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1.
J Int Med Res ; 52(4): 3000605241237876, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38606757

ABSTRACT

Differentiation between granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) limited to the upper airways and cocaine-induced midline destructive lesion (CIMDL) may be particularly difficult because of their common histopathologic features and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) profiles. We herein present a case involving a young woman with an initial diagnosis of GPA based on upper and lower airway manifestations and constitutional symptoms, histopathologic evidence of granulomas, a positive cytoplasmic ANCA indirect immunofluorescent test result, and proteinase 3 positivity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CIMDL was confirmed based on the appearance of a hard palate perforation, positivity for methylecgonine on urine toxicology, a positive perinuclear ANCA indirect immunofluorescent test result, and subsequent human neutrophil elastase (HNE) ANCA positivity by ELISA. Finally, based on the coexistence of CIMDL, constitutional symptoms, and lower airway manifestations, the diagnosis was modified to cocaine-induced GPA mimic. Urine toxicology for cocaine and HNE ELISA are indicated in young patients with GPA who develop limited airway disease to check for the presence of CIMDL and cocaine-/levamisole-induced ANCA-associated vasculitis. Continued abstinence from cocaine is the first-choice therapy for both CIMDL and cocaine-induced GPA mimic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , Cocaine-Related Disorders , Cocaine , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis , Female , Humans , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis/diagnosis , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis/complications , Cocaine-Related Disorders/complications , Cocaine-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/complications
2.
Sci Signal ; 17(832): eadl4738, 2024 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626009

ABSTRACT

Cocaine use disorder (CUD) is a chronic neuropsychiatric condition that results from enduring cellular and molecular adaptations. Among substance use disorders, CUD is notable for its rising prevalence and the lack of approved pharmacotherapies. The nucleus accumbens (NAc), a region that is integral to the brain's reward circuitry, plays a crucial role in the initiation and continuation of maladaptive behaviors that are intrinsic to CUD. Leveraging advancements in neuroproteomics, we undertook a proteomic analysis that spanned membrane, cytosolic, nuclear, and chromatin compartments of the NAc in a mouse model. The results unveiled immediate and sustained proteomic modifications after cocaine exposure and during prolonged withdrawal. We identified congruent protein regulatory patterns during initial cocaine exposure and reexposure after withdrawal, which contrasted with distinct patterns during withdrawal. Pronounced proteomic shifts within the membrane compartment indicated adaptive and long-lasting molecular responses prompted by cocaine withdrawal. In addition, we identified potential protein translocation events between soluble-nuclear and chromatin-bound compartments, thus providing insight into intracellular protein dynamics after cocaine exposure. Together, our findings illuminate the intricate proteomic landscape that is altered in the NAc by cocaine use and provide a dataset for future research toward potential therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Cocaine-Related Disorders , Cocaine , Mice , Animals , Nucleus Accumbens/metabolism , Proteomics , Cocaine/pharmacology , Cocaine-Related Disorders/genetics , Cocaine-Related Disorders/metabolism , Cocaine-Related Disorders/psychology , Chromatin/metabolism
3.
Pharmacol Rep ; 76(2): 338-347, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cocaine use disorder (CUD) remains a severe health problem with no effective pharmacological therapy. One of the potential pharmacological strategies for CUD pharmacotherapy includes manipulations of the brain glutamatergic (Glu) system which is particularly involved in drug withdrawal and relapse. Previous research indicated a pivotal role of ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors or metabotropic receptors' type 5 (mGlu5) receptors in controlling the reinstatement of cocaine. Stimulation of the above molecules results in the activation of the downstream signaling targets such as neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the release of nitric oxide. METHODS: In this paper, we investigated the molecular changes in nNOS in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens following 3 and 10 days of cocaine abstinence as well as the effectiveness of nNOS blockade with the selective enzyme inhibitor N-ω-propyl-L-arginine hydrochloride (L-NPA) on cocaine seeking in male rats. The effect of L-NPA on locomotor activity in drug-naïve animals was investigated. RESULTS: Ten-day (but not 3-day) cocaine abstinence from cocaine self-administration increased nNOS gene and protein expression in the nucleus accumbens, but not in the prefrontal cortex. L-NPA (0.5-5 mg/kg) administered peripherally did not change locomotor activity but attenuated the reinstatement induced with cocaine priming or the drug-associated conditioned cue. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support accumbal nNOS as an important molecular player for cocaine seeking while its inhibitors could be considered as anti-cocaine pharmacological tools in male rats.


Subject(s)
Cocaine-Related Disorders , Cocaine , Rats , Male , Animals , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Cocaine/pharmacology , Cocaine-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Cocaine-Related Disorders/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , Nucleus Accumbens/metabolism , Drug-Seeking Behavior , Self Administration , Extinction, Psychological
4.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 12: 23247096241242569, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38546011

ABSTRACT

Cocaine is an indirect-acting sympathomimetic drug that inhibits norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake in the adrenergic presynaptic cleft. Cocaine use has been associated with strokes, angina, arrhythmias, and agitation. Data on gastrointestinal complications such as mesenteric ischemia, bowel necrosis, ulceration, and perforation are scarce. Here, we present a rare case of cocaine-induced esophageal, gastric, and small bowel necrosis that contributes to the limited literature on this subject. Diagnosis of cocaine-induced gastrointestinal complications involves a combination of imaging studies, laboratory assessments, and histopathological examinations. Timely surgical resection, supported by intravenous fluids, antibiotics, and pain management, is the mainstay of treatment. The prognosis varies but is significantly influenced by the promptness and effectiveness of the intervention, underscoring the importance of vigilant clinical care in such cases.


Subject(s)
Cocaine-Related Disorders , Cocaine , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Vascular Diseases , Humans , Cocaine/adverse effects , Cocaine-Related Disorders/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Necrosis/chemically induced , Necrosis/complications
5.
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 185, 2024 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The study aimed to investigate the association between maternal cocaine abuse during pregnancy and the prevalence of cleft lip/palate (CL/P) in offspring, synthesizing existing evidence through a systematic review and meta-analysis. CL/P is a congenital craniofacial anomaly with complex etiology, and prior research has suggested potential links between maternal cocaine use and CL/P. However, these associations remain inconclusive. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies published up to the study's cutoff date in September 2021. Several databases were systematically searched using predefined search terms. Inclusion criteria were set to encompass studies reporting on the prevalence of CL/P in infants born to mothers with a history of cocaine use during pregnancy, with a comparison group of non-cocaine-using mothers. Data were extracted, and a meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model to calculate pooled odds ratios (OR) and relative risks (RR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: The review included data from 4 studies that met the inclusion criteria. The combined OR from two studies was 0.05 (95% CI: 0.00, 4.41), which does not suggest a statistically significant association between prenatal cocaine exposure and the incidence of CL/P due to the confidence interval crossing the null value. Additionally, the combined RR was 0.17 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.66), indicating a statistically significant decrease in the risk of CL/P associated with prenatal cocaine exposure. These results, with an OR that is not statistically significant and an RR suggesting decreased risk, should be interpreted with caution due to considerable heterogeneity and variability among the included studies' findings. Further research is needed to clarify these associations. CONCLUSION: The findings from this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that maternal cocaine use during pregnancy is not a statistically significant independent risk factor for the development of CL/P in offspring. These results underscore the multifactorial nature of CL/P etiology and emphasize the importance of considering other genetic, environmental, and nutritional factors in understanding the condition's origins. While the study provides important insights, limitations such as data heterogeneity and potential confounders should be acknowledged. Future research should adopt rigorous study designs and explore a broader range of potential risk factors to comprehensively elucidate CL/P development.


Subject(s)
Cleft Lip , Cleft Palate , Cocaine-Related Disorders , Cocaine , Infant , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Cleft Lip/etiology , Cleft Lip/genetics , Cleft Palate/etiology , Cleft Palate/genetics , Incidence , Cocaine-Related Disorders/complications , Cocaine-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Parents , Cocaine/adverse effects
6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 107, 2024 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38388464

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological investigations indicate that parental drug abuse experiences significantly influenced the addiction vulnerability of offspring. Studies using animal models have shown that paternal cocaine use and highly motivated drug-seeking behavior are important determinants of offspring addiction susceptibility. However, the key molecules contributing to offspring addiction susceptibility are currently unclear. The motivation for cocaine-seeking behavior in offspring of male rats was compared between those whose fathers self-administered cocaine (SA) and those who were yoked with them and received non-contingent cocaine administrations (Yoke). We found that paternal experience with cocaine-seeking behavior, but not direct cocaine exposure, could lead to increased lever-pressing behavior in male F1 offspring. This effect was observed without significant changes to the dose-response relationship. The transcriptomes of ventral tegmental area (VTA) in offspring were analyzed under both naive state and after self-administration training. Specific transcriptomic changes in response to paternal cocaine-seeking experiences were found, which mainly affected biological processes such as synaptic connections and receptor signaling pathways. Through joint analysis of these candidate genes and parental drug-seeking motivation scores, we found that gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3 (Gabrg3) was in the hub position of the drug-seeking motivation-related module network and highly correlated with parental drug-seeking motivation scores. The downregulation of Gabrg3 expression, caused by paternal motivational cocaine-seeking, mainly occurred in GABAergic neurons in the VTA. Furthermore, down-regulating GABAergic Gabrg3 in VTA resulted in an increase in cocaine-seeking behavior in the Yoke F1 group. This down-regulation also reduced transcriptome differences between the Yoke and SA groups, affecting processes related to synaptic formation and neurotransmitter transmission. Taken together, we propose that paternal cocaine-seeking behavior, rather than direct drug exposure, significantly influences offspring addiction susceptibility through the downregulation of Gabrg3 in GABAergic neurons of the VTA, highlighting the importance of understanding specific molecular pathways in the intergenerational inheritance of addiction vulnerability.


Subject(s)
Cocaine-Related Disorders , Cocaine , Rats , Male , Animals , Humans , Ventral Tegmental Area , Motivation , Cocaine/adverse effects , Cocaine-Related Disorders/genetics , Cocaine-Related Disorders/metabolism , Fathers , Self Administration/methods , Drug-Seeking Behavior/physiology , Receptors, GABA-A/genetics , Receptors, GABA-A/metabolism
7.
Addict Behav ; 153: 107988, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38394960

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Anxiety and depression are prevalent mental health problems in people who use illicit stimulants. Improved understanding of the temporal relationship between methamphetamine, ecstasy/MDMA, or cocaine use with anxiety or depression informs public health interventions and treatment options for those experiencing this co-occurrence. This narrative systematic review sought to examine associations and temporality between the use of methamphetamine, ecstasy/MDMA, or cocaine, with anxiety or depressive symptoms. Method Systematic searches of 4 electronic databases were conducted up to August 2023. Study eligibility included the measurement of anxiety and/or depressive symptoms, and frequency of illicit stimulant use (methamphetamine, cocaine, or ecstasy/MDMA) at two separate time points, with data analysis of the association between these variables. The Joanna Briggs Critical Appraisal Checklist was utilised to assess quality. Data was extracted, and a narrative synthesis incorporating an eight-criteria framework to assess associations was conducted. Results 4432 studies were screened for eligibility; 11 studies (3 RCTs and 8 prospective cohort studies) were included. Evidence for an association between depressive symptoms and methamphetamine use was demonstrated in six studies, with temporal evidence in three studies supporting methamphetamine use preceding depressive symptoms. Three studies reported an association between cocaine use and depressive symptoms. Evidence for associations with any of the illicit stimulants and anxiety symptoms was lacking. CONCLUSIONS: There was some evidence to support a case for temporality, particularly for methamphetamine use and depressive symptoms. Investing in longitudinal studies is pivotal to understanding the dynamic and reciprocal relationship between illicit stimulant use and anxiety or depressive symptoms. A limitation of the study was the variation in the measurement and analysis of outcomes.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Stimulants , Cocaine-Related Disorders , Cocaine , Methamphetamine , N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine , Humans , Depression/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cocaine-Related Disorders/epidemiology
8.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 256: 111078, 2024 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38309089

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study tested an adaptive intervention for optimizing abstinence outcomes over phases of treatment for cocaine use disorder using a SMART design. Phase 1 assessed whether 4 weeks of contingency management (CM) improved response with the addition of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). Phase 2 assessed pharmacological augmentation with modafinil (MOD) vs. placebo (PLA) for individuals not achieving abstinence during Phase 1. METHOD: For Phase 1 of treatment, participants (N=118) were randomly allocated to ACT+CM or Drug Counseling (DC+CM), the comparison condition. At week 4, treatment response was defined as the submission of six consecutive cocaine-negative urine drug screens (UDS). Phase 1 non-responders were re-randomized to MOD or PLA as adjunct to their initial treatment. Phase 1 responders continued receiving their initial treatment. Primary outcomes included response rate and proportion of cocaine-negative UDS for Phase 1 and 2. Analyses used Bayesian inference with 80% pre-specified as the posterior probability (PP) threshold constituting moderate evidence that an effect exists. RESULTS: Phase 1 response was higher in the ACT+CM group (24.5%) compared to the DC+CM group (17.5%; PP = 84.5%). In Phase 2, the proportion of cocaine-negative UDS among Phase 1 responders did not differ by initial treatment (PP = 61.8%) but remained higher overall compared to Phase 1 non-responders (PPs > 99%). No evidence of an effect favoring augmentation with MOD was observed. DISCUSSION: Adding ACT to CM increased abstinence initiation. Initial responders were more likely to remain abstinent compared to initial non-responders, for whom modafinil was not an effective pharmacotherapy augmentation strategy.


Subject(s)
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy , Cocaine-Related Disorders , Cocaine , Humans , Bayes Theorem , Cocaine-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Cocaine-Related Disorders/psychology , Treatment Outcome , Cocaine/therapeutic use , Modafinil/therapeutic use , Polyesters/therapeutic use
9.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 237: 173725, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38340989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated that ACh modulates the dopaminergic circuit in the nucleus accumbens, and its blockade appears to be associated with the inhibition of the reinforced effect or the increase in dopamine caused by cocaine use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of biperiden (a muscarinic receptor antagonist with a relatively higher affinity for the M1 receptor) on crack/cocaine use relapse compared to a control group that received placebo. METHODS: This study is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The intervention group received 2 mg of biperiden, 3 times a day, for a period of 3 months. The control group received identical placebo capsules, at the same frequency and over the same period. All participants were followed for a period of six months. RESULTS: The sample comprised 128 people, with 61 in the control group and 67 in the biperiden group. Lower substance consumption was observed in the group that received biperiden treatment two (bT2 = -2.2 [-3.3; -1.0], p < 0.001) and six months (bT4 = -6, 2 [-8.6; -3.9], p < 0.001) after the beginning of the intervention. The biperiden group had a higher latency until a possible first day of consumption, in the same evaluation periods (bT2 = 0.26 [0.080; 0.44], p = 0.004; bT4 = 0.63 [0.32; 0.93], p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Despite the major limitations of the present study, the group that received biperiden reduced the number of days of cocaine/crack use and showed an increase in the latency time for relapse. More studies are needed to confirm the utility of this approach.


Subject(s)
Biperiden , Cocaine-Related Disorders , Crack Cocaine , Humans , Biperiden/therapeutic use , Biperiden/pharmacology , Cocaine-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Crack Cocaine/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Muscarinic Antagonists/pharmacology , Muscarinic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Receptor, Muscarinic M1
10.
Prog Neurobiol ; 234: 102573, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38401668

ABSTRACT

Cue-induced cocaine craving gradually intensifies following abstinence, a phenomenon known as the incubation of drug craving. Neuronal ensembles activated by initial cocaine use, are critically involved in this process. However, the mechanisms by which neuronal changes occurring in the ensembles after withdrawal contribute to incubation remain largely unknown. Here we labeled neuronal ensembles in the shell of nucleus accumbens (NAcSh) activated by cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) training. NAcSh ensembles showed an increasing activity induced by CPP test after 21-day withdrawal. Inhibiting synaptic transmission of NAcSh ensembles suppressed the preference for cocaine paired-side after 21-day withdrawal, demonstrating a critical role of NAcSh ensembles in increased preference for cocaine. The density of dendritic spines in dopamine D1 receptor expressing ensembles was increased after 21-day withdrawal. Moreover, the expression of Grin1, a subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, specifically increased in the NAcSh ensembles after cocaine withdrawal in both CPP and self-administration (SA) mouse models. Targeted knockdown or dysfunction of Grin1 in NAcSh ensembles significantly suppressed craving for cocaine. Our results suggest that the accumulation of NMDA receptors in NAcSh ensembles mediates increased craving for cocaine after prolonged withdrawal, thereby providing potential molecular targets for treatment of drug addiction.


Subject(s)
Cocaine-Related Disorders , Cocaine , Rats , Mice , Animals , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism , Cocaine/pharmacology , Cocaine/metabolism , Nucleus Accumbens/metabolism
11.
Clin Rheumatol ; 43(4): 1401-1407, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38416306

ABSTRACT

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group of rare conditions predominantly affecting small vessels of skin, musculoskeletal, pulmonary, renal, and rarely central and peripheral nervous systems. Isolated neurological manifestations of AAV are uncommon and challenging to diagnose. Cocaine has been reported as a potential trigger for the development of AAV. There are only a few case reports of isolated neurological involvement in cocaine-induced AAV with poorly characterized histopathological features. We present a unique case of AAV with isolated neurological manifestations presenting with multiple cranial neuropathies, leptomeningeal enhancement on imaging and histopathologic evidence of small-vessel vasculitis in the leptomeninges and brain and extensive dural fibrosis in a patient with cocaine abuse. The patient's progressive neurological deficits were controlled after starting immunosuppression with rituximab and prednisone. We also reviewed the literature to provide the diagnostic overview of AAV and evaluate intervention options. To our knowledge, this is the first case of AAV with isolated neurological manifestations and histopathologic evidence of small-vessel vasculitis in a patient with cocaine abuse. Patients with multiple cranial neuropathies and meningeal involvement should be screened for AAV, especially if they have a history of cocaine abuse.


Subject(s)
Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , Cocaine-Related Disorders , Cocaine , Cranial Nerve Diseases , Humans , Cocaine-Related Disorders/complications , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/chemically induced , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/complications , Cocaine/adverse effects , Brain
12.
Harm Reduct J ; 21(1): 54, 2024 Feb 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38424553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Overdose prevention centers (OPCs) are being implemented in the United States as a strategy to reduce drug-related mortality and morbidity. Previous studies have suggested that people who use drugs (PWUD) with a history of criminal legal system (CLS) involvement (e.g. current probation/parole) are at greater risk of overdose but may also encounter significant barriers to OPC use. The objective of this study was to explore the association between willingness to use an OPC and probation/parole status in a sample of PWUD in Rhode Island. METHODS: This study utilized data from the Rhode Island Prescription and Illicit Drug Study, which enrolled adult PWUD from August 2020 to February 2023. We used Pearson's chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests to assess bivariate associations between willingness to use an OPC and probation/parole status (current/previous/never), as well as other sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. In multivariable Poisson analyses, we examined the association between willingness to use an OPC and probation/parole status, adjusting for key sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. RESULTS: Among 482 study participants, 67% were male, 56% identified as white, 20% identified as Hispanic/Latine, and the median age was 43 (IQR 35-53). Nearly a quarter (24%) had never been on probation/parole, 44% were not currently on probation/parole but had a lifetime history of probation and parole, and 32% were currently on probation/parole. Most participants (71%) reported willingness to use an OPC, and in both bivariate and multivariable analyses, willingness to use an OPC did not vary by probation/parole status. Crack cocaine use and lifetime non-fatal overdose were associated with greater willingness to use an OPC (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate high willingness to use OPC among PWUD in Rhode Island regardless of CLS-involvement. As OPCs begin to be implemented in Rhode Island, it will be imperative to engage people with CLS-involvement and to ensure access to the OPC and protection against re-incarceration due to potential barriers, such as police surveillance of OPCs.


Subject(s)
Cocaine-Related Disorders , Criminals , Drug Overdose , Illicit Drugs , Adult , Humans , Male , United States , Female , Rhode Island/epidemiology , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Drug Overdose/prevention & control
13.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 120, 2024 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38409093

ABSTRACT

It has been previously established that paternal development of a strong incentive motivation for cocaine can predispose offspring to develop high cocaine-seeking behavior, as opposed to sole exposure to the drug that results in drug resistance in offspring. However, the adaptive changes of the reward circuitry have not been fully elucidated. To infer the key nuclei and possible hub genes that determine susceptibility to addiction in offspring, rats were randomly assigned to three groups, cocaine self-administration (CSA), yoked administration (Yoke), and saline self-administration (SSA), and used to generate F1. We conducted a comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of the male F1 offspring across seven relevant brain regions, both under drug-naïve conditions and after cocaine self-administration. Pairwise differentially expressed gene analysis revealed that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) exhibited more pronounced transcriptomic changes in response to cocaine exposure, while the dorsal hippocampus (dHip), dorsal striatum (dStr), and ventral tegmental area (VTA) exhibited changes that were more closely associated with the paternal voluntary cocaine-seeking behavior. Consistently, these nuclei showed decreased dopamine levels, elevated neuronal activation, and elevated between-nuclei correlations, indicating dopamine-centered rewiring of the midbrain circuit in the CSA offspring. To determine if possible regulatory cascades exist that drive the expression changes, we constructed co-expression networks induced by paternal drug addiction and identified three key clusters, primarily driven by transcriptional factors such as MYT1L, POU3F4, and NEUROD6, leading to changes of genes regulating axonogenesis, synapse organization, and membrane potential, respectively. Collectively, our data highlight vulnerable neurocircuitry and novel regulatory candidates with therapeutic potential for disrupting the transgenerational inheritance of vulnerability to cocaine addiction.


Subject(s)
Cocaine-Related Disorders , Cocaine , Rats , Male , Animals , Dopamine , Cocaine/adverse effects , Cocaine-Related Disorders/genetics , Cocaine-Related Disorders/metabolism , Reward , Gene Expression Profiling , Self Administration
14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 1410, 2024 01 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38228745

ABSTRACT

Cocaine/crack abstinence periods have higher risk of relapse. Abstinence as initial part of the recovery process is affected by learning and memory changes that could preserve the addictive cycle. To further understand how the interruption of cocaine/crack consumption affects neurotrophin level we performed the present systematic review and meta-analysis following the PRISMA statement (number CRD42019121643). The search formula was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar databases. The inclusion criterion was cocaine use disorder in 18 to 60-year-old people, measuring at least one neurotrophin in blood before and after a controlled abstinence period. Studies without pre-post design were excluded. Five investigations had nine different reports, four of them were subjected to a meta-analysis (n = 146). GRADE risk of bias method was followed. Individual studies reported increased peripheral brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after abstinence, evidence pooled by Hedge's g showed no significant change in BDNF after abstinence. Relevant heterogeneity in the length of the abstinence period (12-32 days), last cocaine/crack consumption monitoring and blood processing were detected that could help to explain non-significant results. Further improved methods are suggested, and a potential BDNF augmentation hypothesis is proposed that, if true, would help to understand initial abstinence as a re-adaptation period influenced by neurotrophins such as the BDNF.


Subject(s)
Cocaine-Related Disorders , Crack Cocaine , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor , Learning
15.
eNeuro ; 11(2)2024 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38253584

ABSTRACT

Impulsive action and risk-related decision-making (RDM) are two facets of impulsivity linked to a hyperdopaminergic release in the striatum and an increased propensity to cocaine intake. We previously showed that with repeated cocaine exposure, this initial hyperdopaminergic release is blunted in impulsive animals, potentially signaling drug-induced tolerance. Whether such dopaminergic dynamics involve changes in dopamine (DA) synthesis as a function of impulsivity is currently unknown. Here, we investigated the predictive value of DA synthesis for impulsive action, RDM, and the propensity to take cocaine in a rat model of vulnerability to cocaine abuse. Additionally, we assessed the effects of cocaine intake on these variables. Rats were tested sequentially in the rat Gambling Task (rGT) and were scanned with positron emission tomography and [18F]-FDOPA to respectively assess both impulsivity facets and striatal DA synthesis before and after cocaine self-administration (SA). Our results revealed that baseline striatal levels of DA synthesis did not significantly predict impulsive action, RDM, or a greater propensity to cocaine SA in impulsive animals. Besides, we showed that impulsive action, but not RDM, predicted higher rates of cocaine taking. However, chronic cocaine exposure had no impact on DA synthesis, nor affected impulsive action and RDM. These findings indicate that the hyper-responsive DA system associated with impulsivity and a propensity for cocaine consumption, along with the reduction in this hyper-responsive DA state in impulsive animals with a history of cocaine use, might not be mediated by dynamic changes in DA synthesis.


Subject(s)
Cocaine-Related Disorders , Cocaine , Rats , Animals , Dopamine/pharmacology , Cocaine/pharmacology , Impulsive Behavior , Positron-Emission Tomography
16.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 927, 2024 01 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38195724

ABSTRACT

Cocaine dependence is a serious world-wide public health problem without an FDA-approved pharmacotherapy. We recently designed and discovered a highly efficient long-acting cocaine hydrolase CocH5-Fc(M6). The present study examined the effectiveness and duration of CocH5-Fc(M6) in blocking interoceptive effects of cocaine by performing cocaine discrimination tests in rats, demonstrating that the duration of CocH5-Fc(M6) in blocking cocaine discrimination was dependent on cocaine dose and CocH5-Fc(M6) plasma concentration. Particularly, a dose of 3 mg/kg CocH5-Fc(M6) effectively attenuated discriminative stimulus effects of 10 mg/kg cocaine, cumulative doses of 10 and 32 mg/kg cocaine, and cumulative doses of 10, 32 and 56 mg/kg cocaine by ≥ 20% for 41, 19, and 10 days, and completely blocked the discriminative stimulus effects for 30, 13, and 5 days with corresponding threshold plasma CocH5-Fc(M6) concentrations of 15.9, 72.2, and 221 nM, respectively, under which blood cocaine concentration was negligible. Additionally, based on the data obtained, cocaine discrimination model is more sensitive than the locomotor activity to reveal cocaine effects and that CocH5-Fc(M6) itself has no long-term toxicity regarding behavioral activities such as lever pressing and food consumption in rats, further demonstrating that CocH5-Fc(M6) has the desired properties as a promising therapeutic candidate for prevenance of cocaine dependence.


Subject(s)
Cocaine-Related Disorders , Cocaine , Animals , Rats , Cocaine-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Cocaine/pharmacology , Carboxylic Ester Hydrolases , Locomotion
17.
Addict Biol ; 29(1): e13358, 2024 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38221806

ABSTRACT

Addictions are thought to be fostered by the emergence of poorly regulated mesocorticolimbic responses to drug-related cues. The development and persistence of these responses might be promoted by altered glutamate transmission, including changes to type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR5s). Unknown, however, is when these changes arise and whether the mGluR5 and mesocorticolimbic alterations are related. To investigate, non-dependent cocaine polydrug users and cocaine-naïve healthy controls underwent a positron emission tomography scan (15 cocaine users and 14 healthy controls) with [11 C]ABP688, and a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan (15/group) while watching videos depicting activities with and without cocaine use. For some drug videos, participants were instructed to use a cognitive strategy to lower craving. Both groups exhibited drug cue-induced mesocorticolimbic activations and these were larger in the cocaine polydrug users than healthy controls during the session's second half. During the cognitive regulation trials, the cocaine users' corticostriatal responses were reduced. [11 C]ABP688 binding was unaltered in cocaine users, relative to healthy controls, but post hoc analyses found reductions in those with 75 or more lifetime cocaine use sessions. Finally, among cocaine users (n = 12), individual differences in prefrontal [11 C]ABP688 binding were associated with midbrain and limbic region activations during the regulation trials. Together, these preliminary findings raise the possibility that (i) recreational polydrug cocaine users show biased brain processes towards cocaine-related cues and (ii) repeated cocaine use can lower cortical mGluR5 levels, diminishing the ability to regulate drug cue responses. These alterations might promote susceptibility to addiction and identify early intervention targets.


Subject(s)
Cocaine-Related Disorders , Cocaine , Oximes , Pyridines , Humans , Cues , Brain , Cocaine/adverse effects , Cocaine/metabolism , Cognition
18.
J Neurosci ; 44(7)2024 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38233216

ABSTRACT

While functional brain imaging studies in humans suggest that chronic cocaine use alters functional connectivity (FC) within and between key large-scale brain networks, including the default mode network (DMN), the salience network (SN), and the central executive network (CEN), cross-sectional studies in humans are challenging to obtain brain FC prior to cocaine use. Such information is critical to reveal the relationship between individual's brain FC and the subsequent development of cocaine dependence and brain changes during abstinence. Here, we performed a longitudinal study examining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in male rats (n = 7), acquired before cocaine self-administration (baseline), on 1 d of abstinence following 10 d of cocaine self-administration, and again after 30 d of experimenter-imposed abstinence. Using repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with network-based statistics (NBS), significant connectivity changes were found between anterior insular cortex (AI) of the SN, retrosplenial cortex (RSC) of the DMN, somatosensory cortex, and caudate-putamen (CPu), with AI-RSC FC showing the most robust changes between baseline and 1 d of abstinence. Additionally, the level of escalated cocaine intake is associated with AI-RSC and AI-CPu FC changes between 1 d and 30 d of abstinence; further, the subjects' AI-RSC FC prior to cocaine intake is a significant moderator for the AI-RSC changes during abstinence. These results provide novel insights into the roles of AI-RSC FC before and after cocaine intake and suggest this circuit to be a potential target to modulate large-scale network and associated behavioral changes in cocaine use disorders.


Subject(s)
Cocaine-Related Disorders , Cocaine , Humans , Male , Animals , Rats , Gyrus Cinguli , Brain Mapping/methods , Insular Cortex , Longitudinal Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Brain , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Nerve Net
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD007024, 2024 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38180268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cocaine is a psychostimulant used by approximately 0.4% of the general population worldwide. Cocaine dependence is a chronic mental disorder characterised by the inability to control cocaine use and a host of severe medical and psychosocial complications. There is current no approved pharmacological treatment for cocaine dependence. Some researchers have proposed disulfiram, a medication approved to treat alcohol use disorder. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of disulfiram for the treatment of cocaine dependence. SEARCH METHODS: We updated our searches of the following databases to August 2022: the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. We also searched for ongoing and unpublished studies via two trials registries. We handsearched the references of topic-related systematic reviews and included studies. The searches had no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials that evaluated disulfiram alone or associated with psychosocial interventions versus placebo, no intervention, other pharmacological interventions, or any psychosocial intervention for the treatment of cocaine dependence. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: Thirteen studies (1191 participants) met our inclusion criteria. Disulfiram versus placebo or no treatment Disulfiram compared to placebo may increase the number of people who are abstinent at the end of treatment (point abstinence; risk ratio (RR) 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05 to 2.36; 3 datasets, 142 participants; low-certainty evidence). However, compared to placebo or no pharmacological treatment, disulfiram may have little or no effect on frequency of cocaine use (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.11 standard deviations (SDs), 95% CI -0.39 to 0.17; 13 datasets, 818 participants), amount of cocaine use (SMD -0.00 SDs, 95% CI -0.30 to 0.30; 7 datasets, 376 participants), continuous abstinence (RR 1.23, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.91; 6 datasets, 386 participants), and dropout for any reason (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.55; 14 datasets, 841 participants). The certainty of the evidence was low for all these outcomes. We are unsure about the effects of disulfiram versus placebo on dropout due to adverse events (RR 12.97, 95% CI 0.77 to 218.37; 1 study, 67 participants) and on the occurrence of adverse events (RR 3.00, 95% CI 0.35 to 25.98), because the certainty of the evidence was very low for these outcomes. Disulfiram versus naltrexone Disulfiram compared with naltrexone may reduce the frequency of cocaine use (mean difference (MD) -1.90 days, 95% CI -3.37 to -0.43; 2 datasets, 123 participants; low-certainty evidence) and may have little or no effect on amount of cocaine use (SMD 0.12 SDs, 95% CI -0.27 to 0.51, 2 datasets, 123 participants; low-certainty evidence). We are unsure about the effect of disulfiram versus naltrexone on dropout for any reason (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.32, 3 datasets, 131 participants) and dropout due to adverse events (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.07 to 3.55; 1 dataset, 8 participants), because the certainty of the evidence was very low for these outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that disulfiram compared to placebo may increase point abstinence. However, disulfiram compared to placebo or no pharmacological treatment may have little or no effect on frequency of cocaine use, amount of cocaine use, continued abstinence, and dropout for any reason. We are unsure if disulfiram has any adverse effects in this population. Caution is required when transferring our results to clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Cocaine-Related Disorders , Cocaine , Humans , Disulfiram/adverse effects , Cocaine-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Naltrexone , Alcoholism/drug therapy
20.
Subst Use Addctn J ; 45(2): 314-324, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38258848

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To examine the associations between early onset of nonmedical prescription stimulant use (NPSU) and cocaine use. METHODS: Nationally representative samples of high school seniors were surveyed annually. Data were collected via self-administered questionnaires in nationally representative public and private schools in the United States (1976-2020) as part of the Monitoring the Future Study. The sample consisted of 45 cohorts of 12th grade students (N = 121 909). The main outcome was lifetime, past-year, and past-month cocaine use. RESULTS: An estimated one in every 10 (10.1%) individuals reported lifetime NPSU while 8.5% reported any cocaine use. The vast majority of youth (87.2%) initiated NPSU before cocaine among those who reported both substances. Cocaine use was most prevalent among youth who reported early onset of NPSU in 8th grade or earlier (51.7%) followed by those who reported later onset of NPSU in 12th grade (24.7%), and those who never initiated NPSU (3.7%). Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that early onset of NPSU had greater adjusted odds of cocaine use compared to those with later onset of NPSU or those who never reported NPSU. Moreover, the adjusted odds of cocaine use were higher for adolescents who initiated NPSU before or after medical use of prescription stimulants compared to those with no history of medical use or NPSU. Similar results were found for lifetime, past-year, and past-month cocaine use as a function of NPSU onset; this association was stronger among more recent cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Early onset of NPSU appears to be a signal of increased risk of cocaine use among US adolescents. NPSU should be included in screening and early prevention strategies among secondary school students. Health professionals, school officials, and families are encouraged to monitor youth for NPSU based on the increased risk of later cocaine use and related consequences.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Stimulants , Cocaine-Related Disorders , Cocaine , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Adolescent , United States , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Stimulants/therapeutic use , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cocaine-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Prescriptions
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