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1.
Chemosphere ; 274: 129913, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979925

ABSTRACT

Increasing emissions from sources such as construction and burning of biomass from crop residues, roadside and municipal solid waste have led to a rapid increase in the atmospheric concentrations of fine particulate matter (≤2.5 µm; PM2.5) over many Indian cities. Analyses of their chemical profiles are important for receptor models to accurately estimate the contributions from different sources. We have developed chemical source profiles for five important pollutant sources - construction (CON), paved road dust (PRD), roadside biomass burning (RBB), solid waste burning (SWB), and crop residue burning (CPB) - during three intensive campaigns (winter, summer and post-monsoon) in and around Delhi. We obtained chemical characterisations of source profiles incorporating carbonaceous material such as organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble ions (F-, Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, SO42-, PO43-, Na+ and NH4+), and elements (Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba, and Pb). CON was dominated by the most abundant elements, K, Si, Fe, Al, and Ca. PRD was also dominated by crustal elements, accounting for 91% of the total analysed elements. RBB, SWB and CPB profiles were dominated by organic matter, which accounted for 94%, 86.2% and 86% of the total PM2.5, respectively. The database of PM emission profiles developed from the sources investigated can be used to assist source apportionment studies for accurate quantification of the causes of air pollution and hence assist governmental bodies in formulating relevant countermeasures.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollutants/analysis , Cities , Environmental Monitoring , India , Particle Size , Particulate Matter/analysis , Seasons , Vehicle Emissions/analysis
2.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238772, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978081

ABSTRACT

Necrophagous flies are of great importance for human and animal health. In places where their development occurs, parasitoids can be used as a tool to control these dipterans. In Brazil, the fauna of these parasitoids has been investigated in some regions. However, in Rio Grande do Sul, it is known the occurrence of only one species. Thus, this study aimed to create the first list of parasitoids in flies of medical and veterinary importance in Southern Brazil. Collections took place in the municipality of Pelotas (31º 42' S; 52º 18' W). Three replicates consisting of a 500 g bovine liver chunk placed in a tray were exposed to open air for 20 days. Then pupae were individualized and observed until their emergence. We identified 4,882 adult flies of Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, and Sarcophagidae. 4,040 parasitoids emerged, belonging to eight species, of which Nasonia vitripennis, Spalangia cameroni, Spalangia chontalensis, and Tachinephagus zealandicus are new records in Rio Grande do Sul state. Also, three undescribed species of the genus Aphaereta were collected. In spite of being the first attempt to inventory the fauna of hymenopteran parasitoids, this study may help in the development of management programs of these dipterans in the region.


Subject(s)
Diptera , Hymenoptera , Animals , Brazil , Cattle , Cities , Humans , Pupa
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 402, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effects of extreme temperature on infectious diseases are complex and far-reaching. There are few studies to access the relationship of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) with extreme temperature. The study aimed to identify whether there was association between extreme temperature and the reported morbidity of PTB in Shandong Province, China, from 2005 to 2016. METHODS: A generalized additive model (GAM) was firstly conducted to evaluate the relationship between daily reported incidence rate of PTB and extreme temperature events in the prefecture-level cities. Then, the effect estimates were pooled using meta-analysis at the provincial level. The fixed-effect model or random-effect model was selected based on the result of heterogeneity test. RESULTS: Among the 446,016 PTB reported cases, the majority of reported cases occurred in spring. The higher reported incidence rate areas were located in Liaocheng, Taian, Linyi and Heze. Extreme low temperature had an impact on the reported incidence of PTB in only one prefecture-level city, i.e., Binzhou (RR = 0.903, 95% CI: 0.817-0.999). While, extreme high temperature was found to have a positive effect on reported morbidity of PTB in Binzhou (RR = 0.924, 95% CI: 0.856-0.997) and Weihai (RR = 0.910, 95% CI: 0.843-0.982). Meta-analysis showed that extreme high temperature was associated with a decreased risk of PTB (RR = 0.982, 95% CI: 0.966-0.998). However, extreme low temperature was no relationship with the reported incidence of PTB. CONCLUSION: Our findings are suggested that extreme high temperature has significantly decreased the risk of PTB at the provincial levels. The findings have implications for developing strategies to response to climate change.


Subject(s)
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cities , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Meteorological Concepts , Morbidity , Seasons , Temperature
4.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 279: 113-121, 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965927

ABSTRACT

Reducing passenger flow through highly frequented bottlenecks in public transportation networks is a well-known urban planning problem. This issue has become even more relevant since the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the necessity for minimum distances between passengers. We propose an approach that allows to dynamically navigate passengers around dangerously crowded stations to better distribute the passenger load across an entire urban public transport network. This is achieved through the introduction of new constraints into routing requests, that enable the avoidance of specific nodes in a network. These requests consider walks, bikes, metros, subways, trams and buses as possible modes of transportation. An implementation of the approach is provided in cooperation with the Munich Travel Corporation (MVG) for the city of Munich, to simulate the effects on a real city's urban traffic flow. Among other factors, the impact on the travel time was simulated given that the two major exchange points in the network were to be avoided. With an increase from 26.5 to 26.8 minutes on the average travel time, the simulation suggests that the time penalty might be worth the safety benefits.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Cities , Humans , Pandemics
5.
J Emerg Manag ; 19(2): 117-129, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954962

ABSTRACT

The financial aspects of natural disasters test fiscal solvency by draining municipal reserves and diverting funds from vital operations until Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) reimbursements arrive, if they arrive. With record-breaking natural disasters, the resulting fiscal strain is hampering nearly every community's effort to increase resiliency. Without systemically assessing the financial responses to natural disasters at the local government level, we are perpetuating the paradox of government disaster policy making and decreasing our community's resiliency. This study bridges the gap between the financial management and disaster recovery literatures by applying resource dependency theory to an exploratory case study of local emergency managers and city managers in Central Florida following hurricanes Matthew, Irma, and Michael. Collectively, the respondents describe the reactive and dependent nature of the current federalist approach to natural disaster financial management practices; which ultimately threatens fiscal viability for many American communities.


Subject(s)
Cyclonic Storms , Disaster Planning , Disasters , Cities , Florida , Humans
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145545, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940731

ABSTRACT

During 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a widespread lockdown in many cities in China. In this study, we assessed the impact of changes in human activities on air quality during the COVID-19 pandemic by determining the relationships between air quality, traffic volume, and meteorological conditions. The megacities of Wuhan, Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou were selected as the study area, and the variation trends of air pollutants for the period January-May between 2016 and 2020 were analyzed. The passenger volume of public transportation (PVPT) and the passenger volume of taxis (PVT) along with data on precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and boundary layer height were used to identify and quantify the driving force of the air pollution variation. The results showed that the change rates of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), NO2, and SO2 before and during the lockdown in the four megacities ranged from -49.9% to 78.2% (average: -9.4% ± 59.3%), -55.4% to -32.3% (average: -43.0% ± 9.7%), and - 21.1% to 11.9% (average: -10.9% ± 15.4%), respectively. The response of NO2 to the lockdown was the most sensitive, while the response of PM2.5 was smaller and more delayed. During the lockdown period, haze from uninterrupted industrial emissions and fireworks under the effect of air mass transport from surrounding areas and adverse climate conditions was probably the cause of abnormally high PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing. In addition, the PVT was the most significant factor for NO2, and meteorology had a greater impact on PM2.5 than NO2 and SO2. There is a need for more national-level policies for limiting firework displays and traffic emissions, as well as further studies on the formation and transmission of secondary air pollutants.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Air Pollution/analysis , Beijing/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , Pandemics
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145590, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940736

ABSTRACT

Pollen allergies have negative impacts on health. Information about airborne pollen concentration can improve symptom management by guiding choices affecting timing of medicines and pollen exposure. Observations provide accurate pollen concentrations at point locations. However, in the contiguous United States and southern Canada (CUSSC), observations are sparse, and sampling is often seasonal, intermittent or both. Modeling pollen concentration can fill in the gaps with estimates where direct observations are unavailable and also provide much-needed forecasts. The goal of this study is to develop and evaluate statistical models that predict daily pollen concentrations using a machine learning Random Forest algorithm. To evaluate our methods, we made retrospective forecasts of four pollen types (Quercus, Cupressaceae, Ambrosia and Poaceae), each in one of four CUSSC locations. Meteorological and vegetation conditions were input to the models at city and regional scales. A data augmentation technique was investigated and found to improve model skill. Models were also developed to forecast pollen in locations where there are no observations. Forecast skill in these models were found to be greater than in previous models. Nevertheless, the skill is limited by the spatiotemporal resolution of the pollen observations.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Pollen , Canada , Cities , North America , Retrospective Studies
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145593, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940737

ABSTRACT

Urbanisation is a global human-induced environmental change and one of the most important threats to biodiversity. To survive in human-modified environments, wildlife must adjust to the challenging selection pressures of urban areas through behaviour, morphology, physiology and/or genetic changes. Here we explore the effect of urbanisation in a large, highly adaptable and generalist urban adapter species, the wild boar (Sus scrofa, Linnaeus 1758). From 2005 to 2018, we gathered wild boar data and samples from three areas in NE Spain: one urban (Barcelona municipality, n = 445), and two non-urban (Serra de Collserola Natural Park, n = 183, and Sant Llorenç del Munt i Serra de l'Obac Natural Park, n = 54). We investigated whether urbanisation influenced wild boar body size, body mass, body condition, and the concentration of serum metabolites, considering also the effect of age, sex and use of anthropogenic food resources. Wild boars from the urban area had larger body size, higher body mass, better body condition, and a higher triglyceride and lower creatinine serum concentrations than non-urban wild boars. In addition, urban wild boars consumed food from anthropogenic origin more frequently, which suggests that differences in their diet probably induced the biometric and the metabolic changes observed. These responses are probably adaptive and suggest that wild boars are thriving in the urban environment. Our results show that urbanisation can change the morphological and physiological traits of a large mammal urban adapter, which may have consequences in the ecology and response to urban selection pressures by the species. The phenotypic plasticity shown by wild boars provides both further and new evidence on the mechanisms that allow urban adapter species of greater size to respond to urbanisation, which is expected to continue growing globally over the coming decades.


Subject(s)
Sus scrofa , Urbanization , Animals , Animals, Wild , Cities , Humans , Spain , Swine
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 282, 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33870465

ABSTRACT

The goal of this study was to understand the current status of ozone pollution in Northeast China and to distinguish the main influencing factors of ozone, in order to provide a scientific basis for the future prevention and control of ozone in this region. In this study, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument data product was used as the source data, and the pixel space analysis method and grey correlation analysis method were utilized to examine the tropospheric ozone column concentration in Northeast China from 2010 to 2018. The results revealed that the ozone column concentration in Northeast China was relatively high compared to other parts of the country. The high-value areas were primarily distributed in Tahe County, Heihe City, Hegang City, and Qiqihar City. The temporal variation of the ozone column concentration in Northeast China exhibited an obvious periodicity of 9 years, and its interannual change displayed a downward trend. The maximum value occurred in 2010, and the minimum value was found in 2016. The seasonal changes manifested a relative trend of spring > winter > summer > autumn, which was contrary to the research results for other parts of China, which showed a summer maximum. Among the influencing factors, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, sunshine hours, GDP, and primary and secondary industries exhibited the closest relationships with ozone. The high concentration of ozone in Northeast China was determined to result from the superimposed effects of long-distance atmospheric transport and anthropogenic emissions.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Ozone , Air Pollutants/analysis , China , Cities , Environmental Monitoring , Ozone/analysis , Seasons
10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800159

ABSTRACT

Physical activity would bring in plenty of health benefits, especially recreational physical activity (RPA). Previous studies have suggested that built environment would affect older people's recreational walking (RW) and RPA, but how the effects exist in a small-scale Chinese city remains unclear. Two hundred and fifty-two older participants were recruited in the city of Yiwu using cross-sectional survey of random samples in 2019. RW and RPA level of participants and perceived scores of built environments were collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale, respectively. Linear regression analysis was conducted to investigate the association of built environment with older people's RW and RPA. The results showed that two main factors affecting older people's RW and RPA were residential density and aesthetics. Additionally, access to services was related to RW, and street connectivity was correlated with RPA. The associations of RW with built environment varied slightly with demographic variables included in the regression model. All the results suggested that lower residential density, better aesthetics environment, and higher street connectivity would motivate older people to engage more in RW and RPA. The better access to services encourages only RW, not RPA, in older people. These findings would be helpful for policy decision makers in the urban construction process in Yiwu. More studies are needed to enlarge the scientific evidence base about small-scale cities in China.


Subject(s)
Built Environment , Walking , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Cities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environment Design , Exercise , Humans , Residence Characteristics
11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence links meteorological characteristics and air pollution to physiological responses during sports activities in urban areas with different traffic levels. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the Smart Healthy ENV (SHE, "Smart Monitoring Integrated System For A Healthy Urban Environment In Smart Cities") project was to identify the specific responses of a group of volunteers during physical activity, by monitoring their heart rates and collecting breath samples, combined with data on meteorological determinants and pollution substances obtained through fixed sensor nodes placed along city routes and remotely connected to a dedicated data acquisition server. METHODS: Monitoring stations were placed along two urban routes in Pisa, each two km long, with one located within the park beside the Arno river (green route) and the other in a crowded traffic zone (red route). Our sample participants were engaged in sports activities (N = 15, with different levels of ability) and were monitored through wearable sensors. They were first asked to walk back and forth (4 km) and then to run the same route. The experimental sessions were conducted over one day per route. A breath sample was also collected before each test. A questionnaire concerning temperature and fatigue perception was administered for all of the steps of the study over the two days. RESULTS: The heart rates of the participants were monitored in the baseline condition, during walking, and while running, and were correlated with meteorological and pollutant data and with breath composition. Changes in the heart rates and breath composition were detected during the experimental sessions. These variations were related to the physical activity and to the meteorological conditions and air pollution levels. CONCLUSIONS: The SHE project can be considered a proof-of-concept study aimed at monitoring physiological and environmental variables during physical activity in urban areas, and can be used in future studies to provide useful information to those involved in sports and the broader community.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Cities , Environmental Exposure/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pilot Projects
12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802382

ABSTRACT

Urbanization brings major challenges with regard to livability and the health and quality of life of citizens [...].


Subject(s)
Quality of Life , Urbanization , Cities , Humans
13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802442

ABSTRACT

The ecological system is the basis of human survival and global environmental protection. In the process of development, countries will pay close attention to the changing state of the ecosystem. Taking the ecosystem pattern as the research object, a three-layer analysis method was proposed. The transfer matrix and landscape index were used as the first layer to analyze the basic changes. Grey correlation, range-coupling coordination and relative priority were used as the second layer to analyze the reasons of the change. The interval-entropy weight, TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution), was used as the third layer to evaluate the quality of the change. The ten counties in the worst-hit areas of the Wenchuan earthquake were analyzed from different angles, with county region, intensity zone and ecosystem as the objects, and the following results were obtained: (1) Taking Mianzhu City as an example, from 2000 to 2010 and 2018, the conversion ratio of forest, grassland and farmland is 54.24, 59.19, 17.21, 20.06, 37.39 and 52.86%, which were distributed in the north, central and southern parts, respectively. (2) Taking the ninth intensity zone as an example, the forest landscape fragmentation increased, disturbance decreased, and species diversity increased. There is a high influence and restriction relationship between ecosystem and landscape pattern in the total landscape area change. Additionally, the relationship between them tends to develop in a benign way. As of 2018, it is in the change state of moderate imbalance-ecosystem lag. (3) Taking the county ecosystem change as an example, urban type is the best in the counties of ecosystem change, of which Shifang is the best and Pingwu is the worst. The results show that this method can effectively compare and analyze the changes in the multi-regional ecosystem pattern, which has the characteristics of universality and can also be applied to the research of ecosystem pattern change in special regions.


Subject(s)
Disasters , Earthquakes , China , Cities , Conservation of Natural Resources , Ecosystem , Humans
14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803152

ABSTRACT

In Khulna, Bangladesh, mechanical faecal sludge (FS) emptying and transport (E&T) service is provided by community development committees (CDCs) and the Khulna City Corporation (KCC). Without considering capital expenditure and depreciation, financial analysis for one year revealed that a CDC-1 m3 vacutug made a profit of Bangladeshi taka (BDT) 145,780 (USD $1746) whereas a KCC-2 m3 vacutug was in the loss of BDT 218,179 (USD $2613). There is a need to engage the private sector for sustainable service provision. Some of the key elements of enabling the environment for private sector engagement are policy/strategy, institutional and regulatory framework, implementation capacity, and financial viability. Existing policy/strategy/frameworks acknowledged the need and suggested plans for private sector engagement, and decentralised authority to city corporations. With increasing private-public partnership projects and collaboration in the sanitation sector, capacity of the KCC and the private sector are increasing. Financial viability of the FS E&T business is primarily dependent on the number of trips and the emptying fee. For the E&T business to be financially viable, a 2 m3 vacutug should make six trips/day (internal rate of return (IRR)-13%, discount rate-6.5%) with an emptying fee of BDT 750 (USD $9)/m3. Despite the lack of operative guidelines for faecal sludge management (FSM), enabling the environment for private sector engagement in FS E&T business in Khulna seems favourable.


Subject(s)
Private Sector , Sewage , Bangladesh , Cities , Sanitation
15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803324

ABSTRACT

Incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis has increased in recent years in the US and in European countries. In order to implement effective educational programs, the interests of target populations have to be identified. Since the internet is an important source of information-gathering on health issues, this study investigates web search data in large German cities related to STIs. Google Ads Keyword Planner was used to identify STI-related terms and their search volume in eleven German cities from June 2015 to May 2019. The data obtained were analyzed descriptively with regard to total search volumes, search volumes of specific thematic areas, and search volumes per 100,000 inhabitants. Overall, 741 terms with a total search volume of 5,142,560 queries were identified, with more than 70% of all search queries including a specific disease and "chlamydia" being the overall most often searched term (n = 1,196,160). Time courses of search behavior displayed a continuous interest in STIs with synchronal and national rather than regional peaks. Volumes of search queries lacked periodic patterns. Based on the findings of this study, a more open public discussion about STIs with linkage to increased media coverage and clarification of responsibilities among all STI-treating disciplines concerning management of STIs seem advisable.


Subject(s)
Chlamydia Infections , Gonorrhea , HIV Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , Cities , Europe , Humans , Internet , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology
16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804475

ABSTRACT

With the rapid development of the social economy, factors of social and economic development in China's rural areas have been continuously reorganized, and the pattern and distribution of rural residential areas have undergone significant changes. In rural areas, there have been many peculiar phenomena of "reducing people but not reducing land in rural areas, which has caused tremendous pressure on land resource protection. We used geographic detectors and a geographically temporally weighted regression model (GTWR) to explore the rural settlements' evolution and driving mechanism in Hubei Province from 1990 to 2015. The results show that the kernel density of rural settlements decreased from 1.62 villages/km2 in 1990 to 1.60 villages/km2 in 2015. The scale of rural residential patches has obvious regional differentiation characteristics. From southeast to northwest, there is a wave-like distribution structure of "high-low-high-low-high", and the clustering characteristics of "cold and hot spots" are strengthened with time. Based on GTWR analysis, the total rural population, total power of agricultural machinery, and rural electricity consumption have promoted the expansion of rural settlements, with the regression coefficients 0.096, 0.484, and 0.878, respectively. Cultivated land, agricultural output value, and rural labor force have negative impacts on the expansion, the regression coefficients of the village were -0.584, -0.510, and -0.109, respectively.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Rural Population , China , Cities , Cluster Analysis , Humans
17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804509

ABSTRACT

The past decades were witnessing unprecedented habitat degradation across the globe. It thus is of great significance to investigate the impacts of land use change on habitat quality in the context of rapid urbanization, particularly in developing countries. However, rare studies were conducted to predict the spatiotemporal distribution of habitat quality under multiple future land use scenarios. In this paper, we established a framework by coupling the future land use simulation (FLUS) model with the Intergrated Valuation of Environmental Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model. We then analyzed the habitat quality change in Dongying City in 2030 under four scenarios: business as usual (BAU), fast cultivated land expansion scenario (FCLE), ecological security scenario (ES) and sustainable development scenario (SD). We found that the land use change in Dongying City, driven by urbanization and agricultural reclamation, was mainly characterized by the transfer of cultivated land, construction land and unused land; the area of unused land was significantly reduced. While the habitat quality in Dongying City showed a degradative trend from 2009 to 2017, it will be improved from 2017 to 2030 under four scenarios. The high-quality habitat will be mainly distributed in the Yellow River Estuary and coastal areas, and the areas with low-quality habitat will be concentrated in the central and southern regions. Multi-scenario analysis shows that the SD will have the highest habitat quality, while the BAU scenario will have the lowest. It is interesting that the ES scenario fails to have the highest capacity to protect habitat quality, which may be related to the excessive saline alkali land. Appropriate reclamation of the unused land is conducive to cultivated land protection and food security, but also improving the habitat quality and giving play to the versatility and multidimensional value of the agricultural landscape. This shows that the SD of comprehensive coordination of urban development, agricultural development and ecological protection is an effective way to maintain the habitat quality and biodiversity.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Rivers , China , Cities , Ecosystem , Urbanization
18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806383

ABSTRACT

Heat stress provokes thermal discomfort to people living in semiarid and arid climates. This study evaluates thermal discomfort levels, building design concepts, and some heat mitigation strategies in low-income neighborhoods of Faisalabad, Pakistan. The outdoor and indoor weather data are collected from April to August 2016 using a weather station installed ad hoc in urban settings, and the 52 houses of the five low-income participating communities living in congested and less environment-friendly areas of Faisalabad. The discomfort index values, related to the building design concepts, including (i) house orientation to sunlight and (ii) house ventilation, are calculated from outdoor and indoor dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures. Our results show that although June was the hottest month of summer 2016, based on the monthly mean temperature of the Faisalabad region, the month of May produced the highest discomfort levels, which were higher in houses exposed to sunlight and without ventilation. The study also identifies some popular heat mitigation strategies adopted by the five participating low-income communities during various heat-related health complaints. The strategies are gender-biased and have medical, cultural/customary backgrounds. For example, about 52% of the males and 28% of the females drank more water during dehydration, diarrhea, and eye infection. Over 11% and 19% of the males and females, respectively, moved to cooler places during fever. About 43% of the males and 51% of the females took water showers and rested to combat flu (runny nose), headache, and nosebleed. The people did not know how to cure muscular fatigue, skin allergy (from a type of Milia), and mild temperature. Planting trees in an area and developing open parks with greenery and thick canopy trees can be beneficial for neighborhoods resembling those evaluated in this study.


Subject(s)
Heat Stress Disorders , Cities , Female , Hot Temperature , Humans , Male , Pakistan , Temperature
19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806516

ABSTRACT

Existing studies rarely examine the relationship between network structure and network performance. To fill this research gap, this article collects inter-local collaboration network data from 41 cities in the Yangtze River Delta region of China from 2009 to 2015. Based on the institutional collective action framework and social capital theory, we propose bridging and bonding hypotheses regarding the impact of network structures on governance performance. We employ social network analysis and panel data regression models to test the hypotheses. The results show that the coefficients for closeness centrality and clustering coefficient are statistically significant in this analysis, Wuxi played a central role in the collaboration network and the region had formed a close partner network, confirming the positive effect of bridging and bonding network social capital structures on network performance.


Subject(s)
Rivers , Water Resources , China , Cities
20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806633

ABSTRACT

Based on the panel data of 41 cities in the Yangtze River Delta from 2008 to 2017, this paper constructs an evaluation indicators system for urban tourism eco-efficiency. By measuring the tourism eco-efficiency in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration, we analyze its spatial-temporal evolution characteristics. Furthermore, the modified gravity model and social network analysis are introduced to explore the spatial network structure of tourism eco-efficiency and its evolution trend.The results show that:(1) The overall eco-efficiency of tourism in the Yangtze River Delta region presents a fluctuating downward trend, among which Jiangsu and Zhejiang have high eco-efficiency, Shanghai and Anhui are relatively low. The gap within the region first increased and then decreased. (2) During this decade, the spatial network structure of tourism eco-efficiency in the Yangtze River Delta has become increasingly loose. The weakening of the network connection strength has led to a decrease in the regional tourism eco-efficiency to a great extent. (3) The network centrality of cities such as Zhoushan, Huzhou, and Huangshan has always maintained a high level, and these cities have firmly occupied the core position of network. (4) The spatial association network of tourism eco-efficiency can be divided into four blocks: "two-way spillover", "net spillover", "net benefit" and "agent". The synergy and spillover effect between various blocks are significant, and there is a spatial polarization trend centered on a few cities. Based on this, this paper puts forward optimization suggestions for the spatial network structure of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration, in anticipation of promoting the improvement of regional tourism eco-efficiency.


Subject(s)
Rivers , Tourism , China , Cities , Efficiency
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