Humans , Spatial Analysis
8.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682259

ABSTRACT

With the accelerated development of urbanization in China, rural permanent population has declined, while rural electricity consumption has increased, resulting in a significant waste of electricity resources. Based on the provincial panel data of China from 2007 to 2020, this paper comprehensively used the decoupling model and the coordination degree model to analyze the temporal change characteristics, spatial distribution characteristics, and the degree of deviation of rural permanent population and rural electricity consumption. Firstly, according to the decoupling model, the type of decoupling between rural electricity consumption and rural permanent population was strong negative decoupling. At the provincial level, Beijing and Tibet belonged to expanding negative decoupling. Tianjin and Liaoning belonged to recession link. The other 27 provinces, including Hebei, Shanxi, and Shandong, belonged to strong negative decoupling. Secondly, according to the coordination degree model, the coordination type of the national rural permanent population and rural electricity consumption was uncoordinated. The areas that can be coordinated include 20 provinces, including Shanghai, Inner Mongolia, Jilin, Jiangsu, Anhui, Fujian, and Jiangxi. The basic coordination areas included Beijing and Tibet. Finally, according to the comprehensive measurement model, the provinces with strong negative decoupling included Shanxi, Zhejiang, and Chongqing. Sichuan, Hebei, Shandong, and Shaanxi belonged to moderately strong negative decoupling groups.


Subject(s)
Rural Population , Urbanization , China/epidemiology , Demography , Electricity , Humans
9.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682266

ABSTRACT

Previous studies found that exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was associated with an increased risk of incident stroke, but few studies have been conducted for relatively low NO2 pollution areas. In this study, the short-term effects of NO2 on the risk of incident stroke in a relatively low-pollution area, Enshi city of Hubei Province, China, were investigated through time-series analysis. Daily air-pollution data, meteorological data, and stroke incidence data of residents in Enshi city from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2018 were collected. A time-series analysis using a generalised additive model (GAM) based on Poisson distribution was applied to explore the short-term effects of low-level NO2 exposure on the risk of incident stroke and stroke subtypes, as well as possible age, sex, and seasonal differences behind the effects. In the GAM model, potential confounding factors, such as public holidays, day of the week, long-term trends, and meteorological factors (temperature and relative humidity), were controlled. A total of 9122 stroke incident cases were included during the study period. We found that NO2 had statistically significant effects on the incidence of stroke and ischemic stroke, estimated by excess risk (ER) of 0.37% (95% CI: 0.04-0.70%) and 0.58% (95% CI: 0.18-0.98%), respectively. For the cumulative lag effects, the NO2 still had a statistically significant effect on incident ischemic stroke, estimated by ER of 0.61% (95% CI: 0.01-1.21%). The two-pollutant model showed that the effects of NO2 on incident total stroke were still statistically significant after adjusting for other air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, CO, and O3). In addition, the effects of NO2 exposure on incident stroke were statistically significant in elderly (ER = 0.75%; 95% CI: 0.11-1.40%), males (ER = 0.47%; 95% CI: 0.05-0.89%) and cold season (ER = 0.83%; 95% CI: 0.15-1.51%) subgroups. Our study showed that, as commonly observed in high-pollution areas, short-term exposure to low-level NO2 was associated with an increased risk of incident stroke, including ischemic stroke. Males and elderly people were more vulnerable to the effects of NO2, and the adverse effects might be promoted in the cold season.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Aged , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , China/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Stroke/chemically induced , Stroke/epidemiology
10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682270

ABSTRACT

The demand for improving health status of Chinese residents is growing with the rapid economic development. Happiness, which could be improved by some brief, self-administered, and cost-effective interventions, is reported to be associated with mortality, longevity, and self-rated health. Therefore, it is essential to assess the effect of happiness on health in China. Using data from the Chinese General Social Survey 2017, the present study explored the effect of happiness on health among Chinese residents after controlling for demographic variables, socioeconomic factors, social relationships, locations, and insurance plan. The happiness effect across subsamples by age and resident type and the mediator role of happiness were also evaluated. Based on an ordered probit regression model, we found that the effect of happiness on health was significantly positive in full sample and all subsamples. Using a structural equation model, we demonstrated that happiness could partially mediate the relationship between socioeconomic factors, social relationships factors, and health. Our data supplement the existing literature on the relationship between happiness and health and provide evidence for policymakers and stakeholders focusing on happiness as a health strategy to improve overall societal wellbeing.


Subject(s)
Happiness , Health Status , China , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , Socioeconomic Factors
11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682271

ABSTRACT

The current study explored how anti-substance abuse campaigns influence substance abusers' psychological health through the perception of stigma. The study is based on a sample of substance abusers who received community-based treatments (n = 3457) and used structural equation modeling to estimate the role of perceived stigma in mediating between perceptions of overstatement of harm conveyed in anti-substance abuse campaigns and psychological outcomes. The results revealed that substance abusers' perception of overstatement of the harm caused by the substances and substance abusers enhanced their perceived stigma and impaired their psychological health in terms of anxiety, depression, and somatization, through both direct and indirect pathways. The results advocate for proper strategies in the design of anti-substance abuse campaigns. Possible initiatives to reduce substance abusers' perceived stigma are recommended.


Subject(s)
Substance-Related Disorders , Anxiety , China , Humans , Mental Health , Social Stigma , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682273

ABSTRACT

Many studies of stalking and intrusive behaviors are conducted with samples from individualist Western cultures, and limited information is available on such behavior in collectivist cultures. By using a sample of 1143 adults (440 males and 703 females) from Hong Kong (n = 305), mainland China (n = 464), and Ghana (n = 374), this study compares perceptions and experiences of stalking and intrusive behaviors as well as the frequency and duration of the participants' worst experiences with such behaviors. The lifetime prevalence rate of stalking victimization for the overall sample was 34.6%, 22.3% for the Hong Kongers, 32.3% for the mainland Chinese, and 47.3% for the Ghanaians. Relative to the Hong Kongers and Ghanaians, the mainland Chinese were more likely to judge most intrusive activities as unacceptable. However, the mainland Chinese were generally less likely to have experienced the listed intrusive activities than their counterparts. The Ghanaians, in contrast, reported significantly more victimization experiences than the Hong Kongers and the mainland Chinese, especially with aggression and surveillance, unwanted attention, and persistent courtship and imposition types of behaviors. Furthermore, the mainland Chinese and Ghanaians generally reported significantly higher frequencies of stalking and intrusive behavior in their worst experiences than did the Hong Kongers. Conversely, the Hong Kongers and Ghanaians reported significantly more persistent types of stalking and intrusive behaviors than the mainland Chinese. The results of this study indicate the need for anti-stalking legislation in Hong Kong, mainland China, and Ghana, given the devastating nature and consequences of stalking and intrusive behaviors there.


Subject(s)
Bullying , Crime Victims , Adult , China , Female , Ghana , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male
13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682279

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the independent and combined associations between physical activity and sedentary time with sleep quality among Chinese college students. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among Chinese college students (N = 2347; M age = 20 years; 67.1% students were female). We used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form, the Adolescent Sedentary Activity Questionnaire, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index to assess the subjects' physical activity level, sedentary time, and sleep quality, respectively. Analyses were conducted using a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULT: Of the total participants, 48.6% had poor sleep quality and 10% were at low physical activity levels, and the mean (±SD) sedentary time was 5.33 ± 2.34 h/day. No significant association was found between physical activity and sleep quality (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.95~1.70) among Chinese college students after adjustment for potential confounders. Sedentary time was significantly positively associated with poor sleep quality (OR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.14~1.65). The risks for those with a low physical activity level and high sedentary time, and a moderate physical activity level and high sedentary time were 2.78 (OR = 2.78, 95% CI: 1.61~4.80) and 1.49 (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.13~1.95) times higher, respectively, than those with a high physical activity level and low sedentary time. CONCLUSION: Among Chinese college students, high sedentary time was significantly negatively associated with sleep quality. A low physical activity level was insignificantly associated with sleep quality. A moderate physical activity level and high sedentary time, and a low physical activity level and high sedentary time were interactively associated with increased risks of poor sleep quality, respectively.


Subject(s)
Sedentary Behavior , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Sleep , 59746 , Students , Young Adult
14.
BMC Surg ; 22(1): 235, 2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725426

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients with lymph node metastasis (LNM) are largely associated with adverse outcomes. The present study aimed to assess the correlation between the number of metastatic lymph nodes (NMLNs) and clinical prognosis in patients with PTC. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with PTC who underwent initial thyroid cancer surgery in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University between 2017 and 2019. A total of 694 patients with PTC and cervical lymph node dissection as well as a total checked number of lymph nodes ≥ 5 were involved in this study. The clinicopathological characteristics of patients were compared according to NMLNs, the number of central cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) and the number of lateral lymph nodes (LLNs). RESULTS: NMLNs > 5, CLNs > 5 and LLNs > 5 were 222 (32.0%), 159 (24.3%) and 70 (10.1%) seen in the analyzed samples, respectively. Young patients, patients with larger tumor diameter, bilaterality, multifocality and gross extrathyroidal extension (ETE) were more inclined to NMLNs > 5, CLNs > 5 and LLNs > 5 (P < 0.05). It was found that the recurrence-free survival among pN1 patients was significantly discrepant between different groups (NMLNs ≤ 5/5: P = 0.001; LLNs ≤ 5/5: P < 0.001). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, patients aged < 55 years (OR = 1.917), primary tumor size > 10 mm (OR = 2.131), bilaterality (OR = 1.889) and tumor gross ETE (OR = 2.759) were independent predictors for high prevalence of total NMLNs > 5 (P < 0.05). Specially, patients aged < 55 years (OR = 2.864), primary tumor size > 10 mm (OR = 2.006), and tumor gross ETE (OR = 2.520) were independent predictors for high prevalence of CLNs > 5 (P < 0.01); Bilaterality (OR = 2.119), CLNs > 5 (OR = 6.733) and tumor gross ETE (OR = 4.737) were independent predictors for high prevalence of LLNs > 5 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, it is evident that NMLNs is related to the invasive clinicopathological features and adverse outcome of patients with PTC which should be correctly evaluated to provide an appropriate guidance for reasonable treatment and careful follow-up.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Papillary , Thyroid Neoplasms , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carcinoma, Papillary/pathology , Carcinoma, Papillary/surgery , China , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/surgery , Thyroidectomy
15.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(11): 4028-4043, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731074

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy is a significant complication of cancer therapy. We aimed at investigating the risk factors of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy (OIPN) and providing evidence to enhance its prevention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Embase, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, and the Wanfang Database were searched comprehensively for observational studies investigating the prevalence and risk factors of OIPN from inception to November 30, 2021. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used by two independent reviewers to assess methodological quality. When applicable, we used meta-analysis to determine mean differences and odds ratios for continuous and nominal scaled data. RESULTS: We included 20 studies involving 10,900 participants for analysis. Factors associated with OIPN risk identified by meta-analysis were age, gender, diabetes, anemia, hypomagnesaemia, alcohol consumption, body mass index, body surface area, cumulative oxaliplatin dose and the number of chemotherapy cycles. Factors not associated with OIPN risk included smoking history and chemotherapy regimen. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis identified multiple variables associated with OIPN. The recognition of modifiable risk factors is an urgent priority to improve prevention and treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , China , Humans , Oxaliplatin/adverse effects , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/chemically induced , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(7): 515, 2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731371

ABSTRACT

Urbanization is a critical factor affecting regional carbon emissions. Clarifying the linkage between urbanization and carbon emissions can provide a decision-making reference to realize China's goal of carbon neutrality. This article examines the spatiotemporal patterns of urbanization and carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration from 2008 to 2018. A complete set of variables is considered to construct relevant land and ecological urbanization variables, and the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT) model and spatial Durbin model (SDM) are adopted to explore the impact of various driving factors on carbon emissions. The results indicate that (1) during the study period, the carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration exhibited a fluctuating increase and that the incremental carbon emissions followed a downward trend. (2) Carbon emissions exhibited a positive spatial correlation. Cold- and hotspot areas indicated a three-gradient pattern from west to east, and a concentric circle radiation pattern occurred with Shanghai as the core. Carbon emissions were spatially imbalanced, but the centre of gravity slightly fluctuated, with a total migration distance of 38.48 km, indicating a migration trend towards the southeast. (3) Regarding the two considered dimensions of urbanization, all driving factors except urbanization played a role in carbon emission enhancement. Consequently, for every 1% increase in economic factors, the carbon emissions correspondingly increased by 0.43-0.57%. Hence, economic factors are the most important factors promoting increased carbon emissions. In the ecological urbanization dimension, urbanization caused a non-significant decrease in carbon emissions, while there was no spillover effect on carbon emissions in neighbouring areas. Accordingly, carbon emission reduction efforts should promote the transformation of urbanization from a land-driven process to an ecologically driven process and realize the synergies among carbon emission reductions, urban development, and land use.


Subject(s)
Carbon , Rivers , Carbon/analysis , China , Cities , Economic Development , Environmental Monitoring , Urbanization
17.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270271, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731793

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The science and technology (S&T) innovation in China's pharmaceutical industry has entered a bottleneck. The choice between external and internal research and development (R&D) has become a significant challenge for S&T development. To provide scientific suggestions for companies to choose an R&D strategy and enhance S&T development, we analyzed and compared the impacts of two R&D strategies on S&T output. METHODS: We selected the data related to China's pharmaceutical manufacturing industry from 2000 to 2019, established regression equations by the E-G two-step method, and used the VAR model for impulse responses and variance decompositions to research the relationship between two R&D strategies and S&T output. RESULTS: There is a stable long-term equilibrium relationship between two R&D strategies, including external and internal R&D, and S&T output in China's pharmaceutical manufacturing industry. When internal R&D increases by 1%, S&T output increases by 0.7382% with a 5-year lag. When S&T output increases by 1%, external R&D increases by 2.0749% with a 2-year lag. CONCLUSION: Compared with external R&D, internal R&D can boost S&T output.


Subject(s)
Drug Industry , Manufacturing Industry , China , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Research
18.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269948, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731799

ABSTRACT

Taking data of tourism attractions in international cultural tourism demonstration region in South Anhui in China, this study summarized the distribution characteristics of tourism attractions in region by applying GIS spatial analysis method such as nearest neighbor distance index and kernel density estimation method, and explored how natural conditions, urban infrastructure, social and economic development affect the distribution in order to better understand the distribution of regional tourism resources and serve the direction of tourism development. The study found that the tourist attractions in the demonstration area have a significant agglomeration on the whole, with Huangshan City as the main center and other districts and counties as the sub centers, presenting the trend of hierarchical development. In different kinds of tourism attractions, the distribution of natural tourism attractions and rural pastoral tourism attractions highly related to the topography. And the distribution of modern recreational tourism attractions and humanistic tourism attractions is closely related to hydrology. In terms of urban infrastructure, modern recreational tourism attractions hold the best accessibility with transportation. The core area of the demonstration region include Huangshan City, Chizhou city and Xuancheng city has better tourist industry development. Tourist attractions in other areas are relatively scarce, but the hold great potential for development in the future.


Subject(s)
Tourism , China , Cities , Spatial Analysis
19.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 414, 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medical education accreditation in China has been conducted by the Working Committee for the Accreditation of Medical Education (WCAME) and 129 medical schools have completed accreditation by December 2021. Despite studies on the standards, process and effectiveness of accreditation, the actual information transparency of accredited medical schools in China has not been examined. The study investigated the status of publicly available information from WCAME-accredited medical schools in China, and whether public availability of information had significant differences among different types of universities. METHODS: The 129 medical schools' official websites were reviewed for the 21 criteria of the WFME Global Standards for Quality Improvement: Basic Medical Education. Dichotomous method was used to record information as presence or absence. SPSS was utilized for descriptive and ANOVA analyses. RESULTS: The mean of the publicly available information on the 21 criteria was 13.77 ± 3.57, and only 5 (3.9%) accredited medical schools had all relevant information available. Publicly available information on Governance (100%) and Administration (100%) was the most, whereas information on Assessment in support of learning (16.3%) was the least. Public availability of information differed significantly among schools accredited with higher (18.15 ± 2.16), medium (13.69 ± 3.41) and lower results (12.79 ± 3.19) (F = 14.71, p < 0.05). Medical universities and comprehensive universities did not show significant differences in their overall information availability (F = 0.25, p > 0.05). Central government funded universities had a remarkably larger amount of publicly available information than local government funded universities (17.86 ± 1.98 vs. 12.75 ± 2.93, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Public availability of information from the accredited medical schools in China needs to be improved to promote transparency and continuous quality improvement, especially with regard to information on curriculum, assessment and quality assurance. Explicit information availability requirements need to be considered to include in medical education standards, and further studies are warranted to explore which information elements should be made publicly available.


Subject(s)
Education, Medical , Schools, Medical , Accreditation , China , Curriculum , Education, Medical/methods , Humans
20.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 415, 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641981

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Doctors who wish to become general practitioners (GPs) in China are required to attend and complete general practice resident training. In the early stages of the standardized GP training system, GP training supervisors play important roles. This study aims to explore how GP residents perceive their GP supervisors, factors that affect GP residents' satisfaction level, as well as to offer suggestions based on the implications of this study. DESIGN: We conducted a mixed quantitative and qualitative study. Firstly, with respect to the quantitative research, we conducted a survey to investigate training satisfaction through questionnaires, then extracted and analyzed the factors that influence training satisfaction. In the qualitative study, we conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews using qualitative research criteria (COREQ)--a 32-item checklist for interviews. PARTICIPANTS: Participants in the quantitative survey included 1172 GPs whose training time wasbetween 2008 and 2017. Afterwards, 100 participants were selected from this sample , filtered by stratified random sampling and by having provided extreme answers on the quantitative survey (less than 5% of the total sample). They were chosen for the qualitative research to conduct a more detailed investigation., This stratified random sampling was based on residents' grades, regions, and training levels (city level or county level). Extreme answers were identified as answers of "extremely good" or "extremely bad" to questions from the initial comprehensive survey of 1172 participants. Consequently, 30 participants with extreme answers were found, while the remaining 70 participants in the interviews were selected by stratified random sampling. Ultimately, this sample of participants met our information collection and sample estimation requirements. RESULTS: The results show that satisfaction with GP theoretical training supervisors, GP hospital-based training supervisors, and GP community-based training supervisors differed. Considering long-term averages, the hierarchy of satisfaction is as follows: GP theoretical training supervisors > GP community-based training supervisors > GP hospital-based training supervisors. GP hospital-based training supervisors need to improve their conception of GPs, teaching methods and conscientiousness. GP community-based training supervisors need to improve their teaching methods, knowledge of clinical theory and practice ability. CONCLUSIONS: On the one hand, teams of GP supervisors in China have gradually been established over time. On the other hand,the satisfaction tendencies of residents with respect to their GP supervisors are quite different, and teams of GP supervisors must be promoted and improved.


Subject(s)
General Practice , General Practitioners , China , Family Practice , General Practice/education , General Practitioners/education , Humans , Research Personnel
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