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1.
Enferm. glob ; 21(65): 283-294, ene. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-203705

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre el nivel de estrés y las estrategias de afrontamiento utilizadas por estudiantes de la Licenciatura en Enfermería en Instituciones de Educación Superior (IES) de Ciudad Obregón, Sonora.Metodología: Estudio no experimental y correlacional; se empleó un muestreo probabilístico estratificado de 250 estudiantes, con edades entre los 18 y 46 años de edad. Los datos fueron recabados mediante un cuestionario de características sociodemográficas, el instrumento del nivel de estrés percibido y para medir afrontamiento el Brief COPE Inventory.Resultados: El 74.4% de la muestra fueron mujeres y el 25.6% hombres, ambos géneros exhibieron nivel de estrés moderado (78%), la estrategia de afrontamiento reportada con mayor frecuencia fue afrontamiento activo emocional. Se empleó la prueba no paramétrica chi-cuadrada de Pearson (χ2) para probar la existencia de asociación entre el nivel de estrés y las estrategias de afrontamiento (p= 0.67). Con base a los resultados de χ2 (p=.067) se realizó un análisis adicional separando las categorías de cada una de las variables de estudio, se utilizó la prueba de Pearson con la cual se encontró correlación significativa entre el nivel de estrés bajo y la estrategia afrontamiento activo emocional, (p=0.27) y entre nivel de estrés alto y estrategia de afrontamiento emocional por evitación (p=-.01).Conclusiones: Los niveles más altos de estrés lo manifiestan estudiantes que cursan solo materias teóricas. Se sugiere la implementación de intervenciones relacionadas al manejo adecuado del estrés (AU)


Objective: Determine the relationship between the stress level and the coping strategies used by students of the Bachelor’s Degree of Nursing in institutions of higher education of Ciudad Obregón, Sonora.Methodology: Descriptive and correlational study; the population was comprised by 250 students whose age ranged from 18 and 46 years. Data was collected through a questionnaire of sociodemographic characteristics, the perceived stress level instrument, and the Brief COPE questionnaire.Results: 74.4% of the sample was comprised by women and 25.6% by men. It was found that both genders had a moderate level of stress (78%), in terms of the coping strategies most frequently used by the students, the emotional active coping was the one found. The correlation analysis was performed using Pearson's chi-square non-parametric test (x2) to probe the existence of relationship between the stress level and coping strategies (p=0.67). Based on the results of x2 (p=0.067), an additional analysis was carried out separating the categories of each one of the variables of study; Pearson’s test was used to find a significant correlation between low stress level and active emotional coping strategy (p=0.27) and between high stress level and avoidance emotional coping strategy (p=-0.01).Conclusions: The highest levels of stress are manifested by students who study only theoretical subjects. It is suggested the implementation of interventions related to the adequate management of stress (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Fear/psychology , Communicable Period , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pandemics , Online Social Networking , Information Dissemination , Peru
2.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-01-03. (OPS/PHE/IMS/COVID-19/21-0015).
Non-conventional in French | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55546

ABSTRACT

Cette publication de l’Organisation panaméricaine de la Santé (OPS) est une version mise à jour de la publication de juin 2020 intitulée Considérations pour la mise en œuvre et la gestion de la recherche des contacts pour la maladie à coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) dans la Région des Amériques. Elle est destinée à compléter les directives provisoires de l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS) sur la recherche des contacts dans le contexte de la COVID-19. La publication comprend des lignes directrices pour la recherche des contacts vaccinés et des voyageurs internationaux, ainsi que dans les milieux de transmission communautaire. Elle comprend également les définitions mises à jour des cas, des contacts et de la transmission communautaire publiées par l’OMS. Elle vise à fournir des orientations et des recommandations opérationnelles pour la mise en œuvre de la recherche des contacts pour la COVID-19 dans la Région des Amériques et sera mise à jour à mesure que les connaissances actuelles sur la COVID-19 évolueront. Les publics cibles de cette publication sont les autorités sanitaires nationales, les professionnels de la santé publique et d’autres responsables impliqués dans l’élaboration et la mise en œuvre de politiques et de procédures opérationnelles normalisées concernant les activités de recherche des contacts dans la Région.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Contact Tracing , Communicable Diseases , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission , Communicable Period , Vaccines , Vaccination , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases
3.
Washington, D.C.; OPAS; 2022-01-03. (OPAS/PHE/IMS/COVID-19/21-0015).
Non-conventional in Portuguese | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55545

ABSTRACT

Esta publicação da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) é uma versão atualizada do documento Considerações para a implementação e gerenciamento de rastreamento de contatos para a doença causada pelo novo coronavírus (COVID-19) na Região das Américas, de junho de 2020, cujo objetivo é complementar a orientação provisória da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) sobre o rastreamento de contatos no contexto da COVID-19. A presente publicação inclui orientações para o rastreamento de contatos entre contatos vacinados e viajantes internacionais e em ambientes com transmissão comunitária. Ela também inclui as definições atualizadas de casos, contatos e transmissão comunitária publicadas pela OMS. Busca fornecer orientações e recomendações operacionais para implementar o rastreamento de contatos de COVID-19 nas Américas. Ela será atualizada conforme o conhecimento atual sobre a COVID-19 evolua. O público-alvo desta publicação são autoridades sanitárias nacionais, profissionais de saúde pública e outros funcionários envolvidos na elaboração e implantação de políticas e procedimentos operacionais padrão relacionados a operações de rastreamento de contatos nas Américas.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Contact Tracing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission , Communicable Period , Vaccines , Vaccination , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases
4.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2022-01-03. (OPS/PHE/IMS/COVID-19/21-0015).
Non-conventional in Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55544

ABSTRACT

Esta publicación de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) es una versión actualizada del documento de junio del 2020 titulado Consideraciones sobre la ejecución y el manejo del rastreo de contactos para la enfermedad por coronavirus del 2019 (COVID-19) en la Región de las Américas, cuyo propósito es complementar las orientaciones provisionales proporcionadas por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) sobre el rastreo de contactos en el contexto de la COVID-19. La presente publicación incluye orientación sobre el rastreo de contactos en los contactos vacunados y viajeros internacionales, así como en los entornos en los que hay transmisión comunitaria. También incluye las definiciones actualizadas de “caso”, “contacto” y “transmisión comunitaria” que ha publicado la OMS. El objetivo del presente documento es brindar orientación y recomendaciones operativas que permitan realizar el rastreo de contactos de COVID-19 en la Región de las Américas. El documento se actualizará conforme se disponga de información nueva sobre la COVID-19. Esta publicación está dirigida a las autoridades nacionales de salud, los profesionales de la salud pública y otros funcionarios que formulan y ejecutan políticas y procedimientos normalizados de trabajo relacionados con las operaciones de rastreo de contactos en la Región.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Contact Tracing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Communicable Period , Vaccination , Vaccines , Vaccine-Preventable Diseases
5.
Rev. Ciênc. Plur ; 8(1): e24776, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO - Dentistry | ID: biblio-1348522

ABSTRACT

Introdução:O novo coronavírus, denominado SARS-CoV-2, multiplica-se ainda de forma acelerada em alguns países, causando impactos na qualidade de vida da população. A transmissibilidade vertical ou pelo leite materno ainda é uma questão controversa que, dada as incertezas, pode comprometer a interação equipe/família/mãe/recém-nascido e a oferta do aleitamento materno nas primeiras horas de vida, com sua permanência no período neonatal. Objetivo:Discutiros desafios da saúde maternoinfantil e do aleitamento materno no contexto da pandemia causada pela COVID-19. Metodologia:Estudo do tipo descritivo, no qual foram verificados boletins, portarias e manuscritos relacionados ao aleitamento materno e aos cuidados maternos e neonatais para prevenção e transmissão do SARS-CoV-2. Resultados:Osdesafios perpassam pelo pré-natal, parto e puerpério devido às dificuldades assistenciais, medidas de proteção para o binômio, vulnerabilidade social e não cumprimento das recomendações. Conclusões:As dificuldades encontradas na pandemia podem refletir na saúde materna, na promoção do aleitamento materno, e na qualidade da alimentação e nutrição do recém-nascido (AU).


Introduction:The new coronavirus, called SARS-CoV-2, is still multiplying at an accelerated rate in some countries, thereby causing impacts on the quality of life of the population. Vertical or breast milk transmissibility is still a controversial issue, which, given the uncertainties, can undermine the team/family/mother/ newborn interaction, and the provision of breastfeeding in the first hours of life and its continuity in the neonatal period.Objective:To discuss the challenges of maternal and child health and breastfeeding in the contextof the pandemic caused by COVID-19.Methodology:Descriptive study, in which newsletters, ordinances and manuscripts related to breastfeeding and maternal and neonatal care for the prevention and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 were checked.Results:The challenges run through prenatal care, childbirth and the puerperium due to assistance difficulties, protection measures for the binomial, social vulnerability and non-compliance with the recommendations.Conclusions:The difficulties found in the pandemic may reflect on maternal health, on the promotion of breastfeeding, and on the quality of food and nutrition of the newborn (AU).


Introducción: El nuevo coronavirus, llamado SARS-CoV-2, todavía se está multiplicando a un ritmo rápido en algunos países, provocando impactos en la calidad de vida de la población. La transmisibilidad vertical o de la leche materna sigue siendo un tema controvertido, que,dadas las incertidumbres, puede comprometer la interacción equipo/familia/madre/recién nacido, y la oferta de lactancia materna en las primeras horas de vida y su permanencia en el período neonatal. Objetivo: Discutir los desafíos de la salud maternoinfantil y la lactancia materna en el período neonatal en el contexto de la pandemia causada por COVID-19.Metodología: Estudio descriptivo, en el que se verificaron boletines, ordenanzas y manuscritos relacionados con la lactancia materna y la atención maternay neonatal para la prevención y transmisión del SARS-CoV-2. Resultados: Los desafíos pasan por la atención prenatal, el parto y el puerperio por dificultades asistenciales, medidas de protección al binomio, vulnerabilidad social e incumplimiento de las recomendaciones. Conclusiones: Las dificultades encontradas en la pandemia pueden reflejarse en la salud materna, en la promoción de la lactancia materna, en la calidad de la alimentación y nutrición del recién nacido (AU).


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Maternal and Child Health , Communicable Period , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): 39-43, feb. 2021. ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147083

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Conocer el tiempo de excreción fecal de Escherichia coli productora de toxina Shiga (Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli; STEC, por sus siglas en inglés) en pacientes con síndrome urémico hemolítico sería útil para controlar la transmisión de la enfermedad.Objetivos. 1) Analizar las características del tiempo de excreción de STEC. 2) Evaluar la asociación con las variables sexo, edad, necesidad de diálisis, antibióticos y serotipos de STEC.Población y métodos. Estudio prospectivo, observacional, longitudinal y analítico. Período 2013-2019. Se realizaron coprocultivos al ingresar y cada 5-7 días hasta obtener 2 negativos. Se definió tiempo de excreción desde el inicio de la diarrea hasta el primer negativo. Se confirmó STEC por detección de los genes stx1, stx2 y rfbO157 por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Se calculó la media (IC 95 %) y percentilos del tiempo de excreción de STEC, y se compararon las variables estudiadas mediante el test de t.Resultados. Se incluyeron 43 pacientes. La media de tiempo de excreción fue 10,2 días (IC 95 %: 8,92-11,59), rango: 3-22 días. El 90 % de los pacientes negativizaron el coprocultivo a los 15 días. No hubo diferencias según sexo (p = 0,419), edad (p = 0,937), necesidad de diálisis (p = 0,917), antibióticos (p = 0,147) ni serotipos (p = 0,231).Conclusión. El 90 % de los pacientes negativizó el coprocultivo a los 15 días del inicio de la diarrea, y todos, al día 22. No se encontró asociación entre el tiempo de excreción y las variables estudiadas.


Introduction. Knowing the duration of fecal shedding of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli(STEC) among patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome would be useful to control disease transmission.Objectives. 1) To analyze the characteristics of STEC shedding duration. 2) To assess the association with sex, age, need of dialysis, antibiotics, and STEC serotypes.Population and methods. Prospective, observational, longitudinal, and analytical study in the 2013-2019 period. Stool cultures were done upon admission and every 5-7 days until 2 negative results were obtained. Shedding duration was defined as the period from diarrhea onset to the first negative result. STEC was confirmed with polymerase chain reaction detection of stx1, stx2, and rfbO157 genes. The mean (95 % CI) and percentile values of the STEC shedding duration were estimated, and the studied outcome measures were compared using the t test.Results. A total of 43 patients were included. The mean duration of shedding was 10.2 days (95 % CI: 8.92-11.59), range: 3-22 days. After 15 days, 90 % of patients had a negative stool culture. There were no differences in terms of sex (p = 0.419), age (p = 0.937), need of dialysis (p = 0.917), antibiotics (p = 0.147) or serotype (p = 0.231).Conclusion. Fifteen days after the onset of diarrhea, 90 % of patients had a negative stool culture, and all patients had one after 22 days. No association was observed between the duration of shedding and studied outcome measures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli , Bacterial Shedding , Argentina/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Communicable Period , Diarrhea , Feces , Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome
7.
Internet resource in Portuguese | LIS -Health Information Locator | ID: lis-47087

ABSTRACT

O infectologista Estevão Portela (INI/Fiocruz) esclarece algumas dúvidas relacionadas ao COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Communicable Period , Hand Hygiene , SARS Virus , Coronavirus Infections
8.
Internet resource in Portuguese | LIS -Health Information Locator, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-47057

ABSTRACT

Nos últimos dez dias, 13 países da América Latina e do Caribe notificaram casos confirmados da doença causada pelo novo coronavírus (COVID-19), além dos Estados Unidos e do Canadá.


Subject(s)
Americas/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Communicable Period
9.
Internet resource in Portuguese | LIS -Health Information Locator | ID: lis-47058

ABSTRACT

O Ministério da Saúde vai ampliar medidas para reforçar a assistência hospitalar no enfrentamento ao coronavírus no Brasil. Os primeiros reforços serão na Atenção Primária, a porta de entrada para receber os pacientes no SUS, para evitar que as pessoas procurem os hospitais em um cenário de grande circulação do coronavírus


Subject(s)
Brazil/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hospital Care/methods , Communicable Period
10.
Internet resource in English, Spanish | LIS -Health Information Locator | ID: lis-47059

ABSTRACT

Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) instó a los países a contener el virus, salvar vidas a través de la protección de los trabajadores de salud y la preparación del sector para atender pacientes, y reducir la transmisión a través de acciones y medidas multisectoriales.


Subject(s)
Communicable Period , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Americas/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control
11.
Internet resource in Portuguese | LIS -Health Information Locator | ID: lis-47056

ABSTRACT

Páginas especiais com informações como notícias, vídeos, serviços de informação como perguntas e respostas, biblioteca temática e informação básica e institucionais sobre Coronavírus.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Epidemics , Communicable Period
12.
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-190822

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Describir los factores relacionados con la situación de contagio del SARS-CoV-2 identificados por los profesionales de la salud en España y proponer estrategias de prevención. MÉTODO: Estudio descriptivo transversal. La población fueron profesionales de la salud trabajando en instituciones con atención a pacientes con COVID-19 y caso confirmado de infección por SARS-CoV-2. Se utilizó un cuestionario con variables sociodemográficas, laborales y epidemiológicas. Se realizó análisis descriptivo y bivariado según la naturaleza de las variables. RESULTADOS: Se analizan 2230 cuestionarios sobre una población potencial de 41,239 (5,47%). El motivo para realizar el diagnóstico fue: caso sospechoso (63,4%) y caso probable (12,3%). Se hizo estudio de contactos al 50,3%. La percepción sobre la disponibilidad de medidas de protección como “siempre/frecuentemente” fueron: mascarilla FPP1 57,3%, guantes 89,5%, jabón 95% y solución hidroalcohólica 91,5% y en EPIs, mascarillas FPP2, FPP3, gafas y batas desechables alrededor del 50%. La disponibilidad de medidas protectoras, por ámbito de trabajo, presentó diferencias significativas. La media de pacientes atendidos se relacionó con la realización de higiene de manos del momento 4 y en la percepción de realizarla correctamente en momentos 4 y 5. CONCLUSIONES: Se presentan datos con carácter preliminar y con variabilidad en la tasa de respuesta por Comunidad Autónoma. Los profesionales de la salud contagiados por SARS-CoV-2 identifican la gestión de la cadena de contagios, el uso y adecuación en la disponibilidad de equipos de protección, así como la efectividad en la realización del lavado de manos, como factores relacionados con el contagio de los profesionales


OBJECTIVE: To describe the factors related to the situation of SARS-CoV-2 transmission identified by health professionals in Spain and to propose prevention strategies. Method: Cross-sectional descriptive study. The population were healthcare professionals working in institutions caring for COVID-19 patients and also confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection. A questionnaire with sociodemographic, occupational and epidemiological variables was used. Descriptive and bivariate analysis was performed according to the nature of the variables. RESULTS: Twenty-two hundred and thirty questionnaires were analysed on a potential population of 41,239 (5.47%). The diagnosis was made based on a suspicious case (63.4%) and a probable case (12.3%). A study of contacts was carried out at 50.3%. The perception about the availability of protective measures as "always/frequently" were: FPP1 mask 57.3%, gloves 89.5%, soap 95% and hydroalcoholic solution 91.5%. In PPE, FPP2, FPP3 mask, goggles and disposable gowns at around50%. The availability of protective measures, by field of work, presented significant differences. The average number of patients attended related to the performance of hand hygiene at moment 4 and the perception of performing it correctly at moments 4 and 5. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary data are presented, with variability in the response rate by Autonomous Region. Healthcare professionals infected by SARS-CoV-2 identified the management of the chain of infection transmission, the use and adequacy of protective equipment, as well as the effectiveness of handwashing as factors related to the transmission of the virus among professionals


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Communicable Period , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pandemics , Health Personnel/standards , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disaster Prevention and Mitigation , Spain/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Hand Disinfection , Analysis of Variance
13.
Natividade; [S.n]; 2020. 19 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | Coleciona SUS, LILACS, Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-TO | ID: biblio-1140264

ABSTRACT

Apresenta através de protocolos, viabilizar de forma coordenada as ações de prevenção e controle da doença de modo oportuno e eficaz diante a identificação de casos suspeitos. Busca definir responsabilidades e prioridades na esfera municipal e local, assim como também organizar o fluxograma de resposta às emergências em saúde pública. Pretende definir fluxos de referência para atendimento aos casos suspeitos com sintomas respiratórios leves, moderados e graves. Busca detectar, identificar e notificar todos os casos suspeitos de coronavírus (COVID-19). Orienta no fluxo de vigilância epidemiológica para o diagnóstico dos casos suspeitos. Orienta e recomenda medidas de controle e prevenção da doença, de forma ativa, imediata e oportuna. Estabelece cuidados para redução do risco geral de contaminação pelo COVID-19 aos profissionais envolvidos nos atendimentos e protocolos relacionados. Promove ações de educação em saúde. Orientar na divulgação das informações.


Through protocols, it presents, in a coordinated way, the prevention and control actions of the disease in a timely and effective way in view of the identification of suspected cases. It seeks to define responsibilities and priorities at the municipal and local levels, as well as to organize the flowchart for responding to public health emergencies. It intends to define referral flows to care for suspected cases with mild, moderate and severe respiratory symptoms. It seeks to detect, identify and report all suspected cases of coronavirus (COVID-19). Guides in the flow of epidemiological surveillance for the diagnosis of suspected cases. It guides and recommends measures to control and prevent the disease, in an active, immediate and timely manner. Establishes care to reduce the overall risk of contamination by COVID-19 to the professionals involved in the services and related protocols. Promotes health education actions. Guide in the dissemination of information.


A través de protocolos, presenta, de manera coordinada, las acciones de prevención y control de la enfermedad de manera oportuna y efectiva en vista de la identificación de casos sospechosos. Busca definir responsabilidades y prioridades a nivel municipal y local, así como organizar el diagrama de flujo para responder a emergencias de salud pública. Pretende definir los flujos de derivación para la atención de casos sospechosos con síntomas respiratorios leves, moderados y graves. Busca detectar, identificar y reportar todos los casos sospechosos de coronavirus (COVID-19). Guías en el flujo de vigilancia epidemiológica para el diagnóstico de casos sospechosos. Orienta y recomienda medidas para el control y prevención de la enfermedad, de forma activa, inmediata y oportuna. Establece cuidados para reducir el riesgo general de contaminación por COVID-19 a los profesionales involucrados en los servicios y protocolos relacionados. Promueve acciones de educación para la salud. Guía en la difusión de información.


À travers des protocoles, il présente, de manière coordonnée, les actions de prévention et de contrôle de la maladie de manière opportune et efficace en vue de l'identification des cas suspects. Il cherche à définir les responsabilités et les priorités aux niveaux municipal et local, ainsi qu'à organiser l'organigramme pour répondre aux urgences de santé publique. Il entend définir des flux d'orientation pour prendre en charge les cas suspects présentant des symptômes respiratoires légers, modérés et sévères. Il cherche à détecter, identifier et signaler tous les cas suspects de coronavirus (COVID-19). Guides dans le flux de la surveillance épidémiologique pour le diagnostic des cas suspects. Il guide et recommande des mesures pour contrôler et prévenir la maladie, de manière active, immédiate et opportune. Établit des soins pour réduire le risque global de contamination par COVID-19 pour les professionnels impliqués dans les services et les protocoles associés. Favorise les actions d'éducation sanitaire. Guide dans la diffusion de l'information.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Contingency Plans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Isolation , Disease Notification , Communicable Period , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Hand Hygiene
14.
Guaraí; [S.n]; 2020. 22 p.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | Coleciona SUS, LILACS, Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-TO | ID: biblio-1140263

ABSTRACT

Apresenta as condutas e medidas para assistência ao indivíduo com suspeita ou confirmação do coranavírus do Hospital de Referência de Guaraí, visando diminuir o risco de transmissão aos profissionais da saúde, demais pacientes e familiares, garantindo garantir a qualidade do atendimento.


It presents the conducts and measures to assist the individual with suspicion or confirmation of the coranavirus at the Reference Hospital of Guaraí, aiming to reduce the risk of transmission to health professionals, other patients and family members, ensuring the quality of care.


Presenta las conductas y medidas para atender al individuo con sospecha o confirmación del coranavirus en el Hospital de Referencia de Guaraí, con el objetivo de reducir el riesgo de transmisión a los profesionales de la salud, otros pacientes y familiares, asegurando la calidad de la atención.


Il présente les conduites et les mesures pour aider l'individu à suspicion ou confirmation du coranavirus à l'hôpital de référence de Guaraí, dans le but de réduire le risque de transmission aux professionnels de la santé, aux autres patients et aux membres de la famille, en garantissant la qualité des soins.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Contingency Plans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Isolation , Quarantine , Transportation of Patients , Containment of Biohazards , Communicable Period , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Hand Hygiene/methods , Personal Protective Equipment
16.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 86(3): 110-114, mar. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-160627

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La tuberculosis (TB) en el adolescente puede presentar formas radiológicas cavitadas en los lóbulos superiores, con esputos bacilíferos, en lo que se ha llamado TB pulmonar tipo adulto, que implica un importante riesgo de contagio en el entorno social y familiar del paciente. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional retrospectivo (2007-2012) en una serie pediátrica (< 18 años) con TB en un hospital pediátrico de referencia en Barcelona. Se compara a los pacientes ≤ 12 y > 12 años. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 124 pacientes (56,5% hombres, edad mediana: 4,0 años). En la mitad, la TB afectó a pacientes de origen inmigrante y se diagnosticó por sospecha clínico-radiológica. La TB intratorácica fue la forma clínica predominante (91,9%), los cultivos fueron positivos en un tercio de los casos (37,9%) y sensibles a los fármacos orales de primera línea en su totalidad. El tiempo mediano (rango intercuartil) de tratamiento fue de 6 (6-9) meses; solo 10 pacientes precisaron tratamiento directamente observado y la evolución fue satisfactoria en la mayoría (98,4%). Entre los adolescentes, la TB fue más prevalente en mujeres (63,2%) e inmigrantes (68,4%), la comorbilidad al diagnóstico y las formas pulmonares cavitadas fueron más comunes y se identificó el caso índice solo en el 21,1% de los pacientes. CONCLUSIÓN: En el adolescente, la TB pulmonar tipo adulto es común, y a menudo asocia comorbilidad y se diagnostica más tarde, implicando un mayor riesgo de contagio a la comunidad


INTRODUCTION: Adolescents may present with adult-type pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), including cavity disease in upper lobes and smear-positive sputum, which involves a significant transmission risk for social and family contacts. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective (2007-2012) observational study of a case series of TB was conducted in children and adolescents (< 18 years) in a paediatric referral centre in Barcelona. Patients aged ≤ 12 and > 12 years at diagnosis are compared. RESULTS: The series consisted of 124 patients (56.5% males, median age: 4.0 years). In half of the cases, the patient was of immigrant origina and TB was diagnosed after clinical-radiological suspicion, intra-thoracic disease being the most common (91.9%). Cultures yielded positive results in one third of cases (37.9%) and isolates were sensitive to oral first-line anti-TB agents in 100%. Median (interquartile range) duration of treatment was 6 (6-9) months, directly observed therapy was needed in 10 patients, and there was a satisfactory outcome after treatment in 98.4%. Among adolescents, TB was more prevalent in females (63.2%) and immigrant patients (68.4%), comorbidity at diagnosis and lung cavity forms were more common, and the source case was identified only in 21.1% of the patients. CONCLUSION: Adult-type pulmonary TB is common among adolescents, may be associated with underlying medical conditions, and is often diagnosed late, posing a significant transmission risk to the community


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/prevention & control , Isoniazid/therapeutic use , Rifampin/therapeutic use , Communicable Period , Retrospective Studies , Comorbidity , Early Diagnosis
18.
Actas dermo-sifiliogr. (Ed. impr.) ; 107(5): 407-413, jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-152641

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Larva migrans cutánea (LM) es una erupción serpiginosa causada por helmintos nematodos que circulan por la epidermis. Se adquiere cuando la piel entra en contacto con tierra contaminada por heces de animales infestados por estos nematodos. Hasta ahora se consideraba como enfermedad importada de zonas tropicales y subtropicales. El objetivo fue estudiar los casos de LM diagnosticados como autóctonos por no haber salido de la provincia de Guipúzcoa recientemente. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional transversal retrospectivo de los casos diagnosticados de LM en el Hospital Universitario Donostia de 2011 a 2015, sin viaje previo a ninguna zona endémica de este cuadro. El diagnóstico fue clínico ante las lesiones características. Las variables estudiadas fueron: edad, género, localización de las lesiones, fecha de inicio de los síntomas, posible fuente de contagio, datos anatomo-patológicos, tratamiento y evolución. RESULTADOS: Se han recogido 4 casos, todos varones, con una media de edad de 60 años. Tres casos presentaron lesiones en las extremidades inferiores, mientras que uno lo hizo en el tronco. Todos nuestros pacientes habían estado en contacto con tierra que pudiera estar contaminada por heces, siendo este el mecanismo de transmisión más probable. Se instauró tratamiento con albendazol oral, con resolución de las lesiones. CONCLUSIONES: La aparición de nuevos casos de LM de origen autóctono en Europa obliga al estudio de la/s especie/s causal/es, a una revisión epidemiológica de esta infestación y a planificar qué medidas se deberían tomar para evitar que una enfermedad considerada hasta ahora como importada, se convierta en autóctona


INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous larva migrans (LM) infection forms a serpiginous eruption caused by the migration of nematode helminths through the epidermis. The parasites are acquired when the skin comes into contact with soil contaminated by the feces of infected animals. Until now, infections have been believed to be imported from tropical and subtropical regions. Our aim was to study cases of cutaneous LM diagnosed in residents of the Spanish province of Guipúzcoa who had not recently traveled to such regions. Material and methods; Cross-sectional observational study of LM cases diagnosed in Hospital Universitario Donostia from 2011 to 2015 in patients who had not visited a region where this nematode infection is endemic. Clinical diagnoses were based on characteristic lesions. We studied the following variables: age, sex, site of lesions, date of onset of symptoms, possible source of contagion, pathologic findings, treatment, and clinical course. RESULTS: We found 4 cases, all in men (mean age, 60 years). Lesions were on the lower extremities in 3 patients and on the trunk in 1 patient. All had been in contact with soil that could have been contaminated by feces and was the most likely source of the parasite. The lesions disappeared after treatment with oral albendazole. CONCLUSIONS: The appearance of cases of autochthonous LM in Europe requires investigation of the culprit species, a review of the epidemiology of this infection, which was once considered imported, and the planning of public health measures to prevent it from becoming endemic


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Larva Migrans/diagnosis , Larva Migrans/epidemiology , Larva Migrans/pathology , Nematoda/pathogenicity , Diagnosis , Epidemiological Monitoring , Incidence , Treatment Outcome , Communicable Period , Disease Prevention , Meteorology/instrumentation , Meteorology/methods , Endemic Diseases/prevention & control , Observational Study , Cross-Sectional Studies/instrumentation , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology
19.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2016. 96 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | BBO - Dentistry , BBO - Dentistry | ID: biblio-987513

ABSTRACT

A boa saúde bucal da criança é estabelecida desde o seu nascimento, e o papel da mãe é essencial para a sua obtenção. O diagnóstico, prevenção e tratamento de doenças bucais direcionados para a mulher no período gestacional e pósgestacional diminui o risco da mãe ter doenças com o potencial impacto em sua respectiva criança. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar se há evidência científica que comprove a transmissibilidade de Streptococcus mutans da mãe para o bebê (Artigo1) e avaliar a saúde bucal, perfil salivar da mãe e do bebê e as características do leite materno (Artigo 2). Para o primeiro estudo foi realizada uma revisão sistemática da literatura nas bases PubMed, Cochrane Library e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde e como critério de inclusão foram selecionados os artigos que tinham análises genéticas para a confirmação de cepas idênticas entre mãe e filho. Para o segundo estudo sobre a avaliação da condição bucal e dos biofluidos corpóreos foram recrutadas 47 mães e seus respectivos bebês. Os participantes foram submetidos a uma entrevista e foi coletada saliva total não estimulada e amostras de leite materno. Foi realizado exame intrabucal da mucosa da mãe e dos bebês. No exame intrabucal da mãe foi verificado se tinha presença de placa, gengivite, cálculo, sangramento à sondagem e supuração. A bolsa periodontal e o nível de inserção foram mensurados. O índice de cárie foi realizado em todos os participantes. As amostras biológicas foram analisadas por espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear (RMN). Foram analisadas proteína total e eletroforese das amostras representativas de saliva de pares de mães e bebês. Ao final da pesquisa da literatura foram selecionados 36 estudos. Esta avaliação demonstrou que a mãe era responsável pela transmissão de Streptococcus mutans para seus filhos, principalmente quando a mãe era o cuidador principal. Os resultados do artigo 2 mostraram que a média de idade das mães foi de 27 anos. Com relação as condições bucais das mães observou-se uma média de 8,20 do índice CPO-D; 72,4 % apresentavam gengivite e 62 % tinham biofilme dental visível. O exame intra-oral dos bebês demonstrou que 4,18% apresentavam candidíase e 2,08% nódulo de Bohn. A análise de eletroforese mostrou diferenças entre a quantidade de proteínas na saliva de mães e bebês. Quanto à análise de 1H RMN das amostras de saliva, notou-se diferença entre mães e bebês em relação à intensidade de metabólitos como n-butirato, propionato, etanol, acetato, além da lactose, que dominou a saliva de bebês quando comparada com a de mães. Bebês edêndulos também apresentavam menor quantidade de ácidos orgânicos comparados aos que apresentavam dentes erupcionados. Conclui-se que as mães apresentavam baixa atividade de cárie atual, porém com relevante história pregressa de cárie, o que pode ter um impacto sobre a saúde bucal de seus respectivos filhos. Foi encontrada grande quantidade de açucares no leite materno, com destaque para a lactose. (AU)


Child`s oral health is determined from the birth and their mother play a role in this matter. The diagnosis, prevention and treatment of oral diseases targeted for women during pregnancy and post-pregnancy reduces the risk of the mother having diseases which have a potential impact on their respective children. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there scientific evidence that proves transmission of Streptococcus mutans from mother to baby (Manuscript 1) and assess the oral health and salivary profile of the baby's mother and the characteristics of breast milk (Manuscript 2). For the first objective a systematic review of the literature in PubMed and Cochrane Library Virtual Health Library (VHL) was performed using the terms "dental caries" and "transmission. The assessment of oral health status and saliva were recruited 47 mothers and their babies. Participants underwent an interview and intraoral examination and mothers and babies were submitted to unstimulated whole saliva collection and breast milk samples were also acquired. Then intraoral examination of the mother was evaluated the presence and absence of plaque, gingivitis, calculus, bleeding on probing and suppuration. Pocket depth and attachment level was measured. Index caries was done for all participants.The biologic samples were analyzed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Total protein was analyzed and electrophoresis of representative samples of saliva pairs of mothers and babies. For systematic review, 36 studies were selected. This review demostrated that the mother was responsible for the transmission of Streptococcus mutans to their children, especially when the mother was the primary caregiver. The article the mother average age was 27 years, 53.8% were overweight and 97.8 % belong to the group that received less than five minimal salary. Sixty four percentage of the women breastfeeding their babies and 70% babies were delivered by cesarean. Regarding oral conditions, it was observed 1.7 of decayed teeth, 16.4 missing teeth; 72.4% with gingivitis and 62 % with dental biofilm. The intraoral examination showed that babies had oral candidiasis 4.18% and 2.08% Bohn nodule. The electrophoresis analysis showed differences in the protein quantity in the saliva of mothers and babies. As for the 1H NMR analysis of saliva samples, it was noted difference between mothers and infants in relation to the intensity of metabolites such as n-butyrate, propionate, ethanol, acetate and lactose which dominated the saliva of infants compared to mothers. Babies without teeth also presented lower intensities of organic acid compared to those that had erupted teeth. It is concluded that mothers had low actual caries activity, however with important past caries history and this may have an impact on the oral hygiene of their children. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Adult , Saliva/chemistry , Streptococcus mutans/genetics , Oral Health , Communicable Period , Milk, Human/chemistry , Review Literature as Topic , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Electrophoresis
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