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1.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0302513, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718032

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in aerial robotics and wireless transceivers have generated an enormous interest in networks constituted by multiple compact unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAV adhoc networks, i.e., aerial networks with dynamic topology and no centralized control, are found suitable for a unique set of applications, yet their operation is vulnerable to cyberattacks. In many applications, such as IoT networks or emergency failover networks, UAVs augment and provide support to the sensor nodes or mobile nodes in the ground network in data acquisition and also improve the overall network performance. In this situation, ensuring the security of the adhoc UAV network and the integrity of data is paramount to accomplishing network mission objectives. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to secure UAV adhoc networks, referred to as the blockchain-assisted security framework (BCSF). We demonstrate that the proposed system provides security without sacrificing the performance of the network through blockchain technology adopted to the priority of the message to be communicated over the adhoc UAV network. Theoretical analysis for computing average latency is performed based on queuing theory models followed by an evaluation of the proposed BCSF approach through simulations that establish the superior performance of the proposed methodology in terms of transaction delay, data secrecy, data recovery, and energy efficiency.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , Computer Communication Networks , Computer Security , Unmanned Aerial Devices , Wireless Technology , Algorithms
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(9)2024 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38732888

ABSTRACT

In today's health-monitoring applications, there is a growing demand for wireless and wearable acquisition platforms capable of simultaneously gathering multiple bio-signals from multiple body areas. These systems require well-structured software architectures, both to keep different wireless sensing nodes synchronized each other and to flush collected data towards an external gateway. This paper presents a quantitative analysis aimed at validating both the wireless synchronization task (implemented with a custom protocol) and the data transmission task (implemented with the BLE protocol) in a prototype wearable monitoring platform. We evaluated seven frequencies for exchanging synchronization packets (10 Hz, 20 Hz, 30 Hz, 40 Hz, 50 Hz, 60 Hz, 70 Hz) as well as two different BLE configurations (with and without the implementation of a dynamic adaptation of the BLE Connection Interval parameter). Additionally, we tested BLE data transmission performance in five different use case scenarios. As a result, we achieved the optimal performance in the synchronization task (1.18 ticks as median synchronization delay with a Min-Max range of 1.60 ticks and an Interquartile range (IQR) of 0.42 ticks) when exploiting a synchronization frequency of 40 Hz and the dynamic adaptation of the Connection Interval. Moreover, BLE data transmission proved to be significantly more efficient with shorter distances between the communicating nodes, growing worse by 30.5% beyond 8 m. In summary, this study suggests the best-performing network configurations to enhance the synchronization task of the prototype platform under analysis, as well as quantitative details on the best placement of data collectors.


Subject(s)
Wearable Electronic Devices , Wireless Technology , Wireless Technology/instrumentation , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Computer Communication Networks/instrumentation , Software
3.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301842, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669218

ABSTRACT

The rapid development of mobile communication devices has brought challenges to wireless networks, where data packets are able to organize and maintain local area networks more freely without the constraints of wired devices. Scholars have developed diverse network protocols on how to ensure data transmission while maintaining its self-organizational nature. However, it is difficult for traditional network protocols to meet the needs of increasingly complex networks. In order to solve the problem that the better node set may not be selected when selecting the node set responsible for forwarding in the traditional OLSR protocol, a multi-objective optimized OLSR algorithm is proposed in this paper, which incorporating a new MPR mechanism and an improved NSGA-II algorithm. In the process of route discovery, the intermediate nodes responsible for forwarding packets are determined by the new MPR mechanism, and then the main parameters in the OLSR protocol are provided by the multi-objective optimization algorithm. Matlab was used to build a self-organizing network in this study. In addition, the conventional OLSR protocol, NSGA-II algorithm and multi-objective simulated annealing algorithm are selected to compare with the proposed algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively reduce packet loss and end-to-end delay while obtaining better results in HV and Spacing, two multi-objective optimization result evaluation metrics.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Computer Communication Networks , Wireless Technology , Computer Simulation
4.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0299846, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38669264

ABSTRACT

The decoupling of control and forwarding layers brings Software-Defined Networking (SDN) the network programmability and global control capability, but it also poses SDN security risks. The adversaries can use the forwarding and control decoupling character of SDN to forge legitimate traffic, launching saturation attacks targeted at SDN switches. These attacks can cause the overflow of switch flow tables, thus making the switch cannot forward benign network traffic. How to effectively detect saturation attack is a research hotspot. There are only a few graph-based saturation attack detection methods. Meanwhile, the current graph generation methods may take useless or misleading information to the attack detection, thus decreasing the attack detection accuracy. To solve the above problems, this paper proposes TITAN, a bidirecTional forwardIng graph-based saturaTion Attack detectioN method. TITAN defines flow forwarding rules and topology information, and designs flow statistical features. Based on these definitions, TITAN generates nodes of the bi-forwarding graph based on the flow statistics features and edges of the bi-forwarding graph based on the network traffic routing paths. In this way, each traffic flow in the network is transformed into a bi-directional forwarding graph. Then TITAN feeds the above bidirectional forwarding graph into a Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) to detect whether the flow is a saturation attack flow. The experimental results show that TITAN can effectively detect saturation attacks in SDNs with a detection accuracy of more than 97%.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Computer Security , Software , Computer Communication Networks
5.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301470, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578810

ABSTRACT

In wireless sensor networks, the implementation of clustering and routing protocols has been crucial in prolonging the network's operational duration by conserving energy. However, the challenge persists in efficiently optimizing energy usage to maximize the network's longevity. This paper presents CHHFO, a new protocol that combines a fuzzy logic system with the collaborative Harris Hawks optimization algorithm to enhance the lifetime of networks. The fuzzy logic system utilizes descriptors like remaining energy, distance from the base station, and the number of neighboring nodes to designate each cluster head and establish optimal clusters, thereby alleviating potential hot spots. Moreover, the Collaborative Harris Hawks Optimization algorithm employs an inventive coding mechanism to choose the optimal relay cluster head for data transmission. According to the results, the network throughput, HHOCFR is 8.76%, 11.73%, 8.64% higher than HHO-UCRA, IHHO-F, and EFCR. In addition, he energy consumption of HHOCFR is lower than HHO-UCRA, IHHO-F, and EFCR by 0.88%, 39.79%, 34.25%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Falconiformes , Fuzzy Logic , Animals , Wireless Technology , Computer Communication Networks , Algorithms
6.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0300650, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527025

ABSTRACT

As the demand for high-bandwidth Internet connections continues to surge, industries are exploring innovative ways to harness this connectivity, and smart agriculture stands at the forefront of this evolution. In this paper, we delve into the challenges faced by Internet Service Providers (ISPs) in efficiently managing bandwidth and traffic within their networks. We propose a synergy between two pivotal technologies, Multi-Protocol Label Switching-Traffic Engineering (MPLS-TE) and Diffserv Quality of Service (Diffserv-QoS), which have implications beyond traditional networks and resonate strongly with the realm of smart agriculture. The increasing adoption of technology in agriculture relies heavily on real-time data, remote monitoring, and automated processes. This dynamic nature requires robust and reliable high-bandwidth connections to facilitate data flow between sensors, devices, and central management systems. By optimizing bandwidth utilization through MPLS-TE and implementing traffic control mechanisms with Diffserv-QoS, ISPs can create a resilient network foundation for smart agriculture applications. The integration of MPLS-TE and Diffserv-QoS has resulted in significant enhancements in throughput and a considerable reduction in Jitter. Employment of the IPv4 header has demonstrated impressive outcomes, achieving a throughput of 5.83 Mbps and reducing Jitter to 3 msec.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Computer Communication Networks , Computer Simulation , Wireless Technology , Agriculture
7.
Artif Intell Med ; 149: 102779, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462281

ABSTRACT

The healthcare sector, characterized by vast datasets and many diseases, is pivotal in shaping community health and overall quality of life. Traditional healthcare methods, often characterized by limitations in disease prevention, predominantly react to illnesses after their onset rather than proactively averting them. The advent of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has ushered in a wave of transformative applications designed to enhance healthcare services, with Machine Learning (ML) as a noteworthy subset of AI. ML empowers computers to analyze extensive datasets, while Deep Learning (DL), a specific ML methodology, excels at extracting meaningful patterns from these data troves. Despite notable technological advancements in recent years, the full potential of these applications within medical contexts remains largely untapped, primarily due to the medical community's cautious stance toward novel technologies. The motivation of this paper lies in recognizing the pivotal role of the healthcare sector in community well-being and the necessity for a shift toward proactive healthcare approaches. To our knowledge, there is a notable absence of a comprehensive published review that delves into ML, DL and distributed systems, all aimed at elevating the Quality of Service (QoS) in healthcare. This study seeks to bridge this gap by presenting a systematic and organized review of prevailing ML, DL, and distributed system algorithms as applied in healthcare settings. Within our work, we outline key challenges that both current and future developers may encounter, with a particular focus on aspects such as approach, data utilization, strategy, and development processes. Our study findings reveal that the Internet of Things (IoT) stands out as the most frequently utilized platform (44.3 %), with disease diagnosis emerging as the predominant healthcare application (47.8 %). Notably, discussions center significantly on the prevention and identification of cardiovascular diseases (29.2 %). The studies under examination employ a diverse range of ML and DL methods, along with distributed systems, with Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) being the most commonly used (16.7 %), followed by Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks (14.6 %) and shallow learning networks (12.5 %). In evaluating QoS, the predominant emphasis revolves around the accuracy parameter (80 %). This study highlights how ML, DL, and distributed systems reshape healthcare. It contributes to advancing healthcare quality, bridging the gap between technology and medical adoption, and benefiting practitioners and patients.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Quality of Life , Humans , Machine Learning , Computer Communication Networks , Quality of Health Care
8.
IEEE Trans Nanobioscience ; 23(2): 355-367, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38349839

ABSTRACT

Advancements in biotechnology and molecular communication have enabled the utilization of nanomachines in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN2) for applications such as drug delivery, cancer detection, and emergency rescue services. To study these networks effectively, it is essential to develop an ideal propagation model that includes the channel response between each pair of in-range nanomachines and accounts for the interference received at each receiver node. In this paper, we employ an advection-diffusion equation to obtain a deterministic channel matrix through a vascular WBAN2. Additionally, the closed forms of inter-symbol interference (ISI) and co-channel interference (CCI) are derived for both full duplex (FDX) and half duplex transmission (HDX) modes. By applying these deterministic formulations, we then present the stochastic equivalents of the ideal channel model and interference to provide an innovative communication model by simultaneously incorporating CCI, ISI, and background noise. Finally, we evaluate the results with numerous experiments and use signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) and capacity as metrics.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology , Communication , Diffusion , Drug Delivery Systems , Computer Communication Networks , Wireless Technology
9.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0296392, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38408070

ABSTRACT

The quest for energy efficiency (EE) in multi-tier Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets) is observed within the context of surging high-speed data demands and the rapid proliferation of wireless devices. The analysis of existing literature underscores the need for more comprehensive strategies to realize genuinely energy-efficient HetNets. This research work contributes significantly by employing a systematic methodology, utilizing This model facilitates the assessment of network performance by considering the spatial distribution of network elements. The stochastic nature of the PPP allows for a realistic representation of the random spatial deployment of base stations and users in multi-tier HetNets. Additionally, an analytical framework for Quality of Service (QoS) provision based on D-DOSS simplifies the understanding of user-base station relationships and offers essential performance metrics. Moreover, an optimization problem formulation, considering coverage, energy maximization, and delay minimization constraints, aims to strike a balance between key network attributes. This research not only addresses crucial challenges in creating EE HetNets but also lays a foundation for future advancements in wireless network design, operation, and management, ultimately benefiting network operators and end-users alike amidst the growing demand for high-speed data and the increasing prevalence of wireless devices. The proposed D-DOSS approach not only offers insights for the systematic design and analysis of EE HetNets but also systematically outperforms other state-of-the-art techniques presented. The improvement in energy efficiency systematically ranges from 67% (min side) to 98% (max side), systematically demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed strategy in achieving higher energy efficiency compared to existing strategies. This systematic research work establishes a strong foundation for the systematic evolution of energy-efficient HetNets. The systematic methodology employed ensures a comprehensive understanding of the complex interplay of network dynamics and user requirements in a multi-tiered environment.


Subject(s)
Computer Communication Networks , Wireless Technology , Computer Simulation , Conservation of Energy Resources , Physical Phenomena
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3422, 2024 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341483

ABSTRACT

Biosensor nodes of a wireless body area network (WBAN) transmit physiological parameter data to a central hub node, spending a substantial portion of their energy. Therefore, it is crucial to determine an optimal location for hub placement to minimize node energy consumption in data transmission. Existing methods determine the optimal hub location by sequentially placing the hub at multiple random locations within the WBAN. Performance measures like link reliability or overall node energy consumption in data transmission are estimated for each hub location. The best-performing location is finally selected for hub placement. Such methods are time-consuming. Moreover, the involvement of other nodes in the process of hub placement results in an undesirable loss of network energy. This paper shows the whale optimization algorithm (WOA)-based hub placement scheme. This scheme directly gives the best location for the hub in the least amount of time and with the least amount of help from other nodes. The presented scheme incorporates a population of candidate solutions called "whale search agents". These agents carry out the iterative steps of encircling the prey (identifying the best candidate solution), bubble-net feeding (exploitation phase), and random prey search (exploration phase). The WOA-based model eventually converges into an optimized solution that determines the optimal location for hub placement. The resultant hub location minimizes the overall amount of energy consumed by the WBAN nodes for data transmission, which ultimately results in an elongated lifespan of WBAN operation. The results show that the proposed WOA-based hub placement scheme outperforms various state-of-the-art related WBAN protocols by achieving a network lifetime of 8937 data transmission rounds with 93.8% network throughput and 9.74 ms network latency.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Whales , Animals , Reproducibility of Results , Wireless Technology , Computer Communication Networks
12.
PLoS One ; 19(2): e0297810, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38358986

ABSTRACT

Ultra-reliable low-latency communication (URLLC) is a key technology in future wireless communications, and finite blocklength (FBL) coding is the core of the URLLC. In this paper, FBL coding schemes for the wireless multi-antenna channels are proposed, which are based on the classical Schalkwijk-Kailath scheme for the point-to-point additive white Gaussian noise channel with noiseless feedback. Simulation examples show that the proposed feedback-based schemes almost approach the corresponding channel capacities.


Subject(s)
Computer Communication Networks , Wireless Technology , Feedback , Computer Simulation , Communication
13.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0296331, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38206906

ABSTRACT

The Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is one of the developing paradigms that integrates the automotive industry with the Internet of Things (IoT). The evolution of traditional Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs), which are a layered framework for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), is employed to provide Quality of Service (QoS) to end users in hazardous situations. VANETs can set up ad-hoc networks and share information among themselves using Peer-to-Peer (P2P) communication. Dynamic properties in VANETs such as dynamic topology, node mobility, sparse vehicle distribution, and bandwidth constraints can have an impact on scalability, routing, and security. This can result in frequent link failures, instability, reliability, and QOS concerns, as well as the inherent complexity of NP-hard problems. Researchers have proposed several techniques to achieve stability; the most prominent one is clustering, which relies on mobility metrics. However, existing clustering techniques generate overwhelming clusters, resulting in greater resource consumption, communication overhead, and hop count, which may lead to increased latency. Therefore, the primary objective is to achieve stability by increasing cluster lifetime, which is accomplished by generating optimal clusters. A nature-inspired meta-heuristic algorithm titled African Vulture Optimization Based Clustering Algorithm (AVOCA) is implemented to achieve it. The proposed algorithm can achieve load optimization with efficient resource utilization by mitigating hidden node challenges and ensuring communication proficiency. By maintaining an equilibrium state between the exploration and exploitation phases, AVOCA avoids local optima. The paper explores a taxonomy of the techniques used in Cluster Head (CH) selection, coordination, and maintenance to achieve stability with lower communication costs. We evaluated the effectiveness of AVOCA using various network grid sizes, transmission ranges, and network nodes. The results show that AVOCA generates 40% less clusters when compared to the Clustering Algorithm Based on Moth-Flame Optimization for VANETs (CAMONET). AVOCA generates 45% less clusters when compared to Self-Adaptive Multi-Kernel Clustering for Urban VANETs (SAMNET), AVOCA generates 43% less clusters when compared to Intelligent Whale Optimization Algorithm (i-WOA) and AVOCA generates 38% less clusters when compared to Harris Hawks Optimization (HHO). The results show that AVOCA outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms in generating optimal clusters.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Computer Communication Networks , Reproducibility of Results , Internet , Cluster Analysis
14.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0296117, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38165990

ABSTRACT

To address the problem of unreliable single-link underwater acoustic communication caused by large signal delays and strong multipath effects in shallow water environments, this paper proposes a distributed underwater acoustic diversity communication system (DUA-DCS). DUA-DCS employs a maneuverable distributed cross-medium buoy network to form multiple distributed, non-coherent, and parallel communication links. In the uplink, a receiving diversity processing mechanism of joint decision feedback equalizer embedded phase-locked loop and maximum signal-to-interference ratio combining (DFE-PLL-MSIRC) is proposed to achieve waveform-level diversity combining of underwater signals. A phase-locked loop module is embedded in each branch of the decision feedback equalizer to eliminate the residual frequency and phase errors after Doppler compensation. Meanwhile, the combining coefficients are determined based on the maximum signal-to-interference ratio criterion, taking into account the residual inter-symbol interference after equalization, resulting in efficient and accurate computation. Additionally, the combined decision values are fed back to the feedback filters in each branch to ensure more accurate feedback output. Simulation and lake experiment results demonstrate that, compared to the single-link communication system, DFE-PLL-MSIRC can achieve a diversity gain of more than 5.2 dB and obtain about 3 dB more diversity gain than the comparison algorithm. And the BER of DFE-PLL-MSIRC can be reduced by at least one order of magnitude, which is lower by at least 0.6 order of magnitude compared to the comparison algorithm. In the downlink, a transmitting diversity processing mechanism of complex orthogonal space-time block coding (COSTBC) is proposed. By utilizing a newly designed generalized complex orthogonal transmission matrix, complete transmission diversity can be achieved at the coding rate of 3/4. Compared to the single-link communication system, the system can achieve a diversity gain of more than 6 dB.


Subject(s)
Acoustics , Algorithms , Communication , Computer Communication Networks , Computer Simulation
15.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0296988, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38285650

ABSTRACT

The enhancement of energy efficiency in a distribution network can be attained through the adding of energy storage systems (ESSs). The strategic placement and appropriate sizing of these systems have the potential to significantly enhance the overall performance of the network. An appropriately dimensioned and strategically located energy storage system has the potential to effectively address peak energy demand, optimize the addition of renewable and distributed energy sources, assist in managing the power quality and reduce the expenses associated with expanding distribution networks. This study proposes an efficient approach utilizing the Dandelion Optimizer (DO) to find the optimal placement and sizing of ESSs in a distribution network. The goal is to reduce the overall annual cost of the system, which includes expenses related to power losses, voltage deviation, and peak load damand. The methods outlined in this study is implemented on the IEEE 33 bus distribution system. The outcomes obtained from the proposed DO are contrasted with those of the original system so as to illustrate the impact of ESSs location on both the overall cost and voltage profile. Furthermore, a comparison is made between the outcomes of the Ant Lion Optimizer (ALO) and the intended Design of Experiment DO, revealing that the DO has obtained greater savings in comparison to the ALO. The recommended methodology's simplicity and efficacy in resolving the researched optimization issue make the acquired locations and sizes of ESSs favorable for implementation within the system.


Subject(s)
Computer Communication Networks , Taraxacum , Energy-Generating Resources , Income , Physical Phenomena
16.
Network ; 35(1): 73-100, 2024 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38044853

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, wireless sensor networks (WSN) have gained huge attention worldwide due to their wide applications in different domains. The limited amount of energy resources is considered as the main limitations of WSN, which generally affect the network life time. Hence, a dynamic clustering and routing model is designed to resolve this issue. In this research work, a deep-learning model is employed for the prediction of energy and an optimization algorithmic technique is designed for the determination of optimal routes. Initially, the dynamic cluster WSN is simulated using energy, mobility, trust, and Link Life Time (LLT) models. The deep neuro-fuzzy network (DNFN) is utilized for the prediction of residual energy of nodes and the cluster workloads are dynamically balanced by the dynamic clustering of data using a fuzzy system. The designed Flamingo Jellyfish Search Optimization (FJSO) model is used for tuning the weights of the fuzzy system by considering different fitness parameters. Moreover, routing is performed using FJSO model which is used for the identification of optimal path to transmit data. In addition, the experimentation is done using MATLAB tool and the results proved that the designed FJSO model attained maximum of 0.657J energy, a minimum of 0.739 m distance, 0.649 s delay, 0.849 trust, and 0.885 Mbps throughput.


Subject(s)
Deep Learning , Algorithms , Computer Communication Networks , Wireless Technology , Physical Phenomena
17.
PLoS One ; 18(12): e0295252, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38064461

ABSTRACT

A typical element of the smart city's information and communication space is a 5G cluster, which is focused on serving both new and handover requests because it is an open system. In an ordinary 5G smart city cluster, Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communications (URLLC) and enhanced Mobile BroadBand (eMBB) traffic types prevail. The formation of an effective QoS policy for such an object (taking into account the potentially active slicing technology) is an urgent problem. As a baseline, this research considers a Quality of Service (QoS) policy with constraints for context-defined URLLC and eMBB classes of incoming requests. Evaluating the QoS policy instance defined within the framework of the basic concept requires the formalization of both a complete qualitative metric and a computationally efficient mathematical apparatus for its calculation. The article presents accurate and approximate methods of calculating such quality parameters as the probability of loss of typed requests and the utilization ratio of the communication resource, which depend on the implementation of the estimated QoS policy. At the same time, the original parametric space includes both fixed characteristics (amount of available communication resources, load according to request classes) and controlled characteristics due to the specifics of the implementation of the basic QoS concept. The paper empirically proves the adequacy of the presented mathematical apparatus for evaluating the QoS policy defined within the scope of the research. Also, in the proposed qualitative metric, a comparison of the author's concept with a parametrically close analogue (the well-known QoS policy scheme, which takes into account the phenomenon of reservation of communication resources), determined taking into account the reservation of communication resources, was made. The results of the comparison testify in favour of the superiority of the author's approach in the proposed metrics.


Subject(s)
Computer Communication Networks , Wireless Technology , Communication , Technology , Probability
18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38083653

ABSTRACT

Wireless communication enables an ingestible device to send sensor information and support external on-demand operation while in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, it is challenging to maintain stable wireless communication with an ingestible device that travels inside the dynamic GI environment as this environment easily detunes the antenna and decreases the antenna gain. In this paper, we propose an air-gap based antenna solution to stabilize the antenna gain inside this dynamic environment. By surrounding a chip antenna with 1 ~ 2 mms of air, the antenna is isolated from the environment, recovering its antenna gain and the received signal strength by 12 dB or more according to our in vitro and in vivo evaluation in swine. The air gap makes margin for the high path loss, enabling stable wireless communication at 2.4 GHz that allows users to easily access their ingestible devices by using mobile devices with Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE). On the other hand, the data sent or received over the wireless medium is vulnerable to being eavesdropped on by nearby devices other than authorized users. Therefore, we also propose a lightweight security protocol. The proposed protocol is implemented in low energy without compromising the security level thanks to the base protocol of symmetric challenge-response and Speck, the cipher that is optimized for software implementation.


Subject(s)
Computer Communication Networks , Gastrointestinal Tract , Wireless Technology , Animals , Software , Swine
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(24)2023 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38139702

ABSTRACT

Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are an emerging industrial technology for monitoring physiological data. These networks employ medical wearable and implanted biomedical sensors aimed at improving quality of life by providing body-oriented services through a variety of industrial sensing gadgets. The sensors collect vital data from the body and forward this information to other nodes for further services using short-range wireless communication technology. In this paper, we provide a multi-aspect review of recent advancements made in this field pertaining to cross-domain security, privacy, and trust issues. The aim is to present an overall review of WBAN research and projects based on applications, devices, and communication architecture. We examine current issues and challenges with WBAN communications and technologies, with the aim of providing insights for a future vision of remote healthcare systems. We specifically address the potential and shortcomings of various Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) architectures and communication schemes that are proposed to maintain security, privacy, and trust within digital healthcare systems. Although current solutions and schemes aim to provide some level of security, several serious challenges remain that need to be understood and addressed. Our aim is to suggest future research directions for establishing best practices in protecting healthcare data. This includes monitoring, access control, key management, and trust management. The distinguishing feature of this survey is the combination of our review with a critical perspective on the future of WBANs.


Subject(s)
Computer Communication Networks , Quality of Life , Delivery of Health Care , Privacy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Wireless Technology
20.
PLoS One ; 18(12): e0295615, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38150429

ABSTRACT

Ad-hoc wireless sensor networks face challenges of optimized node deployment for maximizing coverage and efficiently routing data to control centers in post disaster events. These challenges impact the outcome for extending the lifetime of wireless sensor networks. This study presents a uav assisted reactive zone based EHGR (energy efficient hierarchical gateway routing protocol) that is deployed in a situation where the natural calamity has caused communication and infrastructure damage to a major portion of the sensor network. EHGR is a hybrid multi layer routing protocol for large heterogeneous sensor nodes (smart nodes, basic nodes, user handheld devices etc.) EHGR is tailored to meet two important concerns for a disaster hit wsn ie. optimized deployment and energy efficient routing. The first part of EGHR focuses on maximized coverage during node deployments. Maximized coverage is an important aspect to be considered during the event of disaster since most of the nodes loose coverage and are detached from the wireless sensor network. The first part of EHGR uses state of the art game theory approach to build a model that maximizes the coverage of nodes during the deployment phase from all participating entities i.e. nodes and uavs. Rather than fixing the cluster head as is the case in traditional cluster-based approaches EHGR uses the energy centroid nodes. Energy centroid nodes evolve on the basis of aggregated energy of the zone. This approach is superior to simply electing cluster head nodes on the basis of some probability function. The nodes that fail to achieve any successful outcome from the game theory matching model fail to get any association. These nodes will use multi hop d2d relay approach to reach the energy centroid nodes. Gateway relay nodes used with the game theory approach during the deployment of the uav assisted wsn improves the overall coverage by 25% against traditional leach based hierarchical approaches. Once the optimum deployment phase is completed the routing phase is initiated. Aggregated data is sent by the energy centroid nodes from the ECN nodes to the servicing micro controller enabled un manned aerial vehicles. The routing process places partial burden of zone formation and data transmission to the control center for each phase on the servicing uavs. Energy centroid nodes engage only in the data aggregation process and transmission of data to servicing uav. Servicing-uavs reduce energy dissipated of the entire zone which result in gradual decrease of energy for the zone thus increasing the network lifetime. Node deployment phase and the routing phase of EHGR utilize the computations provide by the mirco controller enabled unmanned aerial vehicles such that the computationally intensive calculations are offloaded to the servicing uav. Experiment results indicate an increase in the first dead node report, half dead node report, and last dead node report. Network lifetime is extended to approximately 1800 rounds which is an increase by ratio of 100% against the traditional leach approach and increase by 50% percent against the latest approaches as highlighted in the literature.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Conservation of Energy Resources , Wireless Technology , Computer Communication Networks , Physical Phenomena
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