Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 21.747
Filter
1.
Wiad Lek ; 74(10 pt 1): 2516-2519, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897014

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To find solutions for the ecological problems of epidemics danger to acute respiratory infections, especially coronavirus infections, during the organization of mass sporting events by establishing the features of its development and providing epidemiological measures to reduce the negative impact of epidemics for human health and activities, including athletes at both national and international levels. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The methodological basis of this study is general and special scientific methods: dialectical, analysis and synthesis, synergism, historical and legal, formal and logical, systematic and structural, comparative and legal, formal and legal. Empirical data were scientific works, international regulations, EU legislation, United States and other countries. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The conclusions that the organization of mass sporting events must take into account the epidemiological situation of the disease in acute respiratory infections primarily on coronavirus infection at the national level to ensure contact with the institutions of the public health national system, use data "Hazard determination and risk assessment systems" (HDRAS) to determine the risk degree of infectious diseases, to conduct timely observation activities.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Epidemics , Respiratory Tract Infections , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Public Health , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0259443, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34919553

ABSTRACT

The present study was done to identify the viral diversity, seasonality and burden associated with childhood acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) in Sri Lanka. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) of hospitalized children (1 month-5 years) with ARTI were collected in 2 centers (wet and dry zones) from March 2013 to August 2014. Respiratory viral antigen detection by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was used to identify the infecting viruses. IFA negative 100 NPA samples were tested for human metapeumovirus (hMPV), human bocavirus and corona viruses by polymerase chain reaction. Of the 443 and 418 NPAs, 37.2% and 39.4% were positive for any of the 8 different respiratory viruses tested from two centers studied. Viral co-infection was detected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in both centers. Peak viral detection was noted in the wet zone from May-July 2013 and 2014 and in the dry zone from December-January 2014 suggesting a local seasonality for viral ARTI. RSV showed a clear seasonality with a direct correlation of monthly RSV infections with rainy days in the wet zone and an inverse correlation with temperature in both centers. The case fatality rate was 2.7% for RSV associated ARTI. The overall disability adjusted life years was 335.9 and for RSV associated ARTI it was 241.8. RSV was the commonly detected respiratory virus with an annual seasonality and distribution in rainy seasons in the dry and wet zones of Sri Lanka. Identifying the virus and seasonality will contribute to employ preventive measures and reduce the empirical use of antibiotics in resource limited settings.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Parvoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Viral Load , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , Coinfection , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disability-Adjusted Life Years/trends , Female , Human bocavirus/pathogenicity , Human bocavirus/physiology , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Metapneumovirus/pathogenicity , Metapneumovirus/physiology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/mortality , Paramyxoviridae Infections/virology , Parvoviridae Infections/mortality , Parvoviridae Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/mortality , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/pathogenicity , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/physiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Seasons , Sri Lanka/epidemiology , Survival Analysis
3.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 21(12): 994-1002, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958265

ABSTRACT

Background: Camel-to-human transmission of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was confirmed as a cause of primary infection in humans. There is a dearth of information regarding the behavior of the virus in camels and the mode of spread among them under natural conditions. The aim of this study was to monitor exposure of camels to the MERS-CoV under field conditions. Methods: From January 1 to November 30, 2015, a secluded herd of 20 pregnant female camels and their neonate calves was established. Nasal and rectal swabs were collected from calves daily for 90 days after birth, then weekly until the end of the study. Nasal and rectal samples were collected from the dams at outset and then weekly until the end of the study. The samples were tested with rtRT-PCR to detect the MERS-CoV RNA. Results: All purchased pregnant camels were MERS-CoV RNA negative at outset. Nineteen dams and 15 calves completed the study. Seven (46.7%) of the 15 calves developed a rise in rectal temperature (39-40°C), shivering, rhinitis, anorexia, and general weakness at a mean ± standard deviation of 18.9 ± 4.9 days of age and their MERS-CoV RNA test was positive on the first day of illness. Three of the seven infected calves died 14 ± 9.1 days postonset of illness at age 17, 14, and 46 days, respectively. The remaining four infected calves fully recovered and they were MERS-CoV RNA positive for 17.5 ± 8.8 days. Four (21.1%) of the 19 dams had positive tests; three dams had no clinical signs, whereas the fourth dam exhibited signs not compatible with MERS-CoV infection and died three days after the positive test, 33 days after parturition. All MERS-CoV infections occurred within 22 days. Conclusions: This study has expanded our understanding of the MERS-CoV epidemiology among camels, which is an important step forward to device effective preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Camelus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Female , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Nose
4.
Internet resource in Portuguese | LIS -Health Information Locator | ID: lis-48531

ABSTRACT

Página com as principais dúvidas sobre o coronavírus, tais como: o que é coronavírus?; como o Coronavírus é transmitido?; quais são os sintomas?; como é o tratamento?; quando se deve procurar o serviço de saúde?; quando devo usar a máscara de proteção?.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus
5.
Internet resource in Portuguese | LIS -Health Information Locator | ID: lis-48529

ABSTRACT

Boletins Coronavírus de óbitos e casos confirmados no RJ


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5778455, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796233

ABSTRACT

Background: Bovine rotavirus (BRV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) are the most common viral agents in neonatal calf diarrhea and result in serious economic consequences. The aim of the study was to determine the epidemiology of those viruses in randomly selected dairy farms of Addis Ababa. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2018 to April 2019 using a probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling technique. A total of 110 calves, less than 30 days of age, from 57 dairy herds were involved in the study. Associated factors of herds and calves were collected using semistructured interviews from farm owners and through physical observation of selected calves. Fecal samples were collected and analyzed using the sandwich ELISA method. Data generated from both semistructured interviews and laboratory investigation were analyzed using STATA_MP version 15. Results: From the total 110 calves, 42 (38.18%) had diarrhea during the survey. The prevalence of bovine rotavirus and coronavirus was 3.64% (4/110) and 0.91% (1/110), respectively. Diarrhea, feeding colostrum timing, and sex of the neonatal calves had statistically significant association with bovine rotavirus infection (p < 0.05). All rotavirus-positive neonatal calves were identified in small scale dairy farms and in dairy farms that reported mortality though they lack statistically significant association. Only one coronavirus case was detected among the neonatal calves. The case was identified among small scale herds and in a herd with diarrheal cases. The sex of the coronavirus calf was female, diarrheic, and among 11-20 days old. Conclusion: The prevalence of rotavirus and coronavirus infections in neonatal calves was seldom in dairy farms of the study area. Rotavirus was more common than coronavirus, and further studies should be initiated on other (infectious and noninfectious) causes of neonatal calf diarrhea in the area.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/virology , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Farms/statistics & numerical data , Feces/virology , Female , Male , Mortality , Prevalence , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology
8.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(11): 1321-1327, 2021 Nov 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749476

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of human coronavirus (HCoV) in hospitalized children with respiratory tract infection in Hebei region, providing evidence for the diagnosis and prevention of children with respiratory tract infection. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 1 062 HCoV positive children hospitalized for respiratory tract infection in Children's Hospital of Hebei Province from January 2015 to December 2020, aged from 33 days to 14 years, with a median age of 2 years. 27 932 (60.9%) were males and 17 944(39.1%) were females. And the gender, ages, seasonal distribution, HCoV-positive rates, co-detection distribution and clinical diagnosis of HCoV positive cases were analyzed by SPSS 25.0. Enumeration data were expressed by frequency and percentage; categorical variable were compared by the Pearson χ2test. Results: The overall HCoV-positive rate was 2.31% (1 062/45 876), which was 2.37% (662/27 932) in male children and 2.23% (400/17 944) in female children. There was no statistically significant difference between genders (χ²=0.916, P=0.339). Children at age groups<1 years (2.44%) and 1-<3 years (2.63%) had higher HCoV-positive rates than those at age groups 3-<5 years (1.97%) and ≥5 years (1.38%) (χ²=27.332,P<0.01). The HCoV-positive rates from 2015 to 2018 were 2.13%, 2.45%, 2.28% and 2.23%. The HCoV-positive rate of 2019 (1.71%) was significantly lower than in 2016 (χ²=12.05, P<0.01), 2017 (χ²=7.34, P=0.01) and 2018 (χ²=6.78, P=0.01), but there was no significant difference compared with 2015 (χ²=2.84, P=0.09). The HCoV-positive rate of 2020 (3.37%) was significantly higher than in 2015 (χ²=13.636, P<0.01), 2016 (χ²=11.099, P<0.01), 2017 (χ²=15.482, P<0.01), 2018(χ²=18.601, P<0.01) and 2019(χ²=45.580, P<0.01). The positive rate was highest in spring (March to May) in 2015 and 2017 to 2018. February to April and July to September of 2016 were the peak periods of positive detection. No obvious seasonal change was observed in 2019 and the HCoV-positive rate of 2020 was extremely low from January to July, following significantly increased from August to December. 26.37% (280/1 062) of HCoV were co-detected with other respiratory pathogens and the most frequently identified mixed detection was RSV. Three or more pathogens were detected in 7.34% (78/1 062) of the HCoV-positive samples. Bronchopneumonia and bronchiolitis were more frequently observed in the single HCoV positive (61.89% and 16.75%) children compared to co-detected children(34.29% and 9.64%)(χ²=63.394 and 8.228, P<0.01). However, compared to those with HCoV mono-detection, co-detected children were more likely to have severe pneumonia (4.6% and 47.14%) (χ²=280.171, P<0.01). Conclusions: HCoV is one of the respiratory pathogens in children in Hebei region and more prevalent in spring. The susceptible population of HCoV is mainly children under the age of 3 years old. HCoV often co-detects with other respiratory pathogens, and the co-infection is one of the risk factors of severe pneumonia in children with respiratory infection.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Seasons
9.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(11): 1772-1781, 2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615808

ABSTRACT

When a large-scale epidemic of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) occurred in 2013 in Japan, feedback feeding (feeding feces and gut tissues of infected piglets) was attempted to impart immunity to sows and immunize nursing piglets via breastfeeding. This study evaluated the effect of feedback feeding on PED control at 172 farms in Kagoshima and Miyazaki Prefectures. Univariable and multivariable generalized linear models were used to analyze the associations between conduct of feedback feeding and damage from the outbreak (outbreak period and the number of piglet deaths) at the farm level. The within-farm outbreak period shortened over time after the regional outbreak began on Kyushu Island (P=0.009) and was longer on large-scale farms (mean 66.0 days, P=0.003) than small-scale farms (29.4 days) and on farms that used feedback feeding (145.2 days, P=0.059) than those that did not (66.0 days). The number of dead piglets decreased over time since the first regional case (P<0.001) and was higher at farrow-to-finish farms (3.8 piglets/sow, P<0.001) than reproduction farms (0.7 piglets/sow). The effect of feedback feeding on the number of dead piglets was not significant, but its interaction term with farm style had a significant effect (5.0 more piglet deaths at reproduction farms than fallow-to-finish farms, P=0.001). These results suggest that feedback feeding made the damage from PED worse, though it was well established at a later stage of the regional PED epidemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Epidemics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Farms , Feedback , Female , Japan/epidemiology , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
10.
Virol J ; 18(1): 205, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641936

ABSTRACT

Co-infections have a key role in virus transmission in wild reservoir hosts. We investigated the simultaneous presence of astroviruses, coronaviruses, and paramyxoviruses in bats from Madagascar, Mayotte, Mozambique, and Reunion Island. A total of 871 samples from 28 bat species representing 8 families were tested by polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) targeting the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase genes. Overall, 2.4% of bats tested positive for the presence of at least two viruses, only on Madagascar and in Mozambique. Significant variation in the proportion of co-infections was detected among bat species, and some combinations of co-infection were more common than others. Our findings support that co-infections of the three targeted viruses occur in bats in the western Indian Ocean region, although further studies are needed to assess their epidemiological consequences.


Subject(s)
Astroviridae Infections/epidemiology , Chiroptera/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Animals , Madagascar , Mozambique , Reunion
12.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 128, 2021 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronaviruses can be isolated from bats, civets, pangolins, birds and other wild animals. As an animal-origin pathogen, coronavirus can cross species barrier and cause pandemic in humans. In this study, a deep learning model for early prediction of pandemic risk was proposed based on the sequences of viral genomes. METHODS: A total of 3257 genomes were downloaded from the Coronavirus Genome Resource Library. We present a deep learning model of cross-species coronavirus infection that combines a bidirectional gated recurrent unit network with a one-dimensional convolution. The genome sequence of animal-origin coronavirus was directly input to extract features and predict pandemic risk. The best performances were explored with the use of pre-trained DNA vector and attention mechanism. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and the area under precision-recall curve (AUPR) were used to evaluate the predictive models. RESULTS: The six specific models achieved good performances for the corresponding virus groups (1 for AUROC and 1 for AUPR). The general model with pre-training vector and attention mechanism provided excellent predictions for all virus groups (1 for AUROC and 1 for AUPR) while those without pre-training vector or attention mechanism had obviously reduction of performance (about 5-25%). Re-training experiments showed that the general model has good capabilities of transfer learning (average for six groups: 0.968 for AUROC and 0.942 for AUPR) and should give reasonable prediction for potential pathogen of next pandemic. The artificial negative data with the replacement of the coding region of the spike protein were also predicted correctly (100% accuracy). With the application of the Python programming language, an easy-to-use tool was created to implements our predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Robust deep learning model with pre-training vector and attention mechanism mastered the features from the whole genomes of animal-origin coronaviruses and could predict the risk of cross-species infection for early warning of next pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Animals , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Deep Learning , Humans , Models, Statistical , Risk Assessment/methods
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5324, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493730

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is enzootic in dromedary camels across the Middle East and Africa. Virus-induced pneumonia in humans results from animal contact, with a potential for limited onward transmission. Phenotypic changes have been suspected after a novel recombinant clade (lineage 5) caused large nosocomial outbreaks in Saudi Arabia and South Korea in 2016. However, there has been no functional assessment. Here we perform a comprehensive in vitro and ex vivo comparison of viruses from parental and recombinant virus lineages (lineage 3, n = 7; lineage 4, n = 8; lineage 5, n = 9 viruses) from Saudi Arabia, isolated immediately before and after the shift toward lineage 5. Replication of lineage 5 viruses is significantly increased. Transcriptional profiling finds reduced induction of immune genes IFNB1, CCL5, and IFNL1 in lung cells infected with lineage 5 strains. Phenotypic differences may be determined by IFN antagonism based on experiments using IFN receptor knock out and signaling inhibition. Additionally, lineage 5 is more resilient against IFN pre-treatment of Calu-3 cells (ca. 10-fold difference in replication). This phenotypic change associated with lineage 5 has remained undiscovered by viral sequence surveillance, but may be a relevant indicator of pandemic potential.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Camelus , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Genome, Viral , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Phylogeny , Recombination, Genetic , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Virus Replication
15.
Virus Res ; 306: 198566, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582833

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first reported in Wuhan, China, and rapidly spread throughout the world. This newly emerging pathogen is highly transmittable and can cause fatal disease. More than 35 million cases have been confirmed, with a fatality rate of about 2.9% to October 9, 2020. However, the original and intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2 remain unknown. Here, 3160 poultry samples collected from 14 provinces of China between September and December 2019 were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection. All the samples were SARS-CoV-2 negative, but 593 avian coronaviruses were detected, including 485 avian infectious bronchitis viruses, 72 duck coronaviruses, and 36 pigeon coronaviruses, with positivity rates of 15.35%, 2.28%, and 1.14%, respectively. Our surveillance demonstrates the diversity of avian coronaviruses in China, with higher prevalence rates in some regions. Furthermore, the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 originated from a known avian-origin coronavirus can be preliminarily ruled out. More surveillance of and research into avian coronaviruses are required to better understand the diversity, distribution, cross-species transmission, and clinical significance of these viruses.


Subject(s)
Bird Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Genetic Variation , Animals , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Chickens/virology , China/epidemiology , Columbidae/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Ducks/virology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Geese/virology , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(9): e24554, 2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586079

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Norovirus is a contagious disease. The transmission of norovirus spreads quickly and easily in various ways. Because effective methods to prevent or treat norovirus have not been discovered, it is important to rapidly recognize and report norovirus outbreaks in the early phase. Internet search has been a useful method for people to access information immediately. With the precise record of internet search trends, internet search has been a useful tool to manifest infectious disease outbreaks. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we tried to discover the correlation between internet search terms and norovirus infection. METHODS: The internet search trend data of norovirus were obtained from Google Trends. We used cross-correlation analysis to discover the temporal correlation between norovirus and other terms. We also used multiple linear regression with the stepwise method to recognize the most important predictors of internet search trends and norovirus. In addition, we evaluated the temporal correlation between actual norovirus cases and internet search terms in New York, California, and the United States as a whole. RESULTS: Some Google search terms such as gastroenteritis, watery diarrhea, and stomach bug coincided with norovirus Google Trends. Some Google search terms such as contagious, travel, and party presented earlier than norovirus Google Trends. Some Google search terms such as dehydration, bar, and coronavirus presented several months later than norovirus Google Trends. We found that fever, gastroenteritis, poison, cruise, wedding, and watery diarrhea were important factors correlated with norovirus Google Trends. In actual norovirus cases from New York, California, and the United States as a whole, some Google search terms presented with, earlier, or later than actual norovirus cases. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides novel strategy-based internet search evidence regarding the epidemiology of norovirus.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Gastroenteritis , Norovirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Internet , Search Engine , United States/epidemiology
17.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257965, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587192

ABSTRACT

Many important questions remain regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the viral pathogen responsible for COVID-19. These questions include the mechanisms explaining the high percentage of asymptomatic but highly infectious individuals, the wide variability in disease susceptibility, and the mechanisms of long-lasting debilitating effects. Bioinformatic analysis of four coronavirus datasets representing previous outbreaks (SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV), as well as SARS-CoV-2, revealed evidence of diverse host factors that appear to be coopted to facilitate virus-induced suppression of interferon-induced innate immunity, promotion of viral replication and subversion and/or evasion of antiviral immune surveillance. These host factors merit further study given their postulated roles in COVID-19-induced loss of smell and brain, heart, vascular, lung, liver, and gut dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immune Evasion/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Virus Replication/drug effects
18.
Arch Virol ; 166(11): 2975-2988, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524535

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is one of the most important enteropathogenic pathogens, and it causes enormous economic losses to the global commercial pork industry. PDCoV was initially reported in Hong Kong (China) in 2012 and subsequently emerged in swine herds with diarrhea in Ohio (USA) in 2014. Since then, it has spread to Canada, South Korea, mainland China, and several Southeast Asian countries. Information about the epidemiology, evolution, prevention, and control of PDCoV and its prevalence in China has not been comprehensively reported, especially in the last five years. This review is an update of current information on the general characteristics, epidemiology, geographical distribution, and evolutionary relationships, and the status of PDCoV vaccine development, focusing on the prevalence of PDCoV in China and vaccine research in particular. Together, this information will provide us with a greater understanding of PDCoV infection and will be helpful for establishing new strategies for controlling this virus worldwide.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Deltacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Animals , Biological Evolution , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Host Specificity , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Swine , Swine Diseases/transmission , Swine Diseases/virology
19.
Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) ; 69(1): 25, 2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529143

ABSTRACT

The term host defense peptides arose at the beginning to refer to those peptides that are part of the host's immunity. Because of their broad antimicrobial capacity and immunomodulatory activity, nowadays, they emerge as a hope to combat resistant multi-drug microorganisms and emerging viruses, such as the case of coronaviruses. Since the beginning of this century, coronaviruses have been part of different outbreaks and a pandemic, and they will be surely part of the next pandemics, this review analyses whether these peptides and their derivatives are ready to be part of the treatment of the next coronavirus pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemical synthesis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/immunology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/chemical synthesis , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/immunology , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Immunomodulation , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology
20.
J Vet Med Sci ; 83(10): 1608-1619, 2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470981

ABSTRACT

A novel avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variant, designated as GX-NN160421, was isolated from vaccinated chicken in Guangxi, China, in 2016. Based on analysis of the S1 gene sequence, GX-NN160421 belonged to the New-type 1 (GVI-1) strain. More importantly, three consecutive nucleotides (AAC) deletions were found in the highly conserved structure gene N. The serotype of GX-NN160421 was different from those of the commonly used vaccine strains. The mortality of the GX-NN160421 strain was 3.33%, which contrasted with 50% mortality in the clinical case, but high levels of virus shedding lasted at least 21 days. In conclusion, the first novel IBV variant with three-nucleotide-deletion in the N gene was identified, and this unique variant is low virulent but with a long time of virus shedding, indicating the continuing evolution of IBV and emphasizing the importance of limiting exposure to novel IBV strains as well as extensive monitoring of new IBVs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Chickens , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Genotype , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Nucleocapsid , Nucleotides , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...