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1.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 55(1): 67-73, 2024 Jan 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38322536

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate how substrate stiffness regulates the morphology of primary cilia in chondrocytes and to illustrate how Piezo1 mediates the morphology regulation of primary cilia by substrate stiffness. Methods: Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) curing agent and the main agent (Dow Corning, Beijing, China) were mixed at the ratio of 1∶10 (stiff), 1∶50 (medium stiffness), and 1∶70 (soft), respectively, to prepare substrate films with the thickness of 1 mm at different levels of stiffness, including stiff substrate of (2.21±0.12) MPa, medium-stiffness substrate of (54.47±6.06) kPa, and soft substrate of (2.13±0.10) kPa. Chondrocytes were cultured with the substrates of three different levels of stiffness. Then, the cells were treated with Tubastatin A (Tub A) to inhibit histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), Piezo1 activator Yoda1, and inhibitor GsMTx4, respectively. The effects of HDAC6, Yoda1, and GsMTx4 on chondrocyte morphology and the length of primary cilia were analyzed through immunofluorescence staining. Results: The stiff substrate increased the spread area of the chondrocytes. Immunofluorescence assays showed that the cytoskeleton and the nuclear area of the cells on the stiff substrate were significantly increased (P<0.05) and the primary cilia were significantly extended (P<0.05) compared with those on the medium-stiffness and soft substrates. However, the presence rate of primary cilia was not affected. The HDAC6 activity of chondrocytes increased with the decrease in substrate stiffness. When the activity of HDAC6 was inhibited, the cytoskeletal area, the nuclei area, and the primary cilium length were increased more significantly on the stiff substrate (P<0.05). Further testing showed that Piezo1 activator and inhibitor could regulate the activity of HDAC6 in chondrocytes, and that the length of primary cilia was significantly increased after treatment with the activator Yoda1 (P<0.05). On the other hand, the length of primary cilia was significantly shortened on the stiff substrate after treatment with the inhibitor GsMTx4 (P<0.05). Conclusion: Both substrate stiffness and Piezo1 may affect the morphology of chondrocyte primary cilia by regulating HDAC6 activity.


Subject(s)
Chondrocytes , Cilia , Cilia/physiology , Cells, Cultured , Cytoskeleton , China
2.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 55(1): 53-59, 2024 Jan 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38322539

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α) on the apoptosis and autophagy of chondrocytes and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Chondrocytes were isolated from the knee joints of neonatal mice. The chondrocytes were then stimulated with 0 (the control group), 50, 100, and 200 ng/mL of SDF-1α. CCK-8 assay was performed to determine the effects of SDF-1α stimulation for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h on the viability of the chondrocytes. Wound healing assay was conducted to determine the effects of SDF-1α stimulation for 12 h and 24 h on chondrocyte migration. The changes in the expression of Akt signaling pathway proteins in chondrocytes were determined by Western blot assay. Chondrocytes were stimulated with 0 (the control group) and 200 ng/mL of SDF-1α. Flow cytometry was performed to determine the effect of SDF-1α on the apoptosis of chondrocytes. Transmission electron microscope was used to examine the effect of SDF-1α on chondrocyte autophagy. Immunofluorescence staining assays were performed to visualize the differences in p-Akt expression and distribution in chondrocytes treated with SDF-1α. Results: Compared with the control group, findings for the experimental groups showed that SDF-1α at the concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 ng/mL did not decrease chondrocyte activity at any time point (P<0.01) and it consistently promoted chondrocyte migration at 24 h (P<0.05). Western blot results revealed that, in comparison to the control group, SDF-1α at concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 ng/mL significantly up-regulated the protein expression of p-Akt in chondrocytes, while no significant difference in Akt expression was observed. Flow cytometry demonstrated that SDF-1α could inhibit chondrocyte apoptosis (P<0.05) and transmission electron microscopic observation showed that SDF-1α promoted chondrocyte autophagy (P<0.05). Immunofluorescence staining showed that the expression of p-Akt in chondrocytes was concentrated in the perinuclear area of the cells and this expression was further enhanced in the perinuclear area of the chondrocytes after treatment with SDF-1α. Conclusion: SDF-1α inhibits chondrocyte apoptosis and promotes chondrocyte migration and autophagy through activating the Akt signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Chemokine CXCL12 , Chondrocytes , Mice , Animals , Chemokine CXCL12/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Apoptosis , Autophagy , Stromal Cells/metabolism
3.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1331934, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38327517

ABSTRACT

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a highly prevalent age-related musculoskeletal disorder that typically results in chronic pain and disability. OA is a multifactorial disease, with increased oxidative stress, dysregulated inflammatory response, and impaired matrix metabolism contributing to its onset and progression. The neurohormone melatonin, primarily synthesized by the pineal gland, has emerged as a promising therapeutic agent for OA due to its potential to alleviate inflammation, oxidative stress, and chondrocyte death with minimal adverse effects. The present review provides a comprehensive summary of the current understanding regarding melatonin as a promising pharmaceutical agent for the treatment of OA, along with an exploration of various delivery systems that can be utilized for melatonin administration. These findings may provide novel therapeutic strategies and targets for inhibiting the advancement of OA.


Subject(s)
Melatonin , Osteoarthritis , Humans , Melatonin/pharmacology , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism
4.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 19(1): 109, 2024 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease caused by the deterioration of cartilage. However, the underlying mechanisms of OA pathogenesis remain elusive. METHODS: Hub genes were screened by bioinformatics analysis based on the GSE114007 and GSE169077 datasets. The Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model of OA was constructed by intra-articular injection of a mixture of papain and L-cysteine. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to detect pathological changes in OA rat models. Inflammatory cytokine levels in serum were measured employing the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was implemented to assess the hub gene expressions in OA rat models. The roles of PDK4 and the mechanism regulating the PPAR pathway were evaluated through western blot, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), ELISA, and flow cytometry assays in C28/I2 chondrocytes induced by IL-1ß. RESULTS: Six hub genes were identified, of which COL1A1, POSTN, FAP, and CDH11 expressions were elevated, while PDK4 and ANGPTL4 were reduced in OA. Overexpression of PDK4 inhibited apoptosis, inflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-6), and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation protein expressions (MMP-3, MMP-13, and ADAMTS-4) in IL-1ß-induced chondrocytes. Further investigation revealed that PDK4 promoted the expression of PPAR signaling pathway-related proteins: PPARA, PPARD, and ACSL1. Additionally, GW9662, an inhibitor of the PPAR pathway, significantly counteracted the inhibitory effect of PDK4 overexpression on IL-1ß-induced chondrocytes. CONCLUSION: PDK4 inhibits OA development by activating the PPAR pathway, which provides new insights into the OA management.


Subject(s)
Osteoarthritis , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors , Rats , Animals , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors/genetics , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors/metabolism , Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors/pharmacology , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism
5.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1024, 2024 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38310093

ABSTRACT

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive and irreversible degenerative joint disease that is characterized by cartilage destruction, osteophyte formation, subchondral bone remodeling, and synovitis. Despite affecting millions of patients, effective and safe disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs are lacking. Here we reveal an unexpected role for the small molecule 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which is used as an anti-inflammatory drug in ulcerative colitis. We show that 5-ASA competes with extracellular-matrix collagen-II to bind to osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) on chondrocytes. Intra-articular 5-ASA injections ameliorate OA generated by surgery-induced medial-meniscus destabilization in male mice. Significantly, this effect is also observed when 5-ASA was administered well after OA onset. Moreover, mice with DMM-induced OA that are treated with 5-ASA at weeks 8-11 and sacrificed at week 12 have thicker cartilage than untreated mice that were sacrificed at week 8. Mechanistically, 5-ASA reverses OSCAR-mediated transcriptional repression of PPARγ in articular chondrocytes, thereby suppressing COX-2-related inflammation. It also improves chondrogenesis, strongly downregulates ECM catabolism, and promotes ECM anabolism. Our results suggest that 5-ASA could serve as a DMOAD.


Subject(s)
Cartilage, Articular , Osteoarthritis , Humans , Male , Animals , Mice , Mesalamine/pharmacology , Mesalamine/therapeutic use , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal
6.
Clin Transl Med ; 14(2): e1574, 2024 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38314968

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Developmental dysplasia of hip (DDH) is a hip joint disorder leading to subsequent osteoarthritis. Previous studies suggested collagen XI alpha 1 (COL11A1) as a potential gene in hip dysplasia and chondrocyte degeneration. However, no genetic association has reported COL11A1-related cellular therapy as treatment of DDH and joint degeneration. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report identified genetic association between COL11A1 locus and DDH with genome-wide association study (GWAS). Further exome sequencing for familial DDH patients was conducted in different populations to identify potential pathogenic Col11A1 variants for familiar DDH. Further studies demonstrated involvement of COL11A1 expression was down-regulated in femoral head cartilage of DDH patients and Col11a1-KO mice with induced DDH. Col11a1-KO mice demonstrated aggravated joint degeneration and severe OA phenotype. To explore the underlying mechanism of Col11a1 in cartilage and DDH development, we generated scRNA-seq profiles for DDH and Col11a1-KO cartilage, demonstrating disrupted chondrocyte homeostasis and cellular senescence caused by Col11a1-HIF1α-mediated glycolysis-OXPHOS shift in chondrocytes. Genetically and biologically inspired, we further fabricated an intra-articular injection therapy to preventing cartilage degeneration by generating a Col11a1-over-expressed (OE) SMSC mini-organoids. Col11a1-OE organoids demonstrated superior chondrogenesis and ameliorated cartilage degeneration in DDH mice via regulating cellular senescence by up-regulated Col11a1/HIF1α-mediated glycolysis in chondrocytes. CONCLUSION: We reported association between COL11A1 loci and DDH with GWAS and exome sequencing. Further studies demonstrated involvement of COL11A1 in DDH patients and Col11a1-KO mice. ScRNA-seq for DDH and Col11a1-KO cartilage demonstrated disrupted chondrocyte homeostasis and cellular senescence caused by Col11a1-HIF1α-mediated glycolysis-OXPHOS shift in chondrocytes. Genetically and biologically inspired, an intra-articular injection therapy was fabricated to prevent cartilage degeneration with Col11a1-OE SMSC organoids. Col11a1-OE organoids ameliorated cartilage degeneration in DDH mice via regulating cellular senescence by up-regulated Col11a1/HIF1α-mediated glycolysis in chondrocytes.


Subject(s)
Cartilage, Articular , Osteoarthritis , Humans , Mice , Animals , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Chondrocytes/pathology , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Cartilage, Articular/pathology , Genome-Wide Association Study , Osteoarthritis/etiology , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/pathology , Organoids
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2696, 2024 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302538

ABSTRACT

Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative joint condition, leading to articular cartilage (AC) degradation, chronic pain and immobility. The lack of appropriate therapies that provide tissue restoration combined with the limited lifespan of joint-replacement implants indicate the need for alternative AC regeneration strategies. Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into AC progenitors may provide a long-term regenerative solution but is still limited due to the continued reliance upon growth factors to recapitulate developmental signalling processes. Recently, TTNPB, a small molecule activator of retinoic acid receptors (RARs), has been shown to be sufficient to guide mesodermal specification and early chondrogenesis of hPSCs. Here, we modified our previous differentiation protocol, by supplementing cells with TTNPB and administering BMP2 at specific times to enhance early development (referred to as the RAPID-E protocol). Transcriptomic analyses indicated that activation of RAR signalling significantly upregulated genes related to limb and embryonic skeletal development in the early stages of the protocol and upregulated genes related to AC development in later stages. Chondroprogenitors obtained from RAPID-E could generate cartilaginous pellets that expressed AC-related matrix proteins such as Lubricin, Aggrecan, and Collagen II, but additionally expressed Collagen X, indicative of hypertrophy. This protocol could lay the foundations for cell therapy strategies for osteoarthritis and improve the understanding of AC development in humans.


Subject(s)
Benzoates , Cartilage, Articular , Osteoarthritis , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Retinoids , Humans , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Tretinoin/pharmacology , Chondrogenesis/genetics , Cell Differentiation , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Collagen/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/metabolism
8.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 19(1): 111, 2024 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38308324

ABSTRACT

The 5'-HOXD genes are important for chondrogenesis in vertebrates, but their roles in osteoarthritis (OA) are still ambiguous. In our study, 5'-HOXD genes involvement contributing to cartilage degradation and OA was investigated. In bioinformatics analysis of 5'-HOXD genes, we obtained the GSE169077 data set related to OA in the GEO and analyzed DEGs using the GEO2R tool attached to the GEO. Then, we screened the mRNA levels of 5'-HOXD genes by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We discovered that OA chondrocyte proliferation was inhibited, and apoptosis was increased. Moreover, it was discovered that SOX9 and COL2A1 were downregulated at mRNA and protein levels, while matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTSs) were upregulated. According to the results of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and qRT-PCR, we evaluated the protein level of HOXD11 and found that the expression of HOXD11 was downregulated, reversed to MMPs and ADAMTSs but consistent with the cartilage-specific factors, SOX9 and COL2A1. In the lentivirus transfection experiments, HOXD11 overexpression reversed the effects in OA chondrocytes. In human OA articular cartilage, aberrant subchondral bone was formed in hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and Safranin O and fast green (SOFG) staining results. Furthermore, according to immunohistochemistry findings, SOX9 and HOXD11 expression was inhibited. The results of this study established that HOXD11 was downregulated in OA cartilage and that overexpression of HOXD11 could prevent cartilage degradation in OA.


Subject(s)
Cartilage, Articular , Osteoarthritis , Animals , Humans , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/genetics , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Transcription Factors/genetics , Transcription Factors/metabolism
9.
Int J Biol Sci ; 20(4): 1256-1278, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38385071

ABSTRACT

Chondrocyte senescence has recently been proposed as a key pathogenic mechanism in the etiology of osteoarthritis (OA). Nevertheless, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying chondrocyte senescence remain poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted an investigation into the involvement of Sirtuin 4 (Sirt4) in chondrocyte senescence. Our experimental findings revealed a downregulation of Sirt4 expression in TBHP-induced senescent chondrocytes in vitro, as well as in mouse OA cartilage. Additionally, we observed that the knockdown of Sirt4 in chondrocytes promoted cellular senescence and cartilage degradation, while the overexpression of Sirt4 protected the cells against TBHP-mediated senescence of chondrocytes and cartilage degradation. Moreover, our findings revealed elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), abnormal mitochondrial morphology, compromised mitochondrial membrane potential, and reduced ATP production in Sirt4 knockdown chondrocytes, indicative of mitochondrial dysfunction. Conversely, Sirt4 overexpression successfully mitigated TBHP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Further analysis revealed that Sirt4 downregulation impaired the cellular capacity to eliminate damaged mitochondria by inhibiting Pink1 in chondrocytes, thereby enhancing the accumulation of ROS and facilitating chondrocyte senescence. Notably, the overexpression of Pink1 counteracted the effects of Sirt4 knockdown on mitochondrial dysfunction. Importantly, our study demonstrated the promise of gene therapy employing a lentiviral vector encoding mouse Sirt4, as it successfully preserved the integrity of articular cartilage in mouse models of OA. In conclusion, our findings provide compelling evidence that the overexpression of Sirt4 enhances mitophagy, restores mitochondrial function, and protects against chondrocyte senescence, thereby offering a novel therapeutic target and potential strategy for the treatment of OA.


Subject(s)
Cartilage, Articular , Mitochondrial Diseases , Osteoarthritis , Sirtuins , Mice , Animals , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Chondrocytes , Down-Regulation , Osteoarthritis/etiology , Cellular Senescence/genetics , Sirtuins/genetics , Sirtuins/metabolism , Mitochondrial Diseases/metabolism , Protein Kinases/metabolism
10.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 22(1): 72, 2024 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374072

ABSTRACT

Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent chronic musculoskeletal diseases among the elderly population. In this study, macrophage-derived exosomes were isolated and identified. Exosomes were subjected to microRNA (miRNA) sequencing and bioinformatic analysis, and differentially expressed miRNAs were verified. miR-26b-5p target genes were confirmed through target-site mutation combined with a dual-luciferase reporter assay. The effects of miR-26b-5p on macrophage polarization and chondrocyte hypertrophy were assessed in vitro. miR-26b-5p agomir was applied to mice with OA induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT). The therapeutic effects of miR-26b-5p were evaluated via pain behavior experiments and histological observations. In vitro, miR-26b-5p repolarized M1 macrophages to an anti-inflammatory M2 type by targeting the TLR3 signaling pathway. miR-26b-5p could target COL10A1, further inhibiting chondrocyte hypertrophy induced by M1 macrophage-conditioned medium (M1-CM). In vivo, miR-26b-5p agomir ameliorated gait abnormalities and mechanical allodynia in OA mice. miR-26b-5p treatment attenuated synovitis and cartilage degeneration, thereby delaying OA progression. In conclusion, M2 macrophage-derived exosomal miR-26b-5p could protect articular cartilage and ameliorate gait abnormalities in OA mice by targeting TLR3 and COL10A1. miR-26b-5p further affected macrophage polarization and chondrocyte hypertrophy. Thus, this exosomal miR-26b-5p-based strategy might be a potential method for OA treatment.


Subject(s)
MicroRNAs , Osteoarthritis , Humans , Aged , Mice , Animals , Toll-Like Receptor 3/metabolism , Chondrocytes/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Hypertrophy/metabolism , Hypertrophy/pathology
11.
J Cell Mol Med ; 28(4): e18132, 2024 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38345195

ABSTRACT

α-Solanine has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour properties; however, its efficacy in treating osteoarthritis (OA) remains ambiguous. The study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of α-solanine on OA development in a mouse OA model. The OA mice were subjected to varying concentrations of α-solanine, and various assessments were implemented to assess OA progression. We found that α-solanine significantly reduced osteophyte formation, subchondral sclerosis and OARSI score. And it decreased proteoglycan loss and calcification in articular cartilage. Specifically, α-solanine inhibited extracellular matrix degradation by downregulating collagen 10, matrix metalloproteinase 3 and 13, and upregulating collagen 2. Importantly, α-solanine reversed chondrocyte pyroptosis phenotype in articular cartilage of OA mice by inhibiting the elevated expressions of Caspase-1, Gsdmd and IL-1ß, while also mitigating aberrant angiogenesis and sensory innervation in subchondral bone. Mechanistically, α-solanine notably hindered the early stages of OA progression by reducing I-κB phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65, thereby inactivating NF-κB signalling. Our findings demonstrate the capability of α-solanine to disrupt chondrocyte pyroptosis and sensory innervation, thereby improving osteoarthritic pathological progress by inhibiting NF-κB signalling. These results suggest that α-solanine could serve as a promising therapeutic agent for OA treatment.


Subject(s)
NF-kappa B , Osteoarthritis , Solanine , Mice , Animals , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pyroptosis , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Collagen/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology
12.
Sci Transl Med ; 16(735): eadh9751, 2024 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38381849

ABSTRACT

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease characterized by progressive degeneration of articular cartilage. A challenge in the development of disease-modifying drugs is effective delivery to chondrocytes. The unique structure of the joint promotes rapid clearance of drugs through synovial fluid, and the dense and avascular cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) limits drug penetration. Here, we show that poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles coated in chondrocyte membranes (CM-NPs) were preferentially taken up by rat chondrocytes ex vivo compared with uncoated nanoparticles. Internalization of the CM-NPs was mediated primarily by E-cadherin, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and micropinocytosis. These CM-NPs adhered to the cartilage ECM in rat knee joints in vivo and penetrated deeply into the cartilage matrix with a residence time of more than 34 days. Simulated synovial fluid clearance studies showed that CM-NPs loaded with a Wnt pathway inhibitor, adavivint (CM-NPs-Ada), delayed the catabolic metabolism of rat and human chondrocytes and cartilage explants under inflammatory conditions. In a surgical model of rat OA, drug-loaded CM-NPs effectively restored gait, attenuated periarticular bone remodeling, and provided chondroprotection against cartilage degeneration. OA progression was also mitigated by CM-NPs-Ada in a canine model of anterior cruciate ligament transection. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using chondrocyte membrane-coated nanoparticles to improve the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of anti-OA drugs.


Subject(s)
Cartilage, Articular , Nanoparticles , Osteoarthritis , Rats , Animals , Dogs , Humans , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Knee Joint , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism
13.
Chin J Nat Med ; 22(2): 137-145, 2024 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342566

ABSTRACT

Excessive oxidative stress impairs cartilage matrix metabolism balance, significantly contributing to osteoarthritis (OA) development. Celastrol (CSL), a drug derived from Tripterygium wilfordii, has recognized applications in the treatment of cancer and immune system disorders, yet its antioxidative stress mechanisms in OA remain underexplored. This study aimed to substantiate CSL's chondroprotective effects and unravel its underlying mechanisms. We investigated CSL's impact on chondrocytes under both normal and inflammatory conditions. In vitro, CSL mitigated interleukin (IL)-1ß-induced activation of proteinases and promoted cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis. In vivo, intra-articular injection of CSL ameliorated cartilage degeneration and mitigated subchondral bone lesions in OA mice. Mechanistically, it was found that inhibiting nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) abrogated CSL-mediated antioxidative functions and exacerbated the progression of OA. This study is the first to elucidate the role of CSL in the treatment of OA through the activation of NRF2, offering a novel therapeutic avenue for arthritis therapy.


Subject(s)
NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Osteoarthritis , Mice , Animals , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/pathology , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/metabolism , Chondrocytes , Interleukin-1beta
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(8): e2316969121, 2024 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38346197

ABSTRACT

SOX8 was linked in a genome-wide association study to human height heritability, but roles in chondrocytes for this close relative of the master chondrogenic transcription factor SOX9 remain unknown. We undertook here to fill this knowledge gap. High-throughput assays demonstrate expression of human SOX8 and mouse Sox8 in growth plate cartilage. In situ assays show that Sox8 is expressed at a similar level as Sox9 in reserve and early columnar chondrocytes and turned off when Sox9 expression peaks in late columnar and prehypertrophic chondrocytes. Sox8-/- mice and Sox8fl/flPrx1Cre and Sox9fl/+Prx1Cre mice (inactivation in limb skeletal cells) have a normal or near normal skeletal size. In contrast, juvenile and adult Sox8fl/flSox9fl/+Prx1Cre compound mutants exhibit a 15 to 20% shortening of long bones. Their growth plate reserve chondrocytes progress slowly toward the columnar stage, as witnessed by a delay in down-regulating Pthlh expression, in packing in columns and in elevating their proliferation rate. SOX8 or SOX9 overexpression in chondrocytes reveals not only that SOX8 can promote growth plate cell proliferation and differentiation, even upon inactivation of endogenous Sox9, but also that it is more efficient than SOX9, possibly due to greater protein stability. Altogether, these findings uncover a major role for SOX8 and SOX9 in promoting skeletal growth by stimulating commitment of growth plate reserve chondrocytes to actively proliferating columnar cells. Further, by showing that SOX8 is more chondrogenic than SOX9, they suggest that SOX8 could be preferred over SOX9 in therapies to promote cartilage formation or regeneration in developmental and degenerative cartilage diseases.


Subject(s)
Chondrocytes , Genome-Wide Association Study , Mice , Humans , Animals , Chondrocytes/metabolism , SOX9 Transcription Factor/genetics , SOX9 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation , SOXE Transcription Factors/genetics , SOXE Transcription Factors/metabolism
15.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 701: 149583, 2024 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38330731

ABSTRACT

Endochondral ossification is a developmental process in the skeletal system and bone marrow of vertebrates. During endochondral ossification, primitive cartilaginous anlages derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) undergo vascular invasion and ossification. In vitro regeneration of endochondral ossification is beneficial for research on the skeletal system and bone marrow development as well as their clinical aspects. However, to achieve the regeneration of endochondral ossification, a stem cell-based artificial cartilage (cartilage organoid, Cart-Org) that possesses an endochondral ossification phenotype is required. Here, we modified a conventional 3D culture method to create stem cell-based Cart-Org by mixing it with a basement membrane extract (BME) and further characterized its chondrogenic and ossification properties. BME enlarged and matured the bone marrow MSC-based Cart-Orgs without any shape abnormalities. Histological analysis using Alcian blue staining showed that the production of cartilaginous extracellular matrices was enhanced in Cart-Org treated with BME. Transcriptome analysis using RNA sequencing revealed that BME altered the gene expression pattern of Cart-Org to a dominant chondrogenic state. BME triggered the activation of the SMAD pathway and inhibition of the NK-κB pathway, which resulted in the upregulation of SOX9, COL2A1, and ACAN in Cart-Org. BME also facilitated the upregulation of genes associated with hypertrophic chondrocytes (IHH, PTH1R, and COL10A1) and ossification (SP7, ALPL, and MMP13). Our findings indicate that BME promotes cartilaginous maturation and further ossification of bone marrow MSC-based Cart-Org, suggesting that Cart-Org treated with BME possesses the phenotype of endochondral ossification.


Subject(s)
Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Osteogenesis , Animals , Osteogenesis/genetics , Bone Marrow , Basement Membrane , Cartilage/metabolism , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Phenotype , Chondrogenesis/genetics , Organoids , Cell Differentiation
16.
J Cell Mol Med ; 28(4): e18133, 2024 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38332509

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to investigate the regulatory mechanism of intracellular tension signaling in endplate chondrocytes and its impact on extracellular matrix synthesis. Human endplate chondrocytes were subjected to tension load using Flexcell FX-5000™, and changes in phenotype, morphology, and the expression of Hippo signaling pathway and α-Catenin were assessed through various techniques. Through the overexpression of YAP and inhibition of α-Catenin, the study clarified the intracellular tension signaling pathway and its regulation of extracellular matrix synthesis in endplate cartilage. In vitro-cultured human endplate chondrocytes significantly suppressed phenotype-related genes and proteins, accompanied by distinct changes in cytoskeleton morphology. Tension activation resulted in the substantial activation of the Hippo pathway, increased phosphorylation of YAP, and reduced nuclear translocation of YAP. YAP overexpression alleviated the inhibitory effect of tension on extracellular matrix synthesis in endplate chondrocytes. Tension also upregulated the expression of α-Catenin in endplate chondrocytes, which was attenuated by inhibiting α-Catenin expression, thereby reducing the impact of tension on cytoskeletal morphology and YAP nuclear translocation. Taken together, the α-Catenin/actin skeleton/Hippo-coupled network is a crucial signaling pathway for tension signaling in endplate chondrocytes, providing potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of endplate cartilage degeneration.


Subject(s)
Chondrocytes , Hippo Signaling Pathway , Humans , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Actins/metabolism , alpha Catenin/genetics , alpha Catenin/metabolism , Catenins/metabolism , Cartilage/metabolism , Phenotype , Skeleton/metabolism
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339087

ABSTRACT

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent form of arthritis and a major cause of pain and disability. The pathology of OA involves the whole joint in an inflammatory and degenerative process, especially in articular cartilage. OA may be divided into distinguishable phenotypes including one associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) of which dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia have been individually linked to OA. Since their combined role in OA pathogenesis remains to be elucidated, we investigated the chondrocyte response to these metabolic stresses, and determined whether a n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), may preserve chondrocyte functions. Rat chondrocytes were cultured with palmitic acid (PA) and/or EPA in normal or high glucose conditions. The expression of genes encoding proteins found in cartilage matrix (type 2 collagen and aggrecan) or involved in degenerative (metalloproteinases, MMPs) or in inflammatory (cyclooxygenase-2, COX-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase, mPGES) processes was analyzed by qPCR. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release was also evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our data indicated that PA dose-dependently up-regulated the mRNA expression of MMP-3 and -13. PA also induced the expression of COX-2 and mPGES and promoted the synthesis of PGE2. Glucose at high concentrations further increased the chondrocyte response to PA. Interestingly, EPA suppressed the inflammatory effects of PA and glucose, and strongly reduced MMP-13 expression. Among the free fatty acid receptors (FFARs), FFAR4 partly mediated the EPA effects and the activation of FFAR1 markedly reduced the inflammatory effects of PA in high glucose conditions. Our findings demonstrate that dyslipidemia associated with hyperglycemia may contribute to OA pathogenesis and explains why an excess of saturated fatty acids and a low level in n-3 PUFAs may disrupt cartilage homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Cartilage, Articular , Dyslipidemias , Hyperglycemia , Osteoarthritis , Rats , Animals , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Eicosapentaenoic Acid/pharmacology , Eicosapentaenoic Acid/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Palmitates/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Dinoprostone/metabolism , Hyperglycemia/metabolism , Glucose/pharmacology , Glucose/metabolism , Dyslipidemias/metabolism
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338721

ABSTRACT

We investigated the effects of a Tankyrase (TNKS-1/2) inhibitor on mechanical stress-induced gene expression in human chondrocytes and examined TNKS-1/2 expression in human osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage. Cells were seeded onto stretch chambers and incubated with or without a TNKS-1/2 inhibitor (XAV939) for 12 h. Uni-axial cyclic tensile strain (CTS) (0.5 Hz, 8% elongation, 30 min) was applied and the gene expression of type II collagen a1 chain (COL2A1), aggrecan (ACAN), SRY-box9 (SOX9), TNKS-1/2, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-5 (ADAMTS-5), and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) were examined by real-time PCR. The expression of ADAMTS-5, MMP-13, nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and ß-catenin were examined by immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. The concentration of IL-1ß in the supernatant was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TNKS-1/2 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in human OA cartilage obtained at the total knee arthroplasty. TNKS-1/2 expression was increased after CTS. The expression of anabolic factors were decreased by CTS, however, these declines were abrogated by XAV939. XAV939 suppressed the CTS-induced expression of catabolic factors, the release of IL-1ß, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and ß-catenin. TNKS-1/2 expression increased in mild and moderate OA cartilage. Our results demonstrated that XAV939 suppressed mechanical stress-induced expression of catabolic proteases by the inhibition of NF-κB and activation of ß-catenin, indicating that TNKS-1/2 expression might be associated with OA pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Cartilage, Articular , Osteoarthritis , Tankyrases , Humans , beta Catenin/metabolism , Cartilage, Articular/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Chondrocytes/drug effects , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 13/genetics , Matrix Metalloproteinase 13/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , Peptide Hydrolases/drug effects , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Stress, Mechanical , Tankyrases/antagonists & inhibitors
19.
J Orthop Surg Res ; 19(1): 66, 2024 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38218927

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We investigated the impact of the long noncoding RNA LINC00958 on cellular activity and oxidative stress in osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: We performed bioinformatics analysis via StarBase and luciferase reporter assays to predict and validate the interactions between LINC00958 and miR-214-3p and between miR-214-3p and FOXM1. The expression levels of LINC00958, miR-214-3p, and FOXM1 were measured by qRT-PCR and western blotting. To assess effects on CHON-001 cells, we performed MTT proliferation assays, evaluated cytotoxicity with a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, and examined apoptosis through flow cytometry. Additionally, we measured the levels of apoptosis-related proteins, including BAX and BCL2, using western blotting. The secretion of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) was measured using ELISA. RESULTS: Our findings confirmed that LINC00958 is a direct target of miR-214-3p. LINC00958 expression was upregulated but miR-214-3p expression was downregulated in both OA cells and IL-1ß-stimulated CHON-001 cells compared to the corresponding control cells. Remarkably, miR-214-3p expression was further reduced after miR-214-3p inhibitor treatment but increased following LINC00958-siRNA stimulation. Silencing LINC00958 significantly decreased its expression, and this effect was reversed by miR-214-3p inhibitor treatment. Notably, LINC00958-siRNA transfection alleviated the IL-1ß-induced inflammatory response, as evidenced by the increased cell viability, reduced LDH release, suppression of apoptosis, downregulated BAX expression, and elevated BCL2 levels. Moreover, LINC00958 silencing led to reduced secretion of inflammatory factors from IL-1ß-stimulated CHON-001 cells. The opposite results were observed in the miR-214-3p inhibitor-transfected groups. Furthermore, in CHON-001 cells, miR-214-3p directly targeted FOXM1 and negatively regulated its expression. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that downregulating LINC00958 mitigates IL-1ß-induced injury in CHON-001 cells through the miR-214-3p/FOXM1 axis. These results imply that LINC00958 plays a role in OA development and may be a valuable therapeutic target for OA.


Subject(s)
MicroRNAs , Osteoarthritis , Humans , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Chondrocytes/metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , Osteoarthritis/genetics , Osteoarthritis/metabolism , RNA, Small Interfering , Apoptosis/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Forkhead Box Protein M1/genetics , Forkhead Box Protein M1/metabolism
20.
Carbohydr Polym ; 328: 121734, 2024 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38220328

ABSTRACT

Cell therapy using chondrocytes has shown promise for cartilage regeneration, but maintaining functional characteristics during in vitro culture and ensuring survival after transplantation are challenges. Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture methods, such as spheroid culture, and hydrogels can improve cell survival and functionality. In this study, a new method of culturing spheroids using hyaluronic acid (HA) microparticles was developed. The spheroids mixed with HA microparticles effectively maintained the functional characteristics of chondrocytes during in vitro culture, resulting in improved cell survival and successful cartilage formation in vivo following transplantation. This new method has the potential to improve cell therapy production for cartilage regeneration.


Subject(s)
Cartilage, Articular , Hyaluronic Acid , Hyaluronic Acid/pharmacology , Tissue Engineering/methods , Cartilage , Chondrocytes , Regeneration , Hydrogels/pharmacology
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