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1.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 4471736, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35495886

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases pose a serious threat to human life, the Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) can analyze susceptibility genes of infectious diseases from the genetic level and carry out targeted prevention and treatment. The susceptibility genes for infectious diseases often act in combination with multiple susceptibility sites; therefore, high-order epistasis detection has become an important means. However, due to intensive computational burden and diversity of disease models, existing methods have drawbacks on low detection power, high computation cost, and preference for some types of disease models. Furthermore, these methods are exposed to repeated query and model inversion attacks in the process of iterative optimization, which may disclose Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) information associated with individual privacy. Therefore, in order to solve these problems, this paper proposed a safe harmony search algorithm for high-order gene interaction detection, termed as HS-DP. Firstly, the linear weighting method was used to integrate 5 objective functions to screen out high-order SNP sets with high correlation, including K2-Score, JS divergence, logistic regression, mutual information, and Gini. Then, based on the Differential Privacy (DP) theory, the function disturbance mechanism was introduced to protect the security of individual privacy information associated with the objective function, and we proved the rationality of the disturbance mechanism theoretically. Finally, the practicability and superiority of the algorithm were verified by experiments. Experimental results showed that the algorithm proposed in this paper could improve the detection accuracy to the greatest extent while guaranteeing privacy.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Epistasis, Genetic , Algorithms , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study/methods , Humans , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
2.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 8145173, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502209

ABSTRACT

Background: Mortality from noncancer causes in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) is unclear. This study assesses the causes and risks of noncancer death with each follow-up time period after PCa diagnosis. Methods: Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program were analyzed for noncancer causes of death in PCa patients from 2000 to 2016. The standard mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated for noncancer mortality. Results: Altogether, 752,352 patients with PCa were identified, and 180,862 (24.0%) died during follow-up. The largest proportion of deaths from noncancer causes (36%) occurred within 5 to 10 years after diagnosis. The most common causes of noncancer death are cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Compared with the general age-matched male population, patients with PCa had a higher risk of death from any noncancer cause within 5 years, in particular other infectious diseases and suicide and self-inflicted injury. However, the risk of death from noncancer causes of PCa for more than 5 years is lower, except for Alzheimer's disease and hypertension from 5 to 10 years after diagnosis. In addition, the risk of death from noncancer causes was influenced by treatment, ethnicity, and staging differences. In particular, compared with the general population, many noncancer causes of death have higher risk of death in patients with or without treatment within 1 to 5 years after diagnosis, whereas patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) with or without radiotherapy (RT) or chemotherapy (CTx) are not at high risk of death from COPD, pneumonia and influenza, nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis, septicemia, and atherosclerosis. Conclusion: The risk of death from noncancer causes gradually decreased in all patients with PCa during each follow-up period after diagnosis In addition, the risk of dying from noncancer causes are influenced by differences in stage, ethnicity, and treatment. In particular, patients undergoing RP±RT/CTx and RT/CTx have a lower risk of death compared to the general population. These findings provide important implications for the healthcare management of patients with PCa.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Prostatic Neoplasms , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Sepsis , Cause of Death , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis
3.
Medwave ; 22(3): e8722, 2022 Apr 26.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507807

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an infection caused by rodents of the Bunyanvirales family towards humans. This disease in Chile is considered endemic, which has a high fatality rate. At present, some studies show the contagion between people of the Andes virus, whose locality is concentrated in Argentina and Chile. Objectives: Analyze the possibility of hantavirus transmission between humans using an SEIR-type mathematical model. Methods: An SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious and Recovered) mathematical model to express the dynamics of hantavirus disease is proposed, including the possibility of human-to-human transmission and the perception of risk. Results: The peak of human-to-human contagion decreases by about 25% after increasing peoples perception of risk by reducing the rate of resistance to changeand increasing the speed of peoples reaction. Conclusions: It is urgent to review risk communication strategies and prevention measures in the face of this possibility of massive human-tohuman infections, in addition to strengthening research and planning the development of a vaccine to protect populations exposed to this disease with a high fatality rate.


Introducción: El síndrome cardiopulmonar por hantavirus es una enfermedad causada por un virus perteneciente al orden bunyanvirales, y transmitida hacia los humanos a través de roedores. Esta enfermedad en Chile es considerada endémica, la cual tiene una alta tasa de letalidad. En la actualidad existen estudios que evidencian el contagio entre personas del virus Andes, cuya localidad se concentra en los países de Argentina y Chile. Objetivos: Analizar la posibilidad de transmisión de hantavirus entre humanos, mediante un modelo matemático tipo SEIR. Métodos: Se plantea un modelo matemático tipo SEIR (susceptible, expuesto, infeccioso y recuperado) para expresar la dinámica de la enfermedad por hantavirus, incluyendo la posibilidad de transmisión entre humanos y la percepción del riesgo. Resultados: El máximo de contagio entre humanos disminuye cerca de 25% tras aumentar la percepción de riesgo de las personas, mediante la reducción de la tasa de resistencia al cambio y aumento la velocidad de reaccionar de las personas. Conclusiones: Es urgente revisar las estrategias de comunicación de riesgo y medidas de prevención ante esta posibilidad de contagios masivos entre humanos, además de fortalecer la investigación y proyectar el desarrollo de una vacuna para proteger las poblaciones expuestas a esta enfermedad con alta tasa de letalidad.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Hantavirus Infections , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome , Hantavirus , Chile/epidemiology , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome/epidemiology , Humans
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(2): e20210205, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507980

ABSTRACT

The historical number of yearly deaths in Brazil has a growing tendency since always. In recent years were observed increases in this number beyond the tendency, probably associated to epidemics. In this work it was implemented an analysis on public data, using the total number of deaths from violence, respiratory diseases, and deaths in hospitals. The historical series of deaths in Brazil from 2003 to 2019 was used to estimate the number of deaths in 2020 by a statistical projection, and this estimate value was compared with the number of deaths recorded as "Deaths with suspicion or confirmation of COVID-19". It was verified that deaths attributed to COVID-19 far exceed the statistical projections but this result was interpreted together with the numbers of deaths by respiratory diseases. Increasing of deaths between 2019 and 2020 can be partially explained by a lowering in the deaths of violence in 2019. In this paper it was verified that despite de pandemic the difference between number of deaths between 2020 and 2019 remained in the same order of magnitude as the difference in the past, in periods which can be associated to other infectious diseases as H1N1 and dengue, for example.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
5.
J Hosp Med ; 17(2): 114-116, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504579

ABSTRACT

GUIDELINE TITLE: Clinical practice guideline by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Disease Society of America: 2021 Guideline on Diagnosis and Management of Acute Hematogenous Osteomyelitis in Children RELEASE DATE: August 5, 2021 PRIOR VERSION(S): n/a DEVELOPER: Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS) and Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) FUNDING SOURCE: PIDS and IDSA TARGET POPULATION: Children with suspected or confirmed acute hematogenous osteomyelitis.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Hospitalists , Osteomyelitis , Child , Humans , Infectious Disease Medicine , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/therapy
6.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 184(18)2022 May 02.
Article in Danish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506622

ABSTRACT

Refugees arrive in Denmark by different paths and canals. In some municipalities all refugees are offered a systematic health assessment when they receive a residence permit. The conducted assessments in Copenhagen and Aarhus have resulted in five studies and this review sums up some of the important results. Vitamin-D deficiencies, anaemia, latent tuberculosis, and symptoms of PTSD are just some of the most frequent conditions seen in newly arrived refugees. A health assessment upon resettlement has several important purposes and should be offered to all newly arrived refugees in Denmark.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Latent Tuberculosis , Refugees , Vitamin D Deficiency , Humans , Mental Health
9.
J Exp Med ; 219(6)2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510952

ABSTRACT

Reporting the distribution and inclusion of both males and females in immunology and infectious diseases research is improving, but rigorous analyses of differential outcomes between males and females, including mechanistic inquiries into the causes of sex differences, still lags behind.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Bias , Female , Humans , Male , Sex Characteristics , Sex Factors
10.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267510, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511793

ABSTRACT

The early detection of infectious disease outbreaks is a crucial task to protect population health. To this end, public health surveillance systems have been established to systematically collect and analyse infectious disease data. A variety of statistical tools are available, which detect potential outbreaks as abberations from an expected endemic level using these data. Here, we present supervised hidden Markov models for disease outbreak detection, which use reported outbreaks that are routinely collected in the German infectious disease surveillance system and have not been leveraged so far. This allows to directly integrate labeled outbreak data in a statistical time series model for outbreak detection. We evaluate our model using real Salmonella and Campylobacter data, as well as simulations. The proposed supervised learning approach performs substantially better than unsupervised learning and on par with or better than a state-of-the-art approach, which is applied in multiple European countries including Germany.


Subject(s)
Campylobacter Infections , Communicable Diseases , Campylobacter Infections/diagnosis , Campylobacter Infections/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Population Surveillance , Public Health Surveillance , Salmonella , Supervised Machine Learning
11.
Mil Med ; 187(Supplement_2): 42-51, 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512375

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, increased incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms, as well as polymicrobial wounds and infections, complicated the management of combat trauma-related infections. Multidrug resistance and wound microbiology are a research focus of the Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study (TIDOS), an Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program, Uniformed Services University, research protocol. To conduct comprehensive microbiological research with the goal of improving the understanding of the complicated etiology of wound infections, the TIDOS MDR and Virulent Organisms Trauma Infections Initiative (MDR/VO Initiative) was established as a collaborative effort with the Brooke Army Medical Center, Naval Medical Research Center, U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research, and Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. We provide a review of the TIDOS MDR/VO Initiative and summarize published findings. METHODS: Antagonism and biofilm formation of commonly isolated wound bacteria (e.g., ESKAPE pathogens-Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.), antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, and clinical outcomes are being examined. Isolates collected from admission surveillance swabs, as part of infection control policy, and clinical infection workups were retained in the TIDOS Microbiological Repository and associated clinical data in the TIDOS database. RESULTS: Over the TIDOS study period (June 2009 to December 2014), more than 8,300 colonizing and infecting isolates were collected from military personnel injured with nearly one-third of isolates classified as MDR. At admission to participating U.S. military hospitals, 12% of wounded warriors were colonized with MDR Gram-negative bacilli. Furthermore, 27% of 913 combat casualties with ≥1 infection during their trauma hospitalization had MDR Gram-negative bacterial infections. Among 335 confirmed combat-related extremity wound infections (2009-2012), 61% were polymicrobial and comprised various combinations of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeast, fungi, and anaerobes. Escherichia coli was the most common Gram-negative bacilli isolated from clinical workups, as well as the most common colonizing MDR secondary to extended-spectrum ß-lactamase resistance. Assessment of 479 E. coli isolates collected from wounded warriors found 188 pulsed-field types (PFTs) from colonizing isolates and 54 PFTs from infecting isolates without significant overlap across combat theaters, military hospitals, and study years. A minority of patients with colonizing E. coli isolates developed subsequent infections with the same E. coli strain. Enterococcus spp. were most commonly isolated from polymicrobial wound infections (53% of 204 polymicrobial cultures). Patients with Enterococcus infections were severely injured with a high proportion of lower extremity amputations and genitourinary injuries. Approximately 65% of polymicrobial Enterococcus infections had other ESKAPE organisms isolated. As biofilms have been suggested as a cause of delayed wound healing, wound infections with persistent recovery of bacteria (isolates of same organism collected ≥14 days apart) and nonrecurrent bacterial isolates were assessed. Biofilm production was significantly associated with recurrent bacteria isolation (97% vs. 59% with nonrecurrent isolates; P < 0.001); however, further analysis is needed to confirm biofilm formation as a predictor of persistent wound infections. CONCLUSIONS: The TIDOS MDR/VO Initiative provides comprehensive and detailed data of major microbial threats associated with combat-related wound infections to further the understanding of wound etiology and potentially identify infectious disease countermeasures, which may lead to improvements in combat casualty care.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Communicable Diseases , Wound Infection , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterococcus , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Hospitals, Military , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , United States/epidemiology , Wound Infection/drug therapy
12.
Mil Med ; 187(Supplement_2): 25-33, 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512376

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Extremity trauma is the most common battlefield injury, resulting in a high frequency of combat-related extremity wound infections (CEWIs). As these infections are associated with substantial morbidity and may impact wounded warriors long after initial hospitalization, CEWIs have been a focus of the Infectious Disease Clinical Research Program (IDCRP). Herein, we review findings of CEWI research conducted through the IDCRP and discuss future and ongoing analyses. METHODS: Military personnel with deployment-related trauma sustained between 2009 and 2014 were examined in retrospective analyses through the observational Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study (TIDOS). Characteristics of wounded warriors with ≥1 open extremity wound were assessed, focusing on injury patterns and infection risk factors. Through a separate trauma-associated osteomyelitis study, military personnel with combat-related open fractures of the long bones (tibia, femur, and upper extremity) sustained between 2003 and 2009 were examined to identify osteomyelitis risk factors. RESULTS: Among 1,271 wounded warriors with ≥1 open extremity wound, 16% were diagnosed with a CEWI. When assessed by their most severe extremity injury (i.e., amputation, open fracture, or open soft-tissue wound), patients with amputations had the highest proportion of infections (47% of 212 patients with traumatic amputations). Factors related to injury pattern, mechanism, and severity were independent predictors of CEWIs during initial hospitalization. Having a non-extremity infection at least 4 days before CEWI diagnosis was associated with reduced likelihood of CEWI development. After hospital discharge, 28% of patients with extremity trauma had a new or recurrent CEWI during follow-up. Risk factors for the development of CEWIs during follow-up included injury pattern, having either a CEWI or other infection during initial hospitalization, and receipt of antipseudomonal penicillin for ≥7 days. A reduced likelihood for CEWIs during follow-up was associated with a hospitalization duration of 15-30 days. Under the retrospective osteomyelitis risk factor analysis, patients developing osteomyelitis had higher open fracture severity based on Gustilo-Anderson (GA) and the Orthopaedic Trauma Association classification schemes and more frequent traumatic amputations compared to open fracture patients without osteomyelitis. Recurrence of osteomyelitis was also common (28% of patients with open tibia fractures had a recurrent episode). Although osteomyelitis risk factors differed between the tibia, femur, and upper extremity groups, sustaining an amputation, use of antibiotic beads, and being injured in the earlier years of the study (before significant practice pattern changes) were consistent predictors. Other risk factors included GA fracture severity ≥IIIb, blast injuries, foreign body at fracture site (with/without orthopedic implant), moderate/severe muscle damage and/or necrosis, and moderate/severe skin/soft-tissue damage. For upper extremity open fractures, initial stabilization following evacuation from the combat zone was associated with a reduced likelihood of osteomyelitis. CONCLUSIONS: Forthcoming studies will examine the effectiveness of common antibiotic regimens for managing extremity deep soft-tissue infections to improve clinical outcomes of combat casualties and support development of clinical practice guidelines for CEWI treatment. The long-term impact of extremity trauma and resultant infections will be further investigated through both Department of Defense and Veterans Affairs follow-up, as well as examination of the impact on comorbidities and mental health/social factors.


Subject(s)
Amputation, Traumatic , Communicable Diseases , Fractures, Open , Military Personnel , Osteomyelitis , Soft Tissue Injuries , Wound Infection , Amputation, Traumatic/complications , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Communicable Diseases/complications , Extremities/injuries , Fractures, Open/complications , Fractures, Open/epidemiology , Humans , Osteomyelitis/complications , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Soft Tissue Injuries/complications , Wound Infection/drug therapy , Wound Infection/epidemiology
13.
Mil Med ; 187(Supplement_2): 34-41, 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512377

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan, an outbreak of combat-related invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) emerged among casualties with dismounted blast trauma and became a priority issue for the Military Health System. METHODS: In 2011, the Trauma Infectious Disease Outcomes Study (TIDOS) team led the Department of Defense IFI outbreak investigation to describe characteristics of IFIs among combat casualties and provide recommendations related to management of the disease. To support the outbreak investigation, existing IFI definitions and classifications utilized for immunocompromised patients were modified for use in epidemiologic research in a trauma population. Following the conclusion of the outbreak investigation, multiple retrospective analyses using a population of 77 IFI patients (injured during June 2009 to August 2011) were conducted to evaluate IFI epidemiology, wound microbiology, and diagnostics to support refinement of Joint Trauma System (JTS) clinical practice guidelines. Following cessation of combat operations in Afghanistan, the TIDOS database was comprehensively reviewed to identify patients with laboratory evidence of a fungal infection and refine the IFI classification scheme to incorporate timing of laboratory fungal evidence and include categories that denote a high or low level of suspicion for IFI. The refined IFI classification scheme was utilized in a large-scale epidemiologic assessment of casualties injured over a 5.5-year period. RESULTS: Among 720 combat casualties admitted to participating hospitals (2009-2014) who had histopathology and/or wound cultures collected, 94 (13%) met criteria for an IFI and 61 (8%) were classified as high suspicion of IFI. Risk factors for development of combat-related IFIs include sustaining a dismounted blast injury, experiencing a traumatic transfemoral amputation, and requiring resuscitation with large-volume (>20 units) blood transfusions. Moreover, TIDOS analyses demonstrated the adverse impact of IFIs on wound healing, particularly with order Mucorales. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay to identify filamentous fungi and support earlier IFI diagnosis was also assessed using archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens. Although the PCR-based assay had high specificity (99%), there was low sensitivity (63%); however, sensitivity improved to 83% in tissues collected from sites with angioinvasion. Data obtained from the initial IFI outbreak investigation (37 IFI patients) and subsequent TIDOS analyses (77 IFI patients) supported development and refinement of a JTS clinical practice guideline for the management of IFIs in war wounds. Furthermore, a local clinical practice guideline to screen for early tissue-based evidence of IFIs among blast casualties at the Landstuhl Regional Medical Center was critically evaluated through a TIDOS investigation, providing additional clinical practice support. Through a collaboration with the Uniformed Services University Surgical Critical Care Initiative, findings from TIDOS analyses were used to support development of a clinical decision support tool to facilitate early risk stratification. CONCLUSIONS: Combat-related IFIs are a highly morbid complication following severe blast trauma and remain a threat for future modern warfare. Our findings have supported JTS clinical recommendations, refined IFI classification, and confirmed the utility of PCR-based assays as a complement to histopathology and/or culture to promote early diagnosis. Analyses underway or planned will add to the knowledge base of IFI epidemiology, diagnostics, prevention, and management.


Subject(s)
Blast Injuries , Communicable Diseases , Invasive Fungal Infections , Military Personnel , Wound Infection , Afghan Campaign 2001- , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Wound Infection/epidemiology , Wound Infection/microbiology
14.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2022-05-12. (PAHO/CDE/VT/21-0021).
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55980

ABSTRACT

The Intergovernmental Commission of the Amazon Countries Initiative for the Surveillance and Control of Chagas Disease (AMCHA) held its 11th Annual Meeting and First Virtual Meeting on 27-28 May 2021. This meeting report lists the recommendations, conclusions and resolutions agreed. Representatives from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Siriname and Venezuela and other partners on Chagas participated in the meeting and presented the epidemiological situation of Chagas disease in their countries. Due to the particular Amazonian situation of vectorial transmission based mostly on the wild cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi with diversity of triatomine vectors involved in effective transmission, and the variety of eco-epidemiological situations that facilitate such transmission, the countries of the Amazon agreed that the development and strengthening of preventive actions based on comprehensive surveillance and detection of effective vectorial transmission, based on mandatory notification of acute or chronic cases, was required. In addition, it was recommended that surveillance and prevention and/or vector control actions should be implemented through local governments (minimum administrative and territorial units of each country), which Colombia adopted as an approach strategy, as a tool that can be useful in complex situations of different types and entities; implementation of all necessary capacities to diagnose Chagas disease, in all clinical symptoms that are compatible with it, especially febrile syndromes without diagnostic confirmation of malaria and dengue (in urban environments); and use the detection of acute cases of Chagas disease, and even of chronic cases when possible, as an indicator for a concomitant epidemiological investigation, and eventual adoption of measures for prevention, control and clinical care of the cases in the situation studied.


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease , Communicable Diseases , Amazonian Ecosystem , Technical Cooperation , Americas
15.
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e058353, 2022 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534062

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To systematically assess the sero-prevalence and associated factors of major infectious pathogens in China, where there are high incidence rates of certain infection-related cancers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: 10 (5 urban, 5 rural) geographically diverse areas in China. PARTICIPANTS: A subcohort of 2000 participants from the China Kadoorie Biobank. PRIMARY MEASURES: Sero-prevalence of 19 pathogens using a custom-designed multiplex serology panel and associated factors. RESULTS: Of the 19 pathogens investigated, the mean number of sero-positive pathogens was 9.4 (SD 1.7), with 24.4% of participants being sero-positive for >10 pathogens. For individual pathogens, the sero-prevalence varied, being for example, 0.05% for HIV, 6.4% for human papillomavirus (HPV)-16, 53.5% for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and 99.8% for Epstein-Barr virus . The sero-prevalence of human herpesviruses (HHV)-6, HHV-7 and HPV-16 was higher in women than men. Several pathogens showed a decreasing trend in sero-prevalence by birth cohort, including hepatitis B virus (HBV) (51.6% vs 38.7% in those born <1940 vs >1970), HPV-16 (11.4% vs 5.4%), HHV-2 (15.1% vs 8.1%), Chlamydia trachomatis (65.6% vs 28.8%) and Toxoplasma gondii (22.0% vs 9.0%). Across the 10 study areas, sero-prevalence varied twofold to fourfold for HBV (22.5% to 60.7%), HPV-16 (3.4% to 10.9%), H. pylori (16.2% to 71.1%) and C. trachomatis (32.5% to 66.5%). Participants with chronic liver diseases had >7-fold higher sero-positivity for HBV (OR=7.51; 95% CI 2.55 to 22.13). CONCLUSIONS: Among Chinese adults, previous and current infections with certain pathogens were common and varied by area, sex and birth cohort. These infections may contribute to the burden of certain cancers and other non-communicable chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Helicobacter pylori , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Hepatitis B virus , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors
18.
CMAJ ; 194(17): E618-E619, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500912
19.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 167, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501853

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and associated disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was identified in China. This virus spread quickly and in March, 2020, it was declared a pandemic. Scientists predicted the worst scenario to occur in Africa since it was the least developed of the continents in terms of human development index, lagged behind others in achievement of the United Nations sustainable development goals (SDGs), has inadequate resources for provision of social services, and has many fragile states. In addition, there were relatively few research reporting findings on COVID-19 in Africa. On the contrary, the more developed countries reported higher disease incidences and mortality rates. However, for Africa, the earlier predictions and modelling into COVID-19 incidence and mortality did not fit into the reality. Therefore, the main objective of this forum is to bring together infectious diseases and public health experts to give an overview of COVID-19 in Africa and share their thoughts and opinions on why Africa behaved the way it did. Furthermore, the experts highlight what needs to be done to support Africa to consolidate the status quo and overcome the negative effects of COVID-19 so as to accelerate attainment of the SDGs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Bull Math Biol ; 84(6): 63, 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507091

ABSTRACT

We extended a class of coupled PDE-ODE models for studying the spatial spread of airborne diseases by incorporating human mobility. Human populations are modeled with patches, and a Lagrangian perspective is used to keep track of individuals' places of residence. The movement of pathogens in the air is modeled with linear diffusion and coupled to the SIR dynamics of each human population through an integral of the density of pathogens around the population patches. In the limit of fast diffusion pathogens, the method of matched asymptotic analysis is used to reduce the coupled PDE-ODE model to a nonlinear system of ODEs for the average density of pathogens in the air. The reduced system of ODEs is used to derive the basic reproduction number and the final size relation for the model. Numerical simulations of the full PDE-ODE model and the reduced system of ODEs are used to assess the impact of human mobility, together with the diffusion of pathogens on the dynamics of the disease. Results from the two models are consistent and show that human mobility significantly affects disease dynamics. In addition, we show that an increase in the diffusion rate of pathogen leads to a lower epidemic.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Epidemics , Basic Reproduction Number , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Diffusion , Humans , Mathematical Concepts , Models, Biological
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