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2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(15)2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822740

ABSTRACT

The death toll and economic loss resulting from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic are stark reminders that we are vulnerable to zoonotic viral threats. Strategies are needed to identify and characterize animal viruses that pose the greatest risk of spillover and spread in humans and inform public health interventions. Using expert opinion and scientific evidence, we identified host, viral, and environmental risk factors contributing to zoonotic virus spillover and spread in humans. We then developed a risk ranking framework and interactive web tool, SpillOver, that estimates a risk score for wildlife-origin viruses, creating a comparative risk assessment of viruses with uncharacterized zoonotic spillover potential alongside those already known to be zoonotic. Using data from testing 509,721 samples from 74,635 animals as part of a virus discovery project and public records of virus detections around the world, we ranked the spillover potential of 887 wildlife viruses. Validating the risk assessment, the top 12 were known zoonotic viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Several newly detected wildlife viruses ranked higher than known zoonotic viruses. Using a scientifically informed process, we capitalized on the recent wealth of virus discovery data to systematically identify and prioritize targets for investigation. The publicly accessible SpillOver platform can be used by policy makers and health scientists to inform research and public health interventions for prevention and rapid control of disease outbreaks. SpillOver is a living, interactive database that can be refined over time to continue to improve the quality and public availability of information on viral threats to human health.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Pandemics , Zoonoses , Animals , /transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Humans , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/transmission
3.
Parasite ; 28: 35, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835021

ABSTRACT

Debates about emerging infectious diseases often oppose natural conceptions of zoonotic reservoirs with cultural practices bringing humans into contact with animals. This article compares the representations of cross-species pathogens at ontological levels below the opposition between nature and culture. It describes the perceptions of distinctions between interiority and physicality, between wild and domestic, and between sick and dead in three different contexts where human societies manage animal diseases: Australia, Laos and Mongolia. Our article also argues that zoonotic pathogens are one of the entities mobilized by local knowledge to attenuate troubles in ordinary relations with animals, and shows that the conservation of cultural heritage is a tool of mitigation for infectious diseases emerging in animal reservoirs.


Subject(s)
Animal Diseases , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Animals , Animals, Wild , Australia , Disease Reservoirs , Humans , Zoonoses
4.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802869

ABSTRACT

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease and that is a severe threat to public health considering its high fatality and person-to-person transmission. In order to obtain an updated and deep understanding of the epidemiological characteristics of SFTS in mainland China, we used Pearson's chi-squared test to compare the fatality rate and demographic characteristics in different groups. Data were analyzed in R3.6.1 (R Development Core Team 2018), while the visualization was performed in ArcGIS 10 (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA), and the statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. A total of 13,824 SFTS cases involving 8899 lab-confirmed cases and 4925 probable cases were reported and included in the epidemiological analysis. Our study found that the number of SFTS cases showed an increasing trend with a small decrease in the past three years. The laboratory-confirmed rate was about 64.4%, which varied between different years and areas. Although most cases (99.3%) were distributed in 7 provinces (Henan, Shandong, Anhui, Hubei, Liaoning, Zhejiang, and Jiangsu), the regional distribution of SFTS gradually expanded from 5 provinces in 2010 to 25 provinces by 2019, especially at the town level. The SFTS cases were mainly sporadic. A total of 96.5% occurred from April to October, and 93.3% of cases were concentrated in middle-aged and elderly people (40-84 years old). Farmers were the main high-risk population. Female cases were slightly more than male cases; however, there were differences between different provinces. The mortality rate showed an increasing trend with age. Overall, the SFTS cases were mainly middle-aged and elderly farmers that sporadically distributed throughout seven provinces with a spatially expanding trend. The laboratory-confirmed rate varied in different years and provinces, which implied that the diagnosis and report criteria for SFTS should be further updated and unified in order to get a better understanding of its epidemiological characteristics and provide scientific data for SFTS control.


Subject(s)
Bunyaviridae Infections , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Phlebovirus , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bunyaviridae Infections/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cities , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
5.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 591-600, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846611

ABSTRACT

Examination of the vaccine strategies and technical platforms used for the COVID-19 pandemic in the context of those used for previous emerging and reemerging infectious diseases and pandemics may offer some mutually beneficial lessons. The unprecedented scale and rapidity of dissemination of recent emerging infectious diseases pose new challenges for vaccine developers, regulators, health authorities and political constituencies. Vaccine manufacturing and distribution are complex and challenging. While speed is essential, clinical development to emergency use authorization and licensure, pharmacovigilance of vaccine safety and surveillance of virus variants are also critical. Access to vaccines and vaccination needs to be prioritized in low- and middle-income countries. The combination of these factors will weigh heavily on the ultimate success of efforts to bring the current and any future emerging infectious disease pandemics to a close.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Vaccines/immunology , Cholera Vaccines/immunology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Dengue Vaccines/immunology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Pharmacovigilance , Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines/immunology , Yellow Fever Vaccine/immunology
6.
Cell ; 184(8): 1960-1961, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831378

ABSTRACT

The events of the past year have underscored the serious and rapid threat that emerging viruses pose to global health. However, much of the rapid progress in understanding and combating SARS-CoV-2 was made possible because of the decades of important groundwork laid from researchers studying other emergent infectious diseases. The 2021 John Dirks Canada Gairdner Global Health award recognizes the contributions of Joseph Sriyal Malik Peiris and Yi Guan toward understanding the origins and options for control of newly emerging infectious disease outbreaks in Asia, notably zoonotic influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Cell's Nicole Neuman corresponded with Yi Guan about his path to becoming a viral infection sleuth and the challenges of understanding emerging pathogens and their origins. Excerpts of their exchange are included here.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Disease Outbreaks , Influenza, Human , Zoonoses , Animals , Asia , /transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/history , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Disease Outbreaks/history , Global Health , History, 21st Century , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/history , Influenza, Human/transmission , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/transmission
7.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(3): 264-271, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906988

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and its rapid spread globally emphasizes the ever-present threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. In this review, the pathogen pyramid framework was utilized to identify the "unknown unknowns" associated with the emergence and rapid transmission of novel infectious disease agents. Given that the evolutionary origin of most of the emerging infectious disease agents can be traced to an animal source, we argue the need to integrate the "One Health" approach as a part of surveillance activities. The need for focusing on undertaking global and regional mapping activities to identify novel pathogens is discussed, given that there are an estimated 1.67 million unknown viruses, of which around 631,000 to 827,000 unknown viruses have the capacity to infect human beings. The emerging risks due to the ever-expanding interface between human, animals, both domestic and wildlife, and the environment are highlighted, these are largely driven by the need for safe habitation, growing food, developing infrastructure to support the increasing human population and desire for economic growth. The One Health approach provides a holistic way to address these cross-sectoral issues, by bridging institutional gaps, enumerating priority risk areas and pathogens, and highlighting putative risk factors for subsequent spillover events involving emerging and re-emerging infectious disease pathogens at the human-animal-environment interface.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , One Health , Animals , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Humans , Zoonoses/epidemiology
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 598778, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717077

ABSTRACT

Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) caused by viruses are increasing in frequency, causing a high disease burden and mortality world-wide. The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel SARS-like coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) underscores the need to innovate and accelerate the development of effective vaccination strategies against EIDs. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules play a central role in the immune system by determining the peptide repertoire displayed to the T-cell compartment. Genetic polymorphisms of the HLA system thus confer a strong variability in vaccine-induced immune responses and may complicate the selection of vaccine candidates, because the distribution and frequencies of HLA alleles are highly variable among different ethnic groups. Herein, we build on the emerging paradigm of rational epitope-based vaccine design, by describing an immunoinformatics tool (Predivac-3.0) for proteome-wide T-cell epitope discovery that accounts for ethnic-level variations in immune responsiveness. Predivac-3.0 implements both CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell epitope predictions based on HLA allele frequencies retrieved from the Allele Frequency Net Database. The tool was thoroughly assessed, proving comparable performances (AUC ~0.9) against four state-of-the-art pan-specific immunoinformatics methods capable of population-level analysis (NetMHCPan-4.0, Pickpocket, PSSMHCPan and SMM), as well as a strong accuracy on proteome-wide T-cell epitope predictions for HIV-specific immune responses in the Japanese population. The utility of the method was investigated for the COVID-19 pandemic, by performing in silico T-cell epitope mapping of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein according to the ethnic context of the countries where the ChAdOx1 vaccine is currently initiating phase III clinical trials. Potentially immunodominant CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell epitopes and population coverages were predicted for each population (the Epitope Discovery mode), along with optimized sets of broadly recognized (promiscuous) T-cell epitopes maximizing coverage in the target populations (the Epitope Optimization mode). Population-specific epitope-rich regions (T-cell epitope clusters) were further predicted in protein antigens based on combined criteria of epitope density and population coverage. Overall, we conclude that Predivac-3.0 holds potential to contribute in the understanding of ethnic-level variations of vaccine-induced immune responsiveness and to guide the development of epitope-based next-generation vaccines against emerging pathogens, whose geographic distributions and populations in need of vaccinations are often well-defined for regional epidemics.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Ethnic Groups , HLA Antigens/metabolism , Proteomics/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , /epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , HLA Antigens/genetics , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Medical Informatics Applications , Pandemics/prevention & control , Polymorphism, Genetic , Protein Binding , Software , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
9.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(2): 193-202, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) were implemented by many countries to reduce the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causal agent of COVID-19. A resurgence in COVID-19 cases has been reported in some countries that lifted some of these NPIs. We aimed to understand the association of introducing and lifting NPIs with the level of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, as measured by the time-varying reproduction number (R), from a broad perspective across 131 countries. METHODS: In this modelling study, we linked data on daily country-level estimates of R from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (London, UK) with data on country-specific policies on NPIs from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker, available between Jan 1 and July 20, 2020. We defined a phase as a time period when all NPIs remained the same, and we divided the timeline of each country into individual phases based on the status of NPIs. We calculated the R ratio as the ratio between the daily R of each phase and the R from the last day of the previous phase (ie, before the NPI status changed) as a measure of the association between NPI status and transmission of SARS-CoV-2. We then modelled the R ratio using a log-linear regression with introduction and relaxation of each NPI as independent variables for each day of the first 28 days after the change in the corresponding NPI. In an ad-hoc analysis, we estimated the effect of reintroducing multiple NPIs with the greatest effects, and in the observed sequence, to tackle the possible resurgence of SARS-CoV-2. FINDINGS: 790 phases from 131 countries were included in the analysis. A decreasing trend over time in the R ratio was found following the introduction of school closure, workplace closure, public events ban, requirements to stay at home, and internal movement limits; the reduction in R ranged from 3% to 24% on day 28 following the introduction compared with the last day before introduction, although the reduction was significant only for public events ban (R ratio 0·76, 95% CI 0·58-1·00); for all other NPIs, the upper bound of the 95% CI was above 1. An increasing trend over time in the R ratio was found following the relaxation of school closure, bans on public events, bans on public gatherings of more than ten people, requirements to stay at home, and internal movement limits; the increase in R ranged from 11% to 25% on day 28 following the relaxation compared with the last day before relaxation, although the increase was significant only for school reopening (R ratio 1·24, 95% CI 1·00-1·52) and lifting bans on public gatherings of more than ten people (1·25, 1·03-1·51); for all other NPIs, the lower bound of the 95% CI was below 1. It took a median of 8 days (IQR 6-9) following the introduction of an NPI to observe 60% of the maximum reduction in R and even longer (17 days [14-20]) following relaxation to observe 60% of the maximum increase in R. In response to a possible resurgence of COVID-19, a control strategy of banning public events and public gatherings of more than ten people was estimated to reduce R, with an R ratio of 0·71 (95% CI 0·55-0·93) on day 28, decreasing to 0·62 (0·47-0·82) on day 28 if measures to close workplaces were added, 0·58 (0·41-0·81) if measures to close workplaces and internal movement restrictions were added, and 0·48 (0·32-0·71) if measures to close workplaces, internal movement restrictions, and requirements to stay at home were added. INTERPRETATION: Individual NPIs, including school closure, workplace closure, public events ban, ban on gatherings of more than ten people, requirements to stay at home, and internal movement limits, are associated with reduced transmission of SARS-CoV-2, but the effect of introducing and lifting these NPIs is delayed by 1-3 weeks, with this delay being longer when lifting NPIs. These findings provide additional evidence that can inform policy-maker decisions on the timing of introducing and lifting different NPIs, although R should be interpreted in the context of its known limitations. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust Institutional Strategic Support Fund and Data-Driven Innovation initiative.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number , Models, Theoretical , Quarantine , /prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Global Health , Humans , Time Factors
10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(3): e26719, 2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759790

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient travel history can be crucial in evaluating evolving infectious disease events. Such information can be challenging to acquire in electronic health records, as it is often available only in unstructured text. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the feasibility of annotating and automatically extracting travel history mentions from unstructured clinical documents in the Department of Veterans Affairs across disparate health care facilities and among millions of patients. Information about travel exposure augments existing surveillance applications for increased preparedness in responding quickly to public health threats. METHODS: Clinical documents related to arboviral disease were annotated following selection using a semiautomated bootstrapping process. Using annotated instances as training data, models were developed to extract from unstructured clinical text any mention of affirmed travel locations outside of the continental United States. Automated text processing models were evaluated, involving machine learning and neural language models for extraction accuracy. RESULTS: Among 4584 annotated instances, 2659 (58%) contained an affirmed mention of travel history, while 347 (7.6%) were negated. Interannotator agreement resulted in a document-level Cohen kappa of 0.776. Automated text processing accuracy (F1 85.6, 95% CI 82.5-87.9) and computational burden were acceptable such that the system can provide a rapid screen for public health events. CONCLUSIONS: Automated extraction of patient travel history from clinical documents is feasible for enhanced passive surveillance public health systems. Without such a system, it would usually be necessary to manually review charts to identify recent travel or lack of travel, use an electronic health record that enforces travel history documentation, or ignore this potential source of information altogether. The development of this tool was initially motivated by emergent arboviral diseases. More recently, this system was used in the early phases of response to COVID-19 in the United States, although its utility was limited to a relatively brief window due to the rapid domestic spread of the virus. Such systems may aid future efforts to prevent and contain the spread of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Electronic Health Records , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Algorithms , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Machine Learning , Male , Middle Aged , Natural Language Processing , Reproducibility of Results , United States/epidemiology
11.
Cell ; 184(6): 1604-1620, 2021 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740455

ABSTRACT

Historically, emerging viruses appear constantly and have cost millions of human lives. Currently, climate change and intense globalization have created favorable conditions for viral transmission. Therefore, effective antivirals, especially those targeting the conserved protein in multiple unrelated viruses, such as the compounds targeting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, are urgently needed to combat more emerging and re-emerging viruses in the future. Here we reviewed the development of antivirals with common targets, including those against the same protein across viruses, or the same viral function, to provide clues for development of antivirals for future epidemics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/drug therapy , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Pandemics , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Viruses/enzymology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Humans , Viral Envelope Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Internalization/drug effects
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 265, 2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasing arbovirus infections have been a global burden in recent decades. Many countries have experienced the periodic emergence of arbovirus diseases. However, information on the prevalence of arboviruses is largely unknown or infrequently updated because of the lack of surveillance studies, especially in Africa. METHODS: A surveillance study was conducted in Gabon, Central Africa, on arboviruses, which are a major public health concern in Africa, including: West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), yellow fever virus (YFV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Serological and molecular assays were performed to investigate past infection history and the current status of infection, using serum samples collected from healthy individuals and febrile patients, respectively. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence during 2014-2017 was estimated to be 25.3% for WNV, 20.4% for DENV, 40.3% for ZIKV, 60.7% for YFV, 61.2% for CHIKV, and 14.3% for RVFV. No significant differences were found in the seroprevalence of any of the viruses between the male and female populations. However, a focus on the mean age in each arbovirus-seropositive individual showed a significantly younger age in WNV- and DENV-seropositive individuals than in CHIKV-seropositive individuals, indicating that WNV and DENV caused a relatively recent epidemic in the region, whereas CHIKV had actively circulated before. Of note, this indication was supported by the detection of both WNV and DENV genomes in serum samples collected from febrile patients after 2016. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the recent re-emergence of WNV and DENV in Gabon as well as the latest seroprevalence state of the major arboviruses, which indicated the different potential risks of virus infections and virus-specific circulation patterns. This information will be helpful for public health organizations and will enable a rapid response towards these arbovirus infections, thereby preventing future spread in the country.


Subject(s)
Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Dengue/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Adolescent , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arboviruses/classification , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Dengue/diagnosis , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Gabon/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Public Health , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
15.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 388-395, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723452

ABSTRACT

Epidemic nowcasting broadly refers to assessing the current state by understanding key pathogenic, epidemiologic, clinical and socio-behavioral characteristics of an ongoing outbreak. Its primary objective is to provide situational awareness and inform decisions on control responses. In the event of large-scale sustained emergencies, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, scientists need to constantly update their aims and analytics with respect to the rapidly evolving emergence of new questions, data and findings in order to synthesize real-time evidence for policy decisions. In this Perspective, we share our views on the functional aims, rationale, data requirements and challenges of nowcasting at different stages of an epidemic, drawing on the ongoing COVID-19 experience. We highlight how recent advances in the computational and laboratory sciences could be harnessed to complement traditional approaches to enhance the scope, timeliness, reliability and utility of epidemic nowcasting.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Epidemics , Forecasting/methods , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks/history , Epidemics/history , History, 21st Century , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results
16.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 401-410, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723456

ABSTRACT

The twenty-first century has already recorded more than ten major epidemic or pandemic virus emergence events, including the ongoing and devastating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. As viral disease emergence is expected to accelerate, these data dictate a need for proactive approaches to develop broadly active family-specific and cross-family therapeutics for use in future disease outbreaks. Emphasis should focus not only on the development of broad-spectrum small-molecule and antibody direct-acting antivirals, but also on host-factor therapeutics, including repurposing previously approved or in-pipeline drugs. Another new class of therapeutics with great antiviral therapeutic potential is RNA-based therapeutics. Rather than only focusing on known risks, dedicated efforts must be made toward pre-emptive research focused on outbreak-prone virus families, ultimately offering a strategy to shorten the gap between outbreak and response. Emphasis should also focus on orally available drugs for outpatient use, if possible, and on identifying combination therapies that combat viral and immune-mediated pathologies, extend the effectiveness of therapeutic windows and reduce drug resistance. While such an undertaking will require new vision, dedicated funding and private, federal and academic partnerships, this approach offers hope that global populations need never experience future pandemics such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/therapy , Therapies, Investigational , Virus Diseases/therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , /epidemiology , Drug Development/methods , Drug Development/trends , Drug Repositioning , History, 21st Century , Humans , Inventions/trends , Pandemics , Therapies, Investigational/methods , Therapies, Investigational/trends
17.
Arch Virol ; 166(5): 1455-1462, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704558

ABSTRACT

During the dengue epidemic in Yunnan Province, China, during 2019, a concurrent outbreak of chikungunya occurred in the city of Ruili, which is located in the southwest of the province, adjacent to Myanmar. As part of this outbreak, three neonatal cases of infection with indigenous chikungunya virus from mother-to-child (vertical) transmission were observed. Isolates of chikungunya virus were obtained from 37 serum samples of patients with chikungunya during this outbreak, and a phylogenetic analysis of these isolates revealed that they belong to the Indian Ocean subclade of the East/Central/South African genotype. The E1 genes of these viruses did not harbor the A226V mutation.


Subject(s)
Chikungunya Fever/virology , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Chikungunya virus/classification , Chikungunya virus/genetics , China/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genotype , Humans , Male , Mutation , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
19.
In Vivo ; 35(2): 1285-1294, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622932

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019 and has caused a pandemic known as corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), responsible for the death of more than 2 million people worldwide. The outbreak of COVID-19 has posed an unprecedented threat on human lives and public safety. The aim of this review is to describe key aspects of the bio-pathology of the novel disease, and discuss aspects of its spread, as well as targeted protective strategies that can help shape the outcome of the present and future health crises. Greece is used as a model to inhibit SARS-COV-2 spread, since it is one of the countries with the lowest fatality rates among nations of the European Union (E.U.), following two consecutive waves of COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, niche research technological approaches and scientific recommendations that emerged during the COVID-19 era are discussed.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , /isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , /virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Geography , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , /physiology , Young Adult
20.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572619

ABSTRACT

Emerging viral disease is a significant concern, with potential consequences for human, animal and environmental health. Over the past several decades, multiple novel viruses have been found in wildlife species, including reptiles, and often pose a major threat to vulnerable species. However, whilst a large number of viruses have been described in turtles, information on poxvirus in cheloniids remains scarce, with no molecular sequence data available to date. This study characterizes, for the first time, a novel poxvirus, here tentatively designated cheloniid poxvirus 1 (ChePV-1). The affected cutaneous tissue, recovered from a green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) captured off the Central Queensland coast of Australia, underwent histological examination, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), DNA extraction and genomic sequencing. The novel ChePV-1 was shown to be significantly divergent from other known poxviruses and showed the highest sequence similarity (89.3%) to avipoxviruses (shearwater poxvirus 2 (SWPV2)). This suggests the novel ChePV-1 may have originated from a common ancestor that diverged from an avipoxvirus-like progenitor. The genome contained three predicted unique genes and a further 15 genes being truncated/fragmented compared to SWPV2. This is the first comprehensive study that demonstrates evidence of poxvirus infection in a marine turtle species, as well as a rare example of an avipoxvirus crossing the avian-host barrier. This finding warrants further investigations into poxvirus infections between species in close physical proximity, as well as in vitro and in vivo studies of pathogenesis and disease.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/veterinary , Poxviridae Infections/veterinary , Turtles/virology , Animals , Australia , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Phylogeny , Poxviridae/classification , Poxviridae/genetics , Poxviridae/isolation & purification , Poxviridae Infections/virology
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