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1.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 69 Suppl 1: s69-s80, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998312

ABSTRACT

Chronic spontaneous urticaria is a condition that persists for more than six weeks, it occurs in the absence of an identifiable triggering factor and from the pathogenic activation of mast cells and basophils. The possibility of autoimmune etiology in up to 40 % of patients is presented, followed by subclinical infections and psychological factors. Two main mechanisms of the pathogenesis of chronic urticaria have been proposed: the former is the dysregulation of intracellular signaling pathways within mast cells and basophils, which leads to defects in the traffic or function of these cells. The latter is the development of autoantibodies against FcεRIα or IgE, in both mast cells and basophils. Numerous autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and rheumatoid arthritis have been associated with chronic urticaria; however, autoimmune thyroid disease deserves a special mention. A higher prevalence of antithyroid antibodies has been found, regardless of thyroid function (euthyroidism, hypo and hyperthyroidism) in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria. Several infections have been linked to chronic urticaria. The best evidence is for Helicobacter pylori infection. Finally, stress is associated with the onset of the disease through the activation of the sympathetic and adrenomedullary system and the hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal axis. Diagnosis may vary in different regions of the world, but the common feature is the completion of a thorough medical history.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , Chronic Urticaria , Helicobacter Infections , Helicobacter pylori , Urticaria , Autoantibodies , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Autoimmunity , Chronic Disease , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Receptors, IgE , Urticaria/epidemiology , Urticaria/etiology
2.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(1): 7, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989761

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Dry eye-induced chronic ocular pain is also called ocular neuropathic pain. However, details of the pathogenic mechanism remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of dry eye-induced chronic pain in the anterior eye area and develop a pathophysiology-based therapeutic strategy. Methods: We used a rat dry eye model with lacrimal gland excision (LGE) to elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of ocular neuropathic pain. Corneal epithelial damage, hypersensitivity, and hyperalgesia were evaluated on the LGE side and compared with the sham surgery side. We analyzed neuronal activity, microglial and astrocytic activity, α2δ-1 subunit expression, and inhibitory interneurons in the trigeminal nucleus. We also evaluated the therapeutic effects of ophthalmic treatment and chronic pregabalin administration on dry eye-induced ocular neuropathic pain. Results: Dry eye caused hypersensitivity and hyperalgesia on the LGE side. In the trigeminal nucleus of the LGE side, neuronal hyperactivation, transient activation of microglia, persistent activation of astrocytes, α2δ-1 subunit upregulation, and reduced numbers of inhibitory interneurons were observed. Ophthalmic treatment alone did not improve hyperalgesia. In contrast, continuous treatment with pregabalin effectively ameliorated hypersensitivity and hyperalgesia and normalized neural activity, α2δ-1 subunit upregulation, and astrocyte activation. Conclusions: These results suggest that dry eye-induced hypersensitivity and hyperalgesia are caused by central sensitization in the trigeminal nucleus with upregulation of the α2δ-1 subunit. Here, we showed that pregabalin is effective for treating dry eye-induced ocular neuropathic pain even after chronic pain has been established.


Subject(s)
Analgesics/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Dry Eye Syndromes/physiopathology , Eye Pain/physiopathology , Pregabalin/administration & dosage , Administration, Ophthalmic , Animals , Astrocytes/pathology , Calcium Channels, L-Type/metabolism , Chronic Disease , Cornea/innervation , Dry Eye Syndromes/drug therapy , Eye Pain/drug therapy , Hyaluronic Acid/administration & dosage , Hyperalgesia/drug therapy , Hyperalgesia/physiopathology , Male , Microglia/pathology , Neuralgia/drug therapy , Neuralgia/physiopathology , Neurons/metabolism , Neurons/pathology , Ophthalmic Solutions , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Trigeminal Nerve/metabolism , Trigeminal Nerve/pathology
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e052495, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996790

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of mental health symptoms during the first surge of COVID-19 in the USA, and their associations with COVID-19-related emotional distress, health self-management and healthcare utilisation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of wave 3 (1-22 May 2020) survey data from the ongoing Chicago COVID-19 Comorbidities (C3) study. SETTING: Seven academic and community health centres in Chicago, Illinois. PARTICIPANTS: 565 adults aged 23-88 with one or more chronic conditions completing at least one prior C3 study wave. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinically relevant anxiety and depressive symptoms as measured using Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System short forms. Self-reported emotional and health-related responses to COVID-19 were measured through a combination of single-item questions and validated measures. RESULTS: Rates of anxiety and depressive symptoms were 14% (81/563) and 15% (84/563), respectively. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were then each separately associated with greater worry about contracting COVID-19 (relative risk (RR) 2.32, 95% CI 1.52 to 3.53; RR 1.67, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.54), greater stress (RR 4.93, 95% CI 3.20 to 7.59; RR 3.01, 95% CI 1.96 to 4.61) and loneliness (RR 3.82, 95% CI 2.21 to 6.60; RR 5.37, 95% CI 3.21 to 8.98), greater avoidance of the doctor (RR 1.62, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.49; RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.36) and difficulty managing health (least square means (LS Means) 6.09, 95% CI 5.25 to 6.92 vs 4.23, 95% CI 3.70 to 4.75; LS Means 5.85, 95% CI 5.04 to 6.65 vs 4.22, 95% CI 3.70 to 4.75) and medications (LS Means 3.71, 95% CI 2.98 to 4.43 vs 2.47, 95% CI 2.02 to 2.92) due to the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Identifying and addressing mental health concerns may be an important factor to consider in COVID-19 prevention and management among high-risk medical populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Management , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Chicago/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(1)2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34992057

ABSTRACT

Lichen sclerosus (LSc) is a chronic inflammatory condition commonly affecting the anogenital area, with extragenital involvement seen in less than 1%-20% of cases. Concomitant extragenital and genital LSc is extremely rare in male patients. The Koebner phenomenon is a recognised feature of LSc; here we present a rare case of extragenital LSc occurring in tattooed skin.


Subject(s)
Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus , Chronic Disease , Genitalia , Humans , Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus/etiology , Male , Skin
6.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 45(1): 1-5, 2022 Jan 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000301

ABSTRACT

Great progress has been made in regard of mechanism, etiological diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough since the beginning of the 20th century, and Chinese guidelines of diagnosis, management of cough was developed. Moreover, Chinese experts also participated in the formulation of international cough guidelines. Through the promotion of the guidelines, the level of diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough has been significantly improved in China. In the future, we should strengthen the studies on the epidemiology of chronic cough, the central regulation of chronic cough, and the treatment of refractory chronic cough, and promote the cough guidelines in primary community hospitals.


Subject(s)
Cough , China/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/therapy , Humans
7.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 45(1): 6-9, 2022 Jan 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000302

ABSTRACT

Typical reflux symptoms associated with gastroesophageal reflux-related cough have diagnostic implications. Questionnaires including these symptoms can be used as valuable screening tools for potential candidates. When reflux monitoring provides the objective evidence of abnormal reflux, the favorable response to anti-reflux therapy is essential for the diagnostic confirmation, in which anti-acid drugs are still the first-line choice. The benefits of neuromodulators in the treatment of refractory gastroesophageal reflux-related cough need to be further clarified. However, anti-reflux surgery may be a promising curative therapy for some patients with definitive surgical indications.


Subject(s)
Cough , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Chronic Disease , Consensus , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/etiology , Gastroesophageal Reflux/complications , Gastroesophageal Reflux/diagnosis , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 45(1): 10-12, 2022 Jan 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000303

ABSTRACT

Chronic cough is a common complaint, which may cause various complications involving many organ systems, including respiratory system, circulatory system, digestive system, urinary system, reproductive system, skeletal movement system, nervous system, etc. Cough and its complications are associated with an adverse impact on the work and quality of life in the huge population with chronic cough, and lead to an increased healthcare resource utilization. In this paper, we review the common complications of chronic cough by organ system classification.


Subject(s)
Cough , Quality of Life , Chronic Disease , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Humans
9.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 45(1): 13-46, 2022 Jan 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000304

ABSTRACT

Advances have been made in the diagnosis, management and pathogenesis of chronic cough in recent years. To better present the current progress achieved both in China and abroad, the Asthma Group of Chinese Thoracic Society organized experts from various disciplines, including respiratory medicine, gastroenterology, reflux surgery, otorhinolaryngology, pediatrics and traditional Chinese medicine, to update the Chinese national guideline on diagnosis and management of cough(2015). In this new version of guideline, previous evidence quality and recommendation strength were re-evaluated and updated, meanwhile some new recommendations were added, and certain previous recommendations were deleted. In general, the basic structure of the latest version remained the same as the previous version, which includes definitions, epidemiology and pathogenesis of chronic cough, investigations, evaluations of chronic cough, diagnosis and management of acute cough, subacute cough and chronic cough, and empirical and symptomatic treatment of chronic cough, etc.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Pulmonary Medicine , Child , Chronic Disease , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/therapy , Gastroesophageal Reflux/diagnosis , Gastroesophageal Reflux/therapy , Humans
10.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 45(1): 100-106, 2022 Jan 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35000314

ABSTRACT

Chronic cough is one of the most common major complaints in medical outpatient. Chronic cough not only seriously affects quality of personal life, but also burdens public health. Large-scale and high-quality epidemiological study on chronic cough has not been carried out in China, and relevant reviews are also lacking. Therefore, based on the studies concerning epidemiology of chronic cough in China, we reviewed the prevalence, risk factors, etiology, quality of life and economic burden. In addition, future perspectives and reasonable suggestions for the development of epidemiology of chronic cough were also proposed.


Subject(s)
Cough , Quality of Life , Chronic Disease , Cough/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Risk Factors
11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35010836

ABSTRACT

Chronic diseases served as a silent global epidemic before the pandemic, and individuals living with chronic disease now form one of the groups most affected by COVID-19. This study aims to determine the problems that employees with chronic disease face during the COVID-19 pandemic. As part of the study, data were collected from 952 individuals who live with chronic disease in Turkey. Of these, 76.6% of respondents worked for the public sector, a large majority of whom (67.7%) have worked full time during the COVID-19 pandemic. It was found that the COVID-19 fear level of employees living with chronic disease was higher than moderate (21.061 ± 7.607). When the variables affecting the COVID-19 fear level are listed in order of relative significance, eating problems, residing in the Mediterranean region, having asthma, and working as a female employee made the greatest impact, respectively. Necessary conditions of work should be provided to those living with chronic disease who could adapt themselves to working flexibly or working from home, so that they would not feel isolated from business life. This group should be provided with essential protective equipment, their working conditions must be reviewed and vaccination priority could be given to them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Emotions , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 22(1): 18, 2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35012541

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the role tear lymphotoxin-α (LT-α) in chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (oGVHD). METHODS: Twenty-two chronic oGVHD and 17 control tear samples were collected, and commercial test strips were used to detect LT-α concentrations. Concentration differences between patients with and without oGVHD were determined via Mann-Whitney U test. The correlation between LT-α levels and ophthalmic parameters was analyzed using Spearman's test. RESULTS: The concentration of LT-α was significantly lower in oGVHD patients than in controls. LT-α levels were significantly correlated with OSDI, NIH eye score, T-BUT, and CFS among all participants. ROC analysis revealed that the area under the curve of LT-α was 0.847, and the cutoff value for chronic oGVHD diagnosis was 0.203 ng/mL. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed the significant decrease of tear LT-α in oGVHD, and suggested LT-α as a promising marker for chronic oGVHD diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Dry Eye Syndromes , Graft vs Host Disease , Chronic Disease , Eye , Humans , Lymphotoxin-alpha , Tears
13.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979613

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the combination of sinus CT score and serum allergen sIgE to construct a postoperative recurrence risk model for patients with eosinophilic CRSwNP. Methods:The clinical data of 183 patients with eosinophilic CRSwNP who were treated in Luohe Central Hospital from January 2016 to January 2019 were collected. The curative effect was evaluated one year after the operation. According to the postoperative recurrence, they were divided into recurrence group and non-recurrence group. Single factor analysis of clinical and pathological factors on the postoperative curative effect of patients, XGboost model and multivariate Cox analysis of factors affecting postoperative recurrence. Draw the receiver operating characteristic(ROC) curves of the two models to compare the prediction effects of the XGboost model. The Kaplan-Meier method draws survival curve and compares the recurrence-free survival rate of patients with different risk levels. Results:The results of Cox multivariate analysis showed postoperative adherence to comprehensive treatment, tissue EOS ratio, tissue NEU ratio, tissue lymphocyte ratio, tissue plasma cell ratio, peripheral blood NEU ratio, Allergen sIgE and total sinus CT score were independent risk factors for recurrence. The top six factors influencing postoperative recurrence in the XGboost model were allergen sIgE, total sinus CT score, tissue EOS ratio, postoperative adherence to comprehensive treatment, tissue lymphocyte ratio, and tissue plasma cell ratio. The ROC curve showed that the area under the ROC curve of the XGboost model was 0.818. Cox analysis (0.789) with more factors increased by 3.68%, and the sensitivity, specificity and Youden index of the model were significantly higher than the multivariate Cox analysis model. The factors included in the XGboost model were used to construct a postoperative recurrence risk model. The recurrence-free survival rate of high-risk group was significantly lower than that of low-risk group and intermediate-risk group (log-rank test value:21.946, P<0.001). Conclusion:The postoperative recurrence risk model established by the sinus CT score combined with serum allergen sIgE can effectively predict the incidence of postoperative recurrence in patients. The XGboost model is better than the multivariate Cox analysis model in predicting postoperative recurrence in patients with eosinophilic CRSwNP. It can be used to predict postoperative recurrence.


Subject(s)
Nasal Polyps , Rhinitis , Sinusitis , Allergens , Chronic Disease , Eosinophils , Humans , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979626

ABSTRACT

Chronic otitis media is a common condition in otology, which mainly manifests as repeated purulence, hearing loss, eardrum perforation and other discomforts. It often causes adverse impacts on the health and quality of life of patients. In the past, the assessment of symptoms and prognosis of chronic otitis media was limited to objective examinations such as audiometry or ear endoscopy, while patients' subjective feelings about the disease were ignored. This study reviewed the content, characteristics and current clinical application of quality of life scales for chronic otitis media, with the aim of providing a basis for the selection of quality of life scales for chronic otitis media.


Subject(s)
Otitis Media , Tympanic Membrane Perforation , Audiometry , Chronic Disease , Humans , Quality of Life
16.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 58(1): 3-5, 2022 Jan 11.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979785

ABSTRACT

Glaucoma is the world's leading cause of irreversible blindness. As a chronic disease, it requires lifelong follow-up and management. In the long-term follow-up of glaucoma patients, a diagnosis and treatment management system is helpful. Despite the availability of various means of informationalized record management, there remain problems and challenges, like a lack of unified file management standards, data incompatibility, and barriers to inter-hospital data sharing, which lead to the failure to establish a comprehensive and standardized glaucoma record for patients. It is necessary to form a standardized management system so as to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma, better maintain the visual function of patients and reduce the burden on society and family.


Subject(s)
Glaucoma , Attention , Blindness , Chronic Disease , Glaucoma/diagnosis , Glaucoma/therapy , Humans
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 19, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Upcoming alternative payment models Primary Care First (PCF) and Kidney Care Choices (KCC) incorporate capitated payments for chronic disease management. Prior research on the effect of capitated payments on chronic disease management has shown mixed results. We assessed the patient, physician, and practice characteristics of practices with capitation as the majority of revenue, and evaluated the association of capitated reimbursement with quality of chronic disease care. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of visits in the United States' National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) for patients with hypertension, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our predictor was practice reimbursement type, classified as 1) majority capitation, 2) majority FFS, or 3) other reimbursement mix. Outcomes were quality indicators of hypertension control, diabetes control, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ACEi/ARB) use, and statin use. RESULTS: About 9% of visits were to practices with majority capitation revenue. Capitated practices, compared with FFS and other practices, had lower visit frequency (3.7 vs. 5.2 vs. 5.2, p = 0.006), were more likely to be located in the West Census Region (55% vs. 18% vs. 17%, p < 0.001), less likely to be solo practice (21% vs. 37% vs. 35%, p = 0.005), more likely to be owned by an insurance company, health plan or HMO (24% vs. 13% vs. 13%, p = 0.033), and more likely to have private insurance (43% vs. 25% vs. 19%, p = 0.004) and managed care payments (69% vs. 23% vs. 26%, p < 0.001) as the majority of revenue. The prevalence of controlled hypertension, controlled diabetes, ACEi/ARB use, and statin use was suboptimal across practice reimbursement types. Capitated reimbursement was not associated with differences in hypertension, diabetes, or CKD quality indicators, in multivariable models adjusting for patient, physician, and practice characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Practices with majority capitation revenue differed substantially from FFS and other practices in patient, physician, and practice characteristics, but were not associated with consistent quality differences. Our findings establish baseline estimates of chronic disease quality of care performance by practice reimbursement composition, informing chronic disease care delivery within upcoming payment models.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Fee-for-Service Plans , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Capitation Fee , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , United States
19.
Orv Hetil ; 163(1): 31-38, 2022 01 02.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34974430

ABSTRACT

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: Nagyszámú kutatás igazolta, hogy a dohányzás növeli a legjelentosebb krónikus betegségek kockázatát. Habár 2009 óta csökkeno tendenciát mutat Magyarországon a hagyományos dohányzók aránya, az e-cigarettát kipróbálóké az utóbbi években folyamatosan növekszik. Célkituzés: A 2018-ban a felnott lakosság körében végzett Népegészségügyi Felmérés dohányzásra és e-cigaretta-használatra vonatkozó eredményeinek bemutatása az elozo vizsgálatok tükrében. Módszer: A kérdoíves felmérésben 1586 fo került személyesen lekérdezésre. Az iteratív súlyozás a többlépcsos mintavételi designhatást és a 2016-os mikrocenzus adatait vette figyelembe. Eredmények: 2018-ban a dohányzók aránya a magyar felnott lakosság körében 28,7% (95% MT: 26,3-31,1%), az e-cigarettát használók aránya pedig 1,7% (95% MT: 1,1-2,5%) volt. Az iskolai végzettség a 65 év alattiak esetében a dohányzást befolyásoló tényezo volt (EH: 3,32; 95% MT: 2,53-4,34), de a 65 éves és annál idosebb korcsoportban már nem (EH: 1,11; 95% MT: 0,59-2,09). Az e-cigarettát kipróbálók és használók között a leginkább említett (54,3% 95% MT: 44,0-64,5%) motivációs tényezocsoport a dohányzásról való leszokással, az ártalomcsökkentéssel és a visszaesés megelozésével volt kapcsolatos. A 65 éves és idosebb korcsoportban a dohányzók aránya 2015-höz képest emelkedett. 2018-ban az alapfokú iskolai végzettséguek körében volt a legmagasabb a dohányzók aránya, míg 2014-ben az érettségivel nem rendelkezo középfokú végzettséguek körében. Következtetés: Bár összességében csökkent, az alacsony iskolai végzettséguek és az idosek körében emelkedett a dohányzók aránya Magyarországon. Az e-cigarettát kipróbálók és használók száma növekvo tendenciát mutat hazánkban. Eredményeink az alacsony iskolai végzettséguekre kiemelten fókuszáló, megelozo és leszokást támogató népegészségügyi alprogramokat is tartalmazó komplex beavatkozást sürgetnek. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(1): 31-38. INTRODUCTION: The body of evidence suggests that smoking increases the risk of the most prevalent chronic diseases. Although the proportion of traditional smokers in Hungary has been on a declining trend since 2009, the proportion of those who tried e-cigarette has been steadily increasing in recent years. OBJECTIVE: To present - in the light of previous studies - the results of the Public Health Survey among adults in 2018 on smoking and e-cigarette use. METHOD: 1586 persons were personally interviewed in a survey. The iterative weighting algorithm considered both the design effect of multistaged sampling and the 2016 Hungarian microcensus. RESULTS: In 2018, the proportion of smokers in the Hungarian adult population was 28.7% (95% CI 26.3-31.1%), and the proportion of e-cigarette users was 1.7% (95% CI 1.1-2.5%). Educational level was a predictor of smoking among respondents younger than 65 years old (OR 3.32; 95% CI 2.53-4.34), but not for those aged 65 years or older (OR 1.11; 95% CI 0.59-2.09). Among e-cigarette ever or current users, the most commonly mentioned (54.3% 95% CI 44.0-64.5%) motivational factor-group to try or use e-cigarettes included motivations to quit smoking, to reduce harm, and to avoid relapsing. In the population aged 65 years old or older, the proportion of smokers increased compared to 2015. The proportion of smokers was the highest among those with primary education in 2018, while in 2014, it was the highest among those with secondary education without a graduation certificate. CONCLUSION: In Hungary, although overall smoking rates are declining, the smoking rate in the low educational group and among the elderly increased. The number of people trying or using e-cigarettes is showing an increasing trend in our country. Our results call for a complex public health intervention program including prevention and smoking cessation supporting subprograms with high focus on those with primary education. Orv Hetil. 2022; 163(1): 31-38.


Subject(s)
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Vaping , Adult , Aged , Chronic Disease , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 145: 112385, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34915673

ABSTRACT

Chemically modified mRNA represents a unique, efficient, and straightforward approach to produce a class of biopharmaceutical agents. It has been already approved as a vaccination-based method for targeting SARS-CoV-2 virus. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the prospect of synthetic modified mRNA to efficiently and safely combat various diseases. Recently, various optimization advances have been adopted to overcome the limitations associated with conventional gene therapeutics leading to wide-ranging applications in different disease conditions. This review sheds light on emerging directions of chemically modified mRNAs to prevent and treat widespread chronic diseases, including metabolic disorders, cancer vaccination and immunotherapy, musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory conditions, cardiovascular diseases, and liver diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Chronic Disease/prevention & control , Chronic Disease/therapy , Genetic Therapy/methods , Immunotherapy/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic , Biological Availability , Drug Carriers , Forecasting , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Vectors/administration & dosage , Genetic Vectors/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunotherapy, Active , RNA Stability , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology
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