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1.
Eur. j. psychiatry ; 38(2): [100235], Apr.-Jun. 2024.
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-231861

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives The Economic Activity Restriction (EAR) due to health conditions is being utilized as a foundational measure for the European indicator Healthy Life Years (HLY). The EAR group is experiencing limitations not only in economic activities but also in overall activities, and it is a population with a high likelihood of transitioning to mental illness due to health condition. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between EAR and mental illness. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the association between EAR due to health conditions and mental illness for those aged 45 and older in South Korea. Methods We obtained data from the 2006–2020 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. EAR was assessed using self-reported questionnaires based on the Global Activity Limitation Indicator. mental illness was assessed based on the diagnosis data for participants who had been diagnosed. After excluding missing values, the data of 9,574 participants were analyzed using the chi-square test, log-rank tests, and time-dependent Cox proportional hazard model to evaluate the association between EAR and mental illness. Results Out of the 9,574 participants gathered at baseline, the mental illness rate was 4.8 %. The hazard ratio (HR) of mental illness in those in the “very probable” of EAR was 2.351 times higher (p-value <0.0001) compared with “not at all” of EAR. In model 1 which includes under 64 years, HR of mental illness in “very probable” of EAR was 3.679 times higher (p-value: 0.000) and in “probable” of EAR was 2.535 time higher (p-value: 0.001) compared with “not at all” of EAR. Conclusion If we provide opportunities to participate in community activities or provide the mental health promotion programs for middle-aged population who are experiencing EAR due to health condition... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mentally Ill Persons/psychology , Sick Leave , /psychology , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
BMC Neurol ; 24(1): 155, 2024 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714927

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic lung and heart diseases are more likely to lead an intensive end point after stroke onset. We aimed to investigate characteristics and outcomes of endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) in patients with acute large vessel occlusion stroke (ALVOS) and identify the role of comorbid chronic cardiopulmonary diseases in ALVOS pathogenesis. METHODS: In this single-center retrospective study, 191 consecutive patients who underwent EVT due to large vessel occlusion stroke in neurological intensive care unit were included. The chronic cardiopulmonary comorbidities and several conventional stroke risk factors were assessed. The primary efficacy outcome was functional independence (defined as a mRS of 0 to 2) at day 90. The primary safety outcomes were death within 90 days and the occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage(sICH). Univariate analysis was applied to evaluate the relationship between factors and clinical outcomes, and logistic regression model were developed to predict the prognosis of ALVOS. RESULTS: Endovascular therapy in ALVOS patients with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases, as compared with those without comorbidity, was associated with an unfavorable shift in the NHISS 24 h after EVT [8(4,15.25) versus 12(7.5,18.5), P = 0.005] and the lower percentage of patients who were functionally independent at 90 days, defined as a score on the modified Rankin scale of 0 to 2 (51.6% versus 25.4%, P = 0.000). There was no significant between-group difference in the frequency of mortality (12.1% versus 14.9%, P = 0.580) and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (13.7% versus 19.4%, P = 0.302) or of serious adverse events. Moreover, a prediction model showed that existence of cardiopulmonary comorbidities (OR = 0.456, 95%CI 0.209 to 0.992, P = 0.048) was independently associated with functional independence at day 90. CONCLUSIONS: EVT was safe in ALVOS patients with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases, whereas the unfavorable outcomes were achieved in such patients. Moreover, cardiopulmonary comorbidity had certain clinical predictive value for worse stroke prognosis.


Subject(s)
Comorbidity , Endovascular Procedures , Thrombectomy , Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Retrospective Studies , Middle Aged , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Thrombectomy/methods , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/complications , Heart Diseases/surgery , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Ischemic Stroke/surgery , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/surgery , Stroke/epidemiology
3.
BMC Nephrol ; 25(1): 157, 2024 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the influencing factors of vascular calcification in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and its relationship with long-term prognosis. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included chronic kidney disease patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis at the Peritoneal Dialysis Center of Beijing Luhu Hospital, Capital Medical University, from January 2019 to March 2019. Demographic and clinical laboratory data, including serum sclerostin (SOST), calcium (Ca), phosphate (P), serum albumin (ALB), and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels, were collected. Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) was assessed using abdominal lateral X-ray examination to determine the occurrence of vascular calcification, and patients were divided into the AAC group and Non-AAC group based on the results. RESULTS: A total of 91 patients were included in the study. The AAC group consisted of 46 patients, while the Non-AAC group consisted of 45 patients. The AAC group had significantly older patients compared to the non-AAC group (P < 0.001) and longer dialysis time (P = 0.004). Multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that risk factors for vascular calcification in PD patients included dialysis time, diabetes, hypertension, and SOST. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that the AAC group had a significantly higher mortality rate than the non-AAC group (χ2 = 35.993, P < 0.001). Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that dialysis time, diabetes and AAC were risk factors for all-cause mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients. CONCLUSION: Longer dialysis time, comorbid diabetes, comorbid hypertension, and SOST are risk factors for vascular calcification in PD patients. Additionally, AAC, longer dialysis time, and comorbid diabetes are associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients.


Subject(s)
Peritoneal Dialysis , Vascular Calcification , Humans , Peritoneal Dialysis/adverse effects , Male , Female , Vascular Calcification/epidemiology , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging , Vascular Calcification/etiology , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Aged , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Cohort Studies , Parathyroid Hormone/blood , Adult , Aorta, Abdominal/diagnostic imaging , Serum Albumin/metabolism , Serum Albumin/analysis , Calcium/blood
4.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1256, 2024 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714969

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Exposure to cigarette smoke introduces a large amount of nicotine into the bloodstream through the lungs. So, smoking can be a risk factor for many diseases. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of active and passive cigarette smoke on the blood lipid profile and dyslipidemia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 5052 individuals who participated in the recruitment phase of the Shahedieh cohort study. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the relationship between smoking exposure status and lipid profiles. RESULTS: The prevalence of abnormal low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), abnormal HDL-C, abnormal total cholesterol (TC), abnormal triglyceride (TG), and dyslipidemia were 254 (5.00%), 562 (11.10%), 470 (9.30%), 1008 (20.00%), and 1527 (30.20%), respectively. Adjusting for confounders, it was observed that current smokers had higher odds of having abnormal HDL-C [OR (95% CI), 2.90 (2.28-3.69)], abnormal TG [OR (95% CI), 1.71 (1.38-2.13)] and dyslipidemia [OR (95% CI), 1.86 (1.53-2.25)]. Ex-smokers also had greater odds of abnormal HDL-C [OR (95% CI), 1.51 (1.06-2.16)] compared to non-smokers who were not exposed to cigarette smoke. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that current smokers had higher TG and lower HDL. So, necessary measures should be taken to reduce smoking. The findings also showed that the prevalence of abnormal TG and HDL in ex-smokers was lower than in current smokers. Therefore, the existence of incentive policies to quit smoking seems necessary.


Subject(s)
Dyslipidemias , Lipids , Tobacco Smoke Pollution , Humans , Male , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adult , Middle Aged , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/adverse effects , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Tobacco Smoke Pollution/analysis , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Lipids/blood , Iran/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Risk Factors , Cigarette Smoking/epidemiology , Smoking/epidemiology , Triglycerides/blood , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Prevalence
5.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 22(1): 53, 2024 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715065

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH) has been proposed as an adjunct in in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles, especially in women with poor ovarian response. However, it is unclear whether GH supplementation is effective in women with poor embryonic development in the previous IVF cycle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of GH supplementation in IVF/ICSI cycles in women with poor embryonic development in the previous cycle. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study from a public fertility center in China, in which we performed propensity score-matching (PSM) for female age and AFC in a ratio of 1:1. We compared the cumulative live birth rate per started cycle, as well as a series of secondary outcomes. We included 3,043 women with poor embryonic development in the previous IVF/ICSI cycle, of which 1,326 had GH as adjuvant therapy and 1,717 had not. After PSM, there were 694 women in each group. RESULTS: After PSM, multivariate analyses showed the cumulative live birth rate to be significantly higher in the GH group than the control group [N = 694, 34.7% vs. N = 694, 27.5%, risk ratio (RR): 1.4 (95%CI: 1.1-1.8)]. Endometrial thickness, number of oocytes retrieved, number of embryos available, and number of good-quality embryos were significantly higher in the GH group compared to controls. Pregnancy outcomes in terms of birth weight, gestational age, fetal sex, preterm birth rate, and type of delivery were comparable. When we evaluated the impact of GH on different categories of female age, the observed benefit in the GH group did not appear to be significant. When we assessed the effect of GH in different AFC categories, the effect of GH was strongest in women with an AFC5-6 (32.2% versus 19.5%; RR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.3). CONCLUSIONS: Women with poor embryonic quality in the previous IVF/ICSI cycles have higher rates of cumulative live birth with GH supplementation.


Subject(s)
Birth Rate , Fertilization in Vitro , Live Birth , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic , Humans , Female , Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic/methods , Adult , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Fertilization in Vitro/methods , Live Birth/epidemiology , Embryonic Development/drug effects , Pregnancy Rate , China/epidemiology , Growth Hormone/administration & dosage , Human Growth Hormone/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies
6.
Lipids Health Dis ; 23(1): 135, 2024 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715126

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The relationship between changes in Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) and cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) in middle-aged and elderly individuals remains unclear. This study aims to explore the association between changes in AIP and CMD. METHODS: This study included 3,791 individuals aged over 45 years from CHARLS. Participants were divided into four groups using the K-Means clustering method. Cumulative AIP was used as a quantitative indicator reflecting changes in AIP. Differences in baseline data and CMD incidence rates among these four groups were compared. Multifactorial logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between changes in AIP and CMD, and subgroup analysis and interaction tests were conducted to evaluate potential relationships between changes in AIP and CMD across different subgroups. Restricted cubic splines (RCS) were used to assess the dose-response relationship between cumulative AIP and CMD. RESULTS: Changes in AIP were independently and positively associated with CMD. In males, the risk significantly increased in class4 compared to class1 (OR 1.75, 95%CI 1.12-2.73). In females, changes in AIP were not significantly associated with CMD. Cumulative AIP was positively correlated with CMD (OR 1.15, 95%CI 1.01-1.30), with significant gender differences in males (OR 1.29, 95%CI 1.07-1.55) and females (OR 1.03, 95%CI 0.87-1.23) (p for interaction = 0.042). In addition, a linear relationship was observed between cumulative AIP and CMD in male. CONCLUSION: Substantial changes in AIP may increase the risk of CMD in middle-aged and elderly Chinese males. Dynamic monitoring of AIP is of significant importance for the prevention and treatment of CMD.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Humans , Female , Male , Middle Aged , Aged , Atherosclerosis/blood , Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Sex Factors , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Risk Factors , Logistic Models
7.
BJS Open ; 8(3)2024 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Resection margin has been associated with overall survival following liver resection for colorectal liver metastasis. The aim of this study was to examine how resection margins of 0.0 mm, 0.1-0.9 mm and ≥1 mm influence overall survival in patients resected for colorectal liver metastasis in a time of modern perioperative chemotherapy and surgery. METHODS: Using data from the national registries Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry and Swedish National Quality Registry for Liver, Bile Duct and Gallbladder Cancer, patients that had liver resections for colorectal liver metastasis between 2009 and 2013 were included. In patients with a narrow or unknown surgical margin the original pathological reports were re-reviewed. Factors influencing overall survival were analysed using a Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: A total of 754 patients had a known margin status, of which 133 (17.6%) patients had a resection margin <1 mm. The overall survival in patients with a margin of 0 mm or 0.1-0.9 mm was 42 (95% c.i. 31 to 53) and 48 (95% c.i. 35 to 62) months respectively, compared with 75 (95% c.i. 65 to 85) for patients with ≥1 mm margin, P < 0.001. Margins of 0 mm or 0.1-0.9 mm were associated with poor overall survival in the multivariable analysis, HR 1.413 (95% c.i. 1.030 to 1.939), P = 0.032, and 1.399 (95% c.i. 1.025 to 1.910), P = 0.034, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite modern chemotherapy the resection margin is still an important factor for the survival of patients resected for colorectal liver metastasis, and a margin of ≥1 mm is needed to achieve the best possible outcome.


Subject(s)
Colorectal Neoplasms , Hepatectomy , Liver Neoplasms , Margins of Excision , Registries , Humans , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Colorectal Neoplasms/mortality , Liver Neoplasms/secondary , Liver Neoplasms/surgery , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Liver Neoplasms/mortality , Male , Female , Aged , Middle Aged , Sweden/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Cohort Studies , Aged, 80 and over
8.
Chirurgia (Bucur) ; 119(2): 156-170, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38743829

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Globally, cancer is the leading cause of mortality, with colorectal neoplasia ranking third in terms of incidence and mortality worldwide. Patients face disease- and treatment-specific impacts, which can significantly influence their quality of life (QoL). Aim: This study aimed to propose a protocol to measure in-hospital and long-term QoL in patients with complicated colorectal cancer (CRC). Material and Methods: multicenter prospective observational cohort study. Results: QoL is a multidimensional concept that includes criteria for physical, mental, emotional, and social functionality as perceived by the patient. Periodically evaluating QoL offers measurable and objective tools to intervene at the appropriate time to decrease the Years of Life Lost and Years Lived with Disabilities for CRC patients. However, a structured and functional system requires dedicated and common institutional effort. A pilot study using this protocol included 69 patients, 65.12+-10.92 years, M:F ratio = 56.5:43.5%. Surgical procedure was right hemicolectomy, left colectomy, transverse colectomy, sigmoidectomy, total colectomy, rectal resection, and colorectal resection with stoma (ileostomy or colostomy) in 21.7%, 11.6%, 2.9%, 11.6%, 1.4%, 23.2%, and 27.5% of the cases, respectively. The mean Global Health Status Score, Symptom Score, and Functional Score was 82.36+-18.60, 11.89+-10.27, and 86.27, 74.50-94.11, respectively. Conclusions: CRC diagnosis has major effects on patients physical and psychological status, and concentrated efforts should be made by the involved medical team and healthcare systems to improve QoL throughout the treatment pathway.


Subject(s)
Colectomy , Colorectal Neoplasms , Neoplasm Staging , Quality of Life , Humans , Male , Female , Prospective Studies , Aged , Colectomy/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/surgery , Colorectal Neoplasms/psychology , Colorectal Neoplasms/pathology , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome , Pilot Projects , Colostomy/psychology , Cohort Studies
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 29(5): e02362023, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747763

ABSTRACT

This article aims to evaluate the association between birth weight and asthma in adulthood, estimated by employing structural equation modeling. Cohort study with 1,958 participants aged 23-25 years from Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Standardized questionnaires were applied and pulmonary function evaluated, including bronchial reactivity with methacholine. A theoretical model was proposed to explore the effects of birth weight and asthma in adulthood. Asthma, socioeconomic status at birth (Birth SES), and current socioeconomic status (Adult SES) were obtained by constructs. Maternal age, sex, skin color, body mass index (BMI), smoking, parental asthma history, history of respiratory infection before five years old, history of hospitalization for lung disease before two years old, and atopy were the studied variables. 14.1% of participants were diagnosed with asthma. Birth weight was associated with asthma (Standardized Coefficient - SCtotal=-0.110; p=0.030), and an indirect effect was also observed (SCindirect=-0.220; p=0.037), mediated by hospitalization before two years and respiratory infection before five years. Lower birth weight showed an increased risk of asthma in adulthood and the SES Birth and Adult SES variables underlie this association.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Birth Weight , Humans , Brazil/epidemiology , Asthma/epidemiology , Female , Adult , Male , Young Adult , Cohort Studies , Risk Factors , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Birth Cohort , Socioeconomic Factors , Social Class , Respiratory Function Tests , Models, Theoretical
12.
Braz Oral Res ; 38: e040, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747827

ABSTRACT

Peri-implant diseases, including peri-implant mucositis (PIM) and peri-implantitis, are a chronic inflammatory disorder triggered by bacterial biofilm in susceptible hosts. Potential risk factors for peri-implant diseases include smoking, dental plaque accumulation, poor oral hygiene, genetics, and absence of peri-implant keratinized mucosa. This cohort study aimed to evaluate the influence of patient-, implant-, and prosthetic-related factors on PIM and peri-implant bone loss (PBL) around dental implants after 1 year of loading. A total of 54 subjects (22 males and 32 females) were included in the study. Peri-implant clinical parameters were assessed and standardized periapical radiographs of each dental implant were obtained 15 days after the definitive prosthesis installation (baseline) and at 3, 6, and 12 months of follow-up. A total of 173 implants were evaluated. PIM affected 44.8% of the implants and no significant association was found between the investigated parameters and PIM incidence, except for type of implant connection. A significantly higher incidence of PIM (80.0%) was observed for implants with internal hexagon connection type after 1 year of follow-up (p = 0.015). Moreover, a mean PBL of 0.35 ± 1.89 mm was observed and no dental implant was affected by peri-implantitis after 1 year of function. No specific influence of patient, implant, or prosthetic factors on PBL was observed. No association was found between the occurrence of PIM/PBL and the patient-, implant-, and prosthetic-related factors investigated in this cohort study, except for the type of dental-implant connection.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Bone Loss , Dental Implants , Peri-Implantitis , Stomatitis , Humans , Female , Male , Middle Aged , Dental Implants/adverse effects , Alveolar Bone Loss/etiology , Adult , Risk Factors , Peri-Implantitis/etiology , Stomatitis/etiology , Time Factors , Aged , Cohort Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Young Adult
13.
BMC Surg ; 24(1): 148, 2024 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Complications after laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) are important factors affecting the prognosis of patients, especially for complex hepatobiliary diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the value of a three-dimensional (3D) printed dry-laboratory model in the precise planning of LLR for complex hepatobiliary diseases. METHODS: Patients with complex hepatobiliary diseases who underwent LLR were preoperatively enrolled, and divided into two groups according to whether using a 3D-printed dry-laboratory model (3D vs. control group). Clinical variables were assessed and complications were graded by the Clavien-Dindo classification. The Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI) scores were calculated and compared for each patient. Multivariable analysis was performed to determine the risk factors of postoperative complications. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients with complex hepatobiliary diseases underwent the precise planning of LLR. Among them, thirty-one patients acquired the guidance of a 3D-printed dry-laboratory model, and others were only guided by traditional enhanced CT or MRI. The results showed no significant differences between the two groups in baseline characters. However, compared to the control group, the 3D group had a lower incidence of intraoperative blood loss, as well as postoperative 30-day and major complications, especially bile leakage (all P < 0.05). The median score on the CCI was 20.9 (range 8.7-51.8) in the control group and 8.7 (range 8.7-43.4) in the 3D group (mean difference, -12.2, P = 0.004). Multivariable analysis showed the 3D model was an independent protective factor in decreasing postoperative complications. Subgroup analysis also showed that a 3D model could decrease postoperative complications, especially for bile leakage in patients with intrahepatic cholelithiasis. CONCLUSION: The 3D-printed models can help reduce postoperative complications. The 3D-printed models should be recommended for patients with complex hepatobiliary diseases undergoing precise planning LLR.


Subject(s)
Laparoscopy , Liver Diseases , Postoperative Complications , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Humans , Female , Male , Middle Aged , Laparoscopy/methods , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Liver Diseases/surgery , Aged , Biliary Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Biliary Tract Diseases/surgery , Biliary Tract Diseases/etiology , Hepatectomy/methods , Hepatectomy/adverse effects , Adult , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies
14.
J Transl Med ; 22(1): 444, 2024 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38734658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Characterization of shared cancer mechanisms have been proposed to improve therapy strategies and prognosis. Here, we aimed to identify shared cell-cell interactions (CCIs) within the tumor microenvironment across multiple solid cancers and assess their association with cancer mortality. METHODS: CCIs of each cancer were identified by NicheNet analysis of single-cell RNA sequencing data from breast, colon, liver, lung, and ovarian cancers. These CCIs were used to construct a shared multi-cellular tumor model (shared-MCTM) representing common CCIs across cancers. A gene signature was identified from the shared-MCTM and tested on the mRNA and protein level in two large independent cohorts: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, 9185 tumor samples and 727 controls across 22 cancers) and UK biobank (UKBB, 10,384 cancer patients and 5063 controls with proteomics data across 17 cancers). Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association of the signature with 10-year all-cause mortality, including sex-specific analysis. RESULTS: A shared-MCTM was derived from five individual cancers. A shared gene signature was extracted from this shared-MCTM and the most prominent regulatory cell type, matrix cancer-associated fibroblast (mCAF). The signature exhibited significant expression changes in multiple cancers compared to controls at both mRNA and protein levels in two independent cohorts. Importantly, it was significantly associated with mortality in cancer patients in both cohorts. The highest hazard ratios were observed for brain cancer in TCGA (HR [95%CI] = 6.90[4.64-10.25]) and ovarian cancer in UKBB (5.53[2.08-8.80]). Sex-specific analysis revealed distinct risks, with a higher mortality risk associated with the protein signature score in males (2.41[1.97-2.96]) compared to females (1.84[1.44-2.37]). CONCLUSION: We identified a gene signature from a comprehensive shared-MCTM representing common CCIs across different cancers and revealed the regulatory role of mCAF in the tumor microenvironment. The pathogenic relevance of the gene signature was supported by differential expression and association with mortality on both mRNA and protein levels in two independent cohorts.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Humans , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/mortality , Female , Male , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Tumor Microenvironment/genetics , Cohort Studies , Transcriptome/genetics , Middle Aged , Cell Communication
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e2410432, 2024 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717771

ABSTRACT

Importance: The burden of the US opioid crisis has fallen heavily on children, a vulnerable population increasingly exposed to parental opioid use disorder (POUD) in utero or during childhood. A paucity of studies have investigated foster care involvement among those experiencing parental opioid use during childhood and the associated health and health care outcomes. Objective: To examine the health and health care outcomes of children experiencing POUD with and without foster care involvement. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study used nationwide Medicaid claims data from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2020. Participants included Medicaid-enrolled children experiencing parental opioid use-related disorder during ages 4 to 18 years. Data were analyzed between January 2023 and February 2024. Exposure: Person-years with (exposed) and without (nonexposed) foster care involvement, identified using Medicaid eligibility, procedure, and diagnostic codes. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes included physical and mental health conditions, developmental disorders, substance use, and health care utilization. The Pearson χ2 test, the t test, and linear regression were used to compare outcomes in person-years with (exposed) and without (nonexposed) foster care involvement. An event study design was used to examine health care utilization patterns before and after foster care involvement. Results: In a longitudinal sample of 8 939 666 person-years from 1 985 180 Medicaid-enrolled children, 49% of children were females and 51% were males. Their mean (SD) age was 10 (4.2) years. The prevalence of foster care involvement was 3% (276 456 person-years), increasing from 1.5% in 2014 to 4.7% in 2020. Compared with those without foster care involvement (8 663 210 person-years), foster care involvement was associated with a higher prevalence of developmental delays (12% vs 7%), depression (10% vs 4%), trauma and stress (35% vs 7%), and substance use-related disorders (4% vs 1%; P < .001 for all). Foster children had higher rates of health care utilization across a wide array of preventive services, including well-child visits (64% vs 44%) and immunizations (41% vs 31%; P < .001 for all). Health care utilization increased sharply in the first year entering foster care but decreased as children exited care. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of Medicaid-enrolled children experiencing parental opioid use-related disorder, foster care involvement increased significantly between 2014 and 2020. Involvement was associated with increased rates of adverse health outcomes and health care utilization. These findings underscore the importance of policies that support children and families affected by opioid use disorder, as well as the systems that serve them.


Subject(s)
Foster Home Care , Medicaid , Opioid-Related Disorders , Humans , Medicaid/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Child , Female , Male , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Foster Home Care/statistics & numerical data , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Cohort Studies , Child of Impaired Parents/statistics & numerical data , Child of Impaired Parents/psychology
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e249548, 2024 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717774

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Diabetes is associated with poorer prognosis of patients with breast cancer. The association between diabetes and adjuvant therapies for breast cancer remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively examine the associations of preexisting diabetes with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and endocrine therapy in low-income women with breast cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This population-based cohort study included women younger than 65 years diagnosed with nonmetastatic breast cancer from 2007 through 2015, followed up through 2016, continuously enrolled in Medicaid, and identified from the linked Missouri Cancer Registry and Medicaid claims data set. Data were analyzed from January 2022 to October 2023. EXPOSURE: Preexisting diabetes. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of utilization (yes/no), timely initiation (≤90 days postsurgery), and completion of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, as well as adherence (medication possession ratio ≥80%) and persistence (<90-consecutive day gap) of endocrine therapy in the first year of treatment for women with diabetes compared with women without diabetes. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic and tumor factors. RESULTS: Among 3704 women undergoing definitive surgery, the mean (SD) age was 51.4 (8.6) years, 1038 (28.1%) were non-Hispanic Black, 2598 (70.1%) were non-Hispanic White, 765 (20.7%) had a diabetes history, 2369 (64.0%) received radiotherapy, 2237 (60.4%) had chemotherapy, and 2505 (67.6%) took endocrine therapy. Compared with women without diabetes, women with diabetes were less likely to utilize radiotherapy (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.53-0.86), receive chemotherapy (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48-0.93), complete chemotherapy (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.50-0.99), and be adherent to endocrine therapy (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.91). There were no significant associations of diabetes with utilization (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.71-1.28) and persistence (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.88-1.36) of endocrine therapy, timely initiation of radiotherapy (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.86-1.38) and chemotherapy (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.77-1.55), or completion of radiotherapy (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.91-1.71). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort study, preexisting diabetes was associated with subpar adjuvant therapies for breast cancer among low-income women. Improving diabetes management during cancer treatment is particularly important for low-income women with breast cancer who may have been disproportionately affected by diabetes and are likely to experience disparities in cancer treatment and outcomes.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Diabetes Mellitus , Poverty , Humans , Female , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Adult , United States/epidemiology , Medicaid/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Missouri/epidemiology , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/statistics & numerical data , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(5): e2410288, 2024 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38717772

ABSTRACT

Importance: Currently, mortality risk for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with an uncomplicated postprocedure course is low. Less is known regarding the risk of in-hospital ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF). Objective: To evaluate the risk of late VT and VF after primary PCI for STEMI. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included adults aged 18 years or older with STEMI treated with primary PCI between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2018, identified in the US National Cardiovascular Data Registry Chest Pain-MI Registry. Data were analyzed from April to December 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the risk of late VT (≥7 beat run of VT during STEMI hospitalization ≥1 day after PCI) or VF (any episode of VF≥1 day after PCI) associated with cardiac arrest and associations between late VT or VF and in-hospital mortality in the overall cohort and a cohort with uncomplicated STEMI without prior myocardial infarction or heart failure, systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, reinfarction, or left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) less than 40%. Results: A total of 174 126 eligible patients with STEMI were treated with primary PCI at 814 sites in the study; 15 460 (8.9%) had VT or VF after primary PCI, and 4156 (2.4%) had late VT or VF. Among the eligible patients, 99 905 (57.4%) at 807 sites had uncomplicated STEMI. The median age for patients with late VT or VF overall was 63 years (IQR, 55-73 years), and 75.5% were men; the median age for patients with late VT or VF with uncomplicated STEMI was 60 years (IQR, 53-69 years), and 77.7% were men. The median length of stay was 3 days (IQR, 2-7 days) for the overall cohort with late VT or VF and 3 days (IQR, 2-4 days) for the cohort with uncomplicated STEMI with late VT or VF. The risk of late VT or VF was 2.4% (overall) and 1.7% (uncomplicated STEMI). Late VT or VF with cardiac arrest occurred in 674 patients overall (0.4%) and in 117 with uncomplicated STEMI (0.1%). LVEF was the most significant factor associated with late VT or VF with cardiac arrest (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for every 5-unit decrease ≤40%: 1.67; 95% CI, 1.54-1.85). Late VT or VF events were associated with increased odds of in-hospital mortality in the overall cohort (AOR, 6.40; 95% CI, 5.63-7.29) and the cohort with uncomplicated STEMI (AOR, 8.74; 95% CI, 6.53-11.70). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a small proportion of patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI had late VT or VF. However, late VT or VF with cardiac arrest was rare, particularly in the cohort with uncomplicated STEMI. This information may be useful when determining the optimal timing for hospital discharge after STEMI.


Subject(s)
Hospital Mortality , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Tachycardia, Ventricular , Ventricular Fibrillation , Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/complications , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Tachycardia, Ventricular/therapy , Tachycardia, Ventricular/mortality , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Ventricular Fibrillation/therapy , Ventricular Fibrillation/mortality , Cohort Studies , Registries , Risk Factors
19.
Acta Neurochir (Wien) ; 166(1): 207, 2024 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38719997

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: While hearing loss is a well-known condition following microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS), tinnitus is an underreported one. This study aims to identify prevalence, characteristics, severity, and predictors of tinnitus following MVD for HFS. METHODS: A single-center cohort of 55 HFS patients completed a questionnaire approximately 5 years following MVD. Data encompassed tinnitus presence, side, type, onset, and severity measured by a 10-point Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Descriptive, correlation, and logistic regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS  : At surgery, participants' median age was 58 years (IQR 52-65). The median duration of HFS symptoms before surgery was 5 years (IQR 3-8), slightly predominant on the left (60%). Postoperative tinnitus was reported by 20 patients (36%), versus nine (16%) that reported preoperative tinnitus. Postoperative tinnitus was ipsilateral on the surgical side in 13 patients (65%), bilateral in six (30%), and contralateral in one (5%). Among patients with bilateral postoperative tinnitus, 33% did not have this preoperatively. Tinnitus was continuous in 70% of cases and pulsatile in 30%. Onset of new tinnitus was in 58% immediately or within days, in 25% within three months, and in 17% between three months and one year after surgery. The mean severity of postoperative tinnitus was 5.1 points on the VAS. Preoperative tinnitus and presence of arachnoid adhesions had suggestive associations with postoperative tinnitus in initial analyses (p = 0.005 and p = 0.065). However, preoperative tinnitus was the only significant predictor of postoperative tinnitus (p = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Tinnitus is a common condition following MVD for HFS, with a moderate overall severity. Causes behind postoperative tinnitus remain obscure but could be related to those of postoperative hearing loss in this patient population. Clinicians should be aware of tinnitus following MVD and vigilantly monitor its occurrence, to facilitate prevention efforts and optimize outcome for HFS patients undergoing MVD.


Subject(s)
Hemifacial Spasm , Microvascular Decompression Surgery , Postoperative Complications , Tinnitus , Humans , Tinnitus/etiology , Tinnitus/epidemiology , Hemifacial Spasm/surgery , Middle Aged , Microvascular Decompression Surgery/adverse effects , Microvascular Decompression Surgery/methods , Female , Male , Aged , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Cohort Studies
20.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1266, 2024 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720292

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 has been linked to increased mortality risk. However, limited studies have examined the potential modifying effect of community-level characteristics on this association, particularly in Asian contexts. This study aimed to estimate the effects of long-term exposure to PM2.5 on mortality in South Korea and to examine whether community-level deprivation, medical infrastructure, and greenness modify these associations. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study using the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. A total of 394,701 participants aged 30 years or older in 2006 were followed until 2019. Based on modelled PM2.5 concentrations, 1 to 3-year and 5-year moving averages of PM2.5 concentrations were assigned to each participant at the district level. Time-varying Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the association between PM2.5 and non-accidental, circulatory, and respiratory mortality. We further conducted stratified analysis by community-level deprivation index, medical index, and normalized difference vegetation index to represent greenness. RESULTS: PM2.5 exposure, based on 5-year moving averages, was positively associated with non-accidental (Hazard ratio, HR: 1.10, 95% Confidence Interval, CI: 1.01, 1.20, per 10 µg/m3 increase) and circulatory mortality (HR: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.47). The 1-year moving average of PM2.5 was associated with respiratory mortality (HR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.67). We observed higher associations between PM2.5 and mortality in communities with higher deprivation and limited medical infrastructure. Communities with higher greenness showed lower risk for circulatory mortality but higher risk for respiratory mortality in association with PM2.5. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found mortality effects of long-term PM2.5 exposure and underlined the role of community-level factors in modifying these association. These findings highlight the importance of considering socio-environmental contexts in the design of air quality policies to reduce health disparities and enhance overall public health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Environmental Exposure , Particulate Matter , Humans , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Adult , Aged , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Mortality/trends , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Proportional Hazards Models , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality
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