Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 4.065
Filter
2.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35891497

ABSTRACT

Pre-existing antibodies that bind endemic human coronaviruses (eHCoVs) can cross-react with SARS-CoV-2, which is the betacoronavirus that causes COVID-19, but whether these responses influence SARS-CoV-2 infection is still under investigation and is particularly understudied in infants. In this study, we measured eHCoV and SARS-CoV-1 IgG antibody titers before and after SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in a cohort of Kenyan women and their infants. Pre-existing eHCoV antibody binding titers were not consistently associated with SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in infants or mothers; however, we observed a very modest association between pre-existing HCoV-229E antibody levels and a lack of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in the infants. After seroconversion to SARS-CoV-2, antibody binding titers to the endemic betacoronaviruses HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1, and the highly pathogenic betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-1, but not the endemic alphacoronaviruses HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63, increased in the mothers. However, eHCoV antibody levels did not increase following SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in the infants, suggesting the increase seen in the mothers was not simply due to cross-reactivity to naively generated SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. In contrast, the levels of antibodies that could bind SARS-CoV-1 increased after SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in both the mothers and infants, both of whom were unlikely to have had a prior SARS-CoV-1 infection, supporting prior findings that SARS-CoV-2 responses cross-react with SARS-CoV-1. In summary, we found evidence of increased eHCoV antibody levels following SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in the mothers but not the infants, suggesting eHCoV responses can be boosted by SARS-CoV-2 infection when a prior memory response has been established, and that pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies are not strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection risk in mothers or infants.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Infant , Kenya/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Virol ; 96(14): e0073822, 2022 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35762755

ABSTRACT

Respiratory coronaviruses cause serious health threats to humans and animals. Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCoV), a natural transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) mutant with partial spike deletion, causes mild respiratory disease and is an interesting animal respiratory coronavirus model for human respiratory coronaviruses. However, the absence of robust ex vivo models of porcine airway epithelium hinders an understanding of the pathogenesis of PRCoV infection. Here, we generated long-term porcine airway organoids (AOs) derived from basal epithelial cells, which recapitulate the in vivo airway complicated epithelial cellularity. Both 3D and 2D AOs are permissive for PRCoV infection. Unlike TGEV, which established successful infection in both AOs and intestinal organoids, PRCoV was strongly amplified only in AOs, not intestinal organoids. Furthermore, PRCoV infection in AOs mounted vigorous early type I and III interferon (IFN) responses and upregulated the expression of overzealous inflammatory genes, including pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and proinflammatory cytokines. Collectively, these data demonstrate that stem-derived porcine AOs can serve as a promising disease model for PRCoV infection and provide a valuable tool to study porcine respiratory infection. IMPORTANCE Porcine respiratory CoV (PRCoV), a natural mutant of TGEV, shows striking pathogenetic similarities to human respiratory CoV infection and provides an interesting animal model for human respiratory CoVs, including SARS-CoV-2. The lack of an in vitro model recapitulating the complicated cellularity and structure of the porcine respiratory tract is a major roadblock for the study of PRCoV infection. Here, we developed long-term 3D airway organoids (AOs) and further established 2D AO monolayer cultures. The resultant 3D and 2D AOs are permissive for PRCoV infection. Notably, PRCoV mediated pronounced IFN and inflammatory responses in AOs, which recapitulated the inflammatory responses associated with PRCoV in vivo infection. Therefore, porcine AOs can be utilized to characterize the pathogenesis of PRCoV and, more broadly, can serve as a universal platform for porcine respiratory infection.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Innate , Organoids , Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus , Respiratory System , Animals , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Organoids/immunology , Organoids/virology , Respiratory System/immunology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine
4.
Vet Pathol ; 59(4): 627-638, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499307

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging human coronaviruses (hCoVs) cause severe respiratory illness in humans, but the basis for lethal pneumonia in these diseases is not well understood. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are key orchestrators of host antiviral defense and tissue tolerance during a variety of respiratory infections, and AM dysfunction is associated with severe COVID-19. In this study, using a mouse model of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, we examined the role of AMs in MERS pathogenesis. Our results show that depletion of AMs using clodronate (CL) liposomes significantly increased morbidity and mortality in human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 knock-in (hDPP4-KI) mice. Detailed examination of control and AM-depleted lungs at different days postinfection revealed increased neutrophil activity but a significantly reduced MERS-CoV-specific CD4 T-cell response in AM-deficient lungs during later stages of infection. Furthermore, enhanced MERS severity in AM-depleted mice correlated with lung inflammation and lesions. Collectively, these data demonstrate that AMs are critical for the development of an optimal virus-specific T-cell response and controlling excessive inflammation during MERS-CoV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Macrophages, Alveolar , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pneumonia , Animals , Clodronic Acid , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/virology
5.
J Virol ; 96(11): e0036422, 2022 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35588276

ABSTRACT

Effective broad-spectrum antivirals are critical to prevent and control emerging human coronavirus (hCoV) infections. Despite considerable progress made toward identifying and evaluating several synthetic broad-spectrum antivirals against hCoV infections, a narrow therapeutic window has limited their success. Enhancing the endogenous interferon (IFN) and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) response is another antiviral strategy that has been known for decades. However, the side effects of pegylated type-I IFNs (IFN-Is) and the proinflammatory response detected after delayed IFN-I therapy have discouraged their clinical use. In contrast to IFN-Is, IFN-λ, a dominant IFN at the epithelial surface, has been shown to be less proinflammatory. Consequently, we evaluated the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of IFN-λ in hCoV-infected airway epithelial cells and mice. Human primary airway epithelial cells treated with a single dose of IFN-I (IFN-α) and IFN-λ showed similar ISG expression, whereas cells treated with two doses of IFN-λ expressed elevated levels of ISG compared to that of IFN-α-treated cells. Similarly, mice treated with two doses of IFN-λ were better protected than mice that received a single dose, and a combination of prophylactic and delayed therapeutic regimens completely protected mice from a lethal Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV) infection. A two-dose IFN-λ regimen significantly reduced lung viral titers and inflammatory cytokine levels with marked improvement in lung inflammation. Collectively, we identified an effective regimen for IFN-λ use and demonstrated the protective efficacy of IFN-λ in MERS-CoV-infected mice. IMPORTANCE Effective antiviral agents are urgently required to prevent and treat individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 and other emerging viral infections. The COVID-19 pandemic has catapulted our efforts to identify, develop, and evaluate several antiviral agents. However, a narrow therapeutic window has limited the protective efficacy of several broad-spectrum and CoV-specific antivirals. IFN-λ is an antiviral agent of interest due to its ability to induce a robust endogenous antiviral state and low levels of inflammation. Here, we evaluated the protective efficacy and effective treatment regimen of IFN-λ in mice infected with a lethal dose of MERS-CoV. We show that while prophylactic and early therapeutic IFN-λ administration is protective, delayed treatment is detrimental. Notably, a combination of prophylactic and delayed therapeutic administration of IFN-λ protected mice from severe MERS. Our results highlight the prophylactic and therapeutic use of IFN-λ against lethal hCoV and likely other viral lung infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Coronavirus Infections , Interferons , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Interferons/pharmacology , Mice
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(21): e2123208119, 2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594398

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged into humans in 2012, causing highly lethal respiratory disease. The severity of disease may be, in part, because MERS-CoV is adept at antagonizing early innate immune pathways­interferon (IFN) production and signaling, protein kinase R (PKR), and oligoadenylate synthetase/ribonuclease L (OAS/RNase L)­activated in response to viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) generated during genome replication. This is in contrast to severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which we recently reported to activate PKR and RNase L and, to some extent, IFN signaling. We previously found that MERS-CoV accessory proteins NS4a (dsRNA binding protein) and NS4b (phosphodiesterase) could weakly suppress these pathways, but ablation of each had minimal effect on virus replication. Here we investigated the antagonist effects of the conserved coronavirus endoribonuclease (EndoU), in combination with NS4a or NS4b. Inactivation of EndoU catalytic activity alone in a recombinant MERS-CoV caused little if any effect on activation of the innate immune pathways during infection. However, infection with recombinant viruses containing combined mutations with inactivation of EndoU and deletion of NS4a or inactivation of the NS4b phosphodiesterase promoted robust activation of dsRNA-induced innate immune pathways. This resulted in at least tenfold attenuation of replication in human lung­derived A549 and primary nasal cells. Furthermore, replication of these recombinant viruses could be rescued to the level of wild-type MERS-CoV by knockout of host immune mediators MAVS, PKR, or RNase L. Thus, EndoU and accessory proteins NS4a and NS4b together suppress dsRNA-induced innate immunity during MERS-CoV infection in order to optimize viral replication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Endoribonucleases/genetics , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lung/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Nasal Mucosa , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Uridylate-Specific Endoribonucleases
7.
J Virol ; 96(11): e0046922, 2022 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35583324

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus (CoV) nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) inhibits cellular gene expression and antagonizes interferon (IFN) response. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infects pigs and causes high mortality in neonatal piglets. We hypothesized that a recombinant PEDV carrying mutations at the conserved residues N93 and N95 of nsp1 induces higher IFN responses and is more sensitive to IFN responses, leading to virus attenuation. We mutated PEDV nsp1 N93 and N95 to A93 and A95 to generate the recombinant N93/95A virus using the infectious clone of a highly virulent PEDV strain, PC22A (icPC22A), and evaluated N93/95A virus in vitro and in vivo. Compared with icPC22A, the N93/95A mutant replicated to significantly lower infectious titers, triggered stronger type I and III IFN responses, and was more sensitive to IFN treatment in vitro. To evaluate the pathogenicity and immunogenicity, 5-day-old gnotobiotic piglets were orally inoculated with the N93/95A or icPC22A strain or mock inoculated and then challenged at 22 days postinoculation (dpi) with icPC22A. icPC22A in all pigs (100% [5/5]) caused severe diarrhea and death within 6 dpi. Only one pig (25% [1/4]) died in the N93/95A group. Compared with the icPC22A group, significantly delayed and diminished fecal PEDV shedding was detected in the N93/95A group. Postchallenge, all piglets in N93/95A group were protected from severe diarrhea and death, whereas all pigs in the mock-challenged group developed severe diarrhea, and 25% (1/4) of them died. In summary, nsp1 N93A and N95A mutations attenuated PEDV but retained viral immunogenicity and can be targets for the development of live attenuated vaccines for PEDV. IMPORTANCE PEDV causes porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) and remains a great threat to the swine industry worldwide because no effective vaccines are available yet. Safe and effective live attenuated vaccines can be designed using reverse genetics to induce lactogenic immunity in pregnant sows to protect piglets from the deadly PED. We found that an engineered PEDV mutant carrying N93A and N95A mutations of nsp1 was partially attenuated and remained immunogenic in neonatal pigs. Our study suggested that nsp1 N93 and N95 can be good targets for the rational design of live attenuated vaccines for PEDV using reverse genetics. Because CoV nsp1 is conserved among alphacoronaviruses (α-CoVs) and betacoronaviruses (ß-CoVs), it may be a good target for vaccine development for other α-CoVs or ß-CoVs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Interferons , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/virology , Female , Interferons/immunology , Mutation , Swine , Swine Diseases/immunology , Swine Diseases/virology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
8.
J Virol ; 96(7): e0015822, 2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35311551

ABSTRACT

Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) and MHC-II molecules, mainly being responsible for the processing and presentation of intracellular or extracellular antigen, respectively, are critical for antiviral immunity. Here, we reported that porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) with the zoonotic potential and potential spillover from pigs to humans, upregulated the expressions of porcine MHC-I (swine leukocyte antigen class I, SLA-I) molecules and SLA-I antigen presentation associated genes instead of porcine MHC-II (SLA-II) molecules both in primary porcine enteroids and swine testicular (ST) cells at the late stage of infection, and this finding was verified in vivo. Moreover, the induction of SLA-I molecules by PDCoV infection was mediated through enhancing the expression of NOD-like receptor (NLR) family caspase recruitment domain-containing 5 (NLRC5). Mechanistic studies demonstrated that PDCoV infection robustly elevated retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) expression, and further initiated the downstream type I interferon beta (IFN-ß) production, which led to the upregulation of NLRC5 and SLA-I genes. Likewise, interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) elicited by PDCoV infection directly activated the promoter activity of NLRC5, resulting in an increased expression of NLRC5 and SLA-I upregulation. Taken together, our findings advance our understanding of how PDCoV manipulates MHC molecules, and knowledge that could help inform the development of therapies and vaccines against PDCoV. IMPORTANCE MHC-I molecules play a crucial role in antiviral immunity by presenting intracellular antigens to CD8+T lymphocytes and eliminating virus-infected cells by natural killer cells' "missing-self recognition." However, the manipulation of MHC molecules by coronaviruses remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that PDCoV, a zoonotic potential coronavirus efficiently infecting cells from broad species, greatly increased the expressions of porcine MHC-I (SLA-I) molecules and MHC-I antigen presentation associated genes but not porcine MHC-II (SLA-II) molecules both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, the upregulation of MHC-I molecules by PDCoV infection required the master transactivator of MHC-I, NLRC5, which was mediated not only by RIG-I-initiated type I IFN signaling pathway but also by IRF1 induced by PDCoV as it could activate NLRC5 promoter activity. These results provide significant insights into the modification of the MHC class I pathway and may provide a potential therapeutic intervention for PDCoV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Deltacoronavirus , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Deltacoronavirus/immunology , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/genetics , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/metabolism , Swine
9.
J Virol ; 96(8): e0016922, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35343762

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1) and SARS-CoV-2 are highly pathogenic to humans and have caused pandemics in 2003 and 2019, respectively. Genetically diverse SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been detected or isolated from bats, and some of these viruses have been demonstrated to utilize human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor and to have the potential to spill over to humans. A pan-sarbecovirus vaccine that provides protection against SARSr-CoV infection is urgently needed. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine against recombinant SARSr-CoVs carrying two different spike proteins (named rWIV1 and rRsSHC014S, respectively). Although serum neutralizing assays showed limited cross-reactivity between the three viruses, the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine provided full protection against SARS-CoV-2 and rWIV1 and partial protection against rRsSHC014S infection in human ACE2 transgenic mice. Passive transfer of SARS-CoV-2-vaccinated mouse sera provided low protection for rWIV1 but not for rRsSHC014S infection in human ACE2 mice. A specific cellular immune response induced by WIV1 membrane protein peptides was detected in the vaccinated animals, which may explain the cross-protection of the inactivated vaccine. This study shows the possibility of developing a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine against SARSr-CoVs for future preparedness. IMPORTANCE The genetic diversity of SARSr-CoVs in wildlife and their potential risk of cross-species infection highlight the necessity of developing wide-spectrum vaccines against infection of various SARSr-CoVs. In this study, we tested the protective efficacy of the SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine (IAV) against two SARSr-CoVs with different spike proteins in human ACE2 transgenic mice. We demonstrate that the SARS-CoV-2 IAV provides full protection against rWIV1 and partial protection against rRsSHC014S. The T-cell response stimulated by the M protein may account for the cross protection against heterogeneous SARSr-CoVs. Our findings suggest the feasibility of the development of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines, which can be a strategy of preparedness for future outbreaks caused by novel SARSr-CoVs from wildlife.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections , Cross Protection , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Inactivated , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chiroptera , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Protection/immunology , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control
10.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 242, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35304580

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has incited a global health crisis. Currently, there are limited therapeutic options for the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infections. We evaluated the antiviral activity of sulforaphane (SFN), the principal biologically active phytochemical derived from glucoraphanin, the naturally occurring precursor present in high concentrations in cruciferous vegetables. SFN inhibited in vitro replication of six strains of SARS-CoV-2, including Delta and Omicron, as well as that of the seasonal coronavirus HCoV-OC43. Further, SFN and remdesivir interacted synergistically to inhibit coronavirus infection in vitro. Prophylactic administration of SFN to K18-hACE2 mice prior to intranasal SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly decreased the viral load in the lungs and upper respiratory tract and reduced lung injury and pulmonary pathology compared to untreated infected mice. SFN treatment diminished immune cell activation in the lungs, including significantly lower recruitment of myeloid cells and a reduction in T cell activation and cytokine production. Our results suggest that SFN should be explored as a potential agent for the prevention or treatment of coronavirus infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Common Cold/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Isothiocyanates/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfoxides/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Common Cold/virology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Drug Synergism , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Male , Mice, Transgenic , Spleen/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Load
11.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 5589089, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35281470

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused relatively high mortality in patients, especially in those with concomitant diseases (i.e., diabetes, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)). In most of aforementioned comorbidities, the oxidative stress appears to be an important player in their pathogenesis. The direct cause of death in critically ill patients with COVID-19 is still far from being elucidated. Although some preliminary data suggests that the lung vasculature injury and the loss of the functioning part of pulmonary alveolar population are crucial, the precise mechanism is still unclear. On the other hand, at least two classes of medications used with some clinical benefits in COVID-19 treatment seem to have a major influence on ROS (reactive oxygen species) and RNS (reactive nitrogen species) production. However, oxidative stress is one of the important mechanisms in the antiviral immune response and innate immunity. Therefore, it would be of interest to summarize the data regarding the oxidative stress in severe COVID-19. In this review, we discuss the role of oxidative and antioxidant mechanisms in severe COVID-19 based on available studies. We also present the role of ROS and RNS in other viral infections in humans and in animal models. Although reactive oxygen and nitrogen species play an important role in the innate antiviral immune response, in some situations, they might have a deleterious effect, e.g., in some coronaviral infections. The understanding of the redox mechanisms in severe COVID-19 disease may have an impact on its treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/immunology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Reactive Nitrogen Species/immunology , Reactive Nitrogen Species/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/immunology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
12.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263582, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139120

ABSTRACT

The membrane protein M of the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) is the most abundant component of the viral envelope. The M protein plays a central role in the morphogenesis and assembly of the virus through protein interactions of the M-M, M-Spike (S) and M-nucleocapsid (N) type. The M protein is known to induce protective antibodies in pigs and to participate in the antagonistic response of the cellular antiviral system coordinated by the type I and type III interferon pathways. The 3D structure of the PEDV M protein is still unknown. The present work exposes a predicted 3D model of the M protein generated using the Robetta protocol. The M protein model is organized into a transmembrane and a globular region. The obtained 3D model of the PEDV M protein was compared with 3D models of the SARS-CoV-2 M protein created using neural networks and with initial machine learning-based models created using trRosetta. The 3D model of the present study predicted four linear B-cell epitopes (RSVNASSGTG and KHGDYSAVSNPSALT peptides are noteworthy), six discontinuous B-cell epitopes, forty weak binding and fourteen strong binding T-cell epitopes in the CV777 M protein. A high degree of conservation of the epitopes predicted in the PEDV M protein was observed among different PEDV strains isolated in different countries. The data suggest that the M protein could be a potential candidate for the development of new treatments or strategies that activate protective cellular mechanisms against viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus M Proteins/chemistry , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/chemistry , Swine Diseases/virology , Swine/virology , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus M Proteins/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Models, Molecular , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Protein Conformation , Swine Diseases/immunology
13.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0278021, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196796

ABSTRACT

Understanding the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is critical to overcome the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Efforts are being made to understand the potential cross-protective immunity of memory T cells, induced by prior encounters with seasonal coronaviruses, in providing protection against severe COVID-19. In this study we assessed T-cell responses directed against highly conserved regions of SARS-CoV-2. Epitope mapping revealed 16 CD8+ T-cell epitopes across the nucleocapsid (N), spike (S), and open reading frame (ORF)3a proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and five CD8+ T-cell epitopes encoded within the highly conserved regions of the ORF1ab polyprotein of SARS-CoV-2. Comparative sequence analysis showed high conservation of SARS-CoV-2 ORF1ab T-cell epitopes in seasonal coronaviruses. Paradoxically, the immune responses directed against the conserved ORF1ab epitopes were infrequent and subdominant in both convalescent and unexposed participants. This subdominant immune response was consistent with a low abundance of ORF1ab encoded proteins in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. Overall, these observations suggest that while cross-reactive CD8+ T cells likely exist in unexposed individuals, they are not common and therefore are unlikely to play a significant role in providing broad preexisting immunity in the community. IMPORTANCE T cells play a critical role in protection against SARS-CoV-2. Despite being highly topical, the protective role of preexisting memory CD8+ T cells, induced by prior exposure to circulating common coronavirus strains, remains less clear. In this study, we established a robust approach to specifically assess T cell responses to highly conserved regions within SARS-CoV-2. Consistent with recent observations we demonstrate that recognition of these highly conserved regions is associated with an increased likelihood of milder disease. However, extending these observations we observed that recognition of these conserved regions is rare in both exposed and unexposed volunteers, which we believe is associated with the low abundance of these proteins in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. These observations have important implications for the likely role preexisting immunity plays in controlling severe disease, further emphasizing the importance of vaccination to generate the immunodominant T cells required for immune protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Conserved Sequence , Coronavirus/chemistry , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Reactions , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 823949, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35173733

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emergent coronavirus that has caused frequent zoonotic events through camel-to-human spillover. An effective camelid vaccination strategy is probably the best way to reduce human exposure risk. Here, we constructed and evaluated an inactivated rabies virus-vectored MERS-CoV vaccine in mice, camels, and alpacas. Potent antigen-specific antibody and CD8+ T-cell responses were generated in mice; moreover, the vaccination reduced viral replication and accelerated virus clearance in MERS-CoV-infected mice. Besides, protective antibody responses against both MERS-CoV and rabies virus were induced in camels and alpacas. Satisfyingly, the immune sera showed broad cross-neutralizing activity against the three main MERS-CoV clades. For further characterization of the antibody response induced in camelids, MERS-CoV-specific variable domains of heavy-chain-only antibody (VHHs) were isolated from immunized alpacas and showed potent prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies in the Ad5-hDPP4-transduced mouse model. These results highlight the inactivated rabies virus-vectored MERS-CoV vaccine as a promising camelid candidate vaccine.


Subject(s)
Camelids, New World/virology , Camelus/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Camelids, New World/immunology , Camelus/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cricetinae , Female , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Rabies virus/genetics , Rabies virus/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Vaccines/genetics
17.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35062368

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a major complication of the respiratory illness coronavirus disease 2019, with a death rate reaching up to 40%. The main underlying cause of ARDS is a cytokine storm that results in a dysregulated immune response. This review discusses the role of cytokines and chemokines in SARS-CoV-2 and its predecessors SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, with particular emphasis on the elevated levels of inflammatory mediators that are shown to be correlated with disease severity. For this purpose, we reviewed and analyzed clinical studies, research articles, and reviews published on PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. This review illustrates the role of the innate and adaptive immune responses in SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 and identifies the general cytokine and chemokine profile in each of the three infections, focusing on the most prominent inflammatory mediators primarily responsible for the COVID-19 pathogenesis. The current treatment protocols or medications in clinical trials were reviewed while focusing on those targeting cytokines and chemokines. Altogether, the identified cytokines and chemokines profiles in SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 provide important information to better understand SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and highlight the importance of using prominent inflammatory mediators as markers for disease diagnosis and management. Our findings recommend that the use of immunosuppression cocktails provided to patients should be closely monitored and continuously assessed to maintain the desirable effects of cytokines and chemokines needed to fight the SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. The current gap in evidence is the lack of large clinical trials to determine the optimal and effective dosage and timing for a therapeutic regimen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Chemokines/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
18.
J Mol Biol ; 434(6): 167438, 2022 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990653

ABSTRACT

Recognition of viral infections by various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) activates an inflammatory cytokine response that inhibits viral replication and orchestrates the activation of adaptive immune responses to control the viral infection. The broadly active innate immune response puts a strong selective pressure on viruses and drives the selection of variants with increased capabilities to subvert the induction and function of antiviral cytokines. This revolutionary process dynamically shapes the host ranges, cell tropism and pathogenesis of viruses. Recent studies on the innate immune responses to the infection of human coronaviruses (HCoV), particularly SARS-CoV-2, revealed that HCoV infections can be sensed by endosomal toll-like receptors and/or cytoplasmic RIG-I-like receptors in various cell types. However, the profiles of inflammatory cytokines and transcriptome response induced by a specific HCoV are usually cell type specific and determined by the virus-specific mechanisms of subverting the induction and function of interferons and inflammatory cytokines as well as the genetic trait of the host genes of innate immune pathways. We review herein the recent literatures on the innate immune responses and their roles in the pathogenesis of HCoV infections with emphasis on the pathobiological roles and therapeutic effects of type I interferons in HCoV infections and their antiviral mechanisms. The knowledge on the mechanism of innate immune control of HCoV infections and viral evasions should facilitate the development of therapeutics for induction of immune resolution of HCoV infections and vaccines for efficient control of COVID-19 pandemics and other HCoV infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Drug Development , Immune Evasion , Interferon Type I , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon Type I/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
20.
Virology ; 566: 75-88, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890893

ABSTRACT

The infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) 4/91 was one of the common IBV variants isolated in Eastern Canada between 2013 and 2017 from chicken flocks showing severe respiratory and production problems. We designed an in vivo experiment, using specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens, to study the pathogenesis of, and host response to, Canadian (CAN) 4/91 IBV infection. At one week of age, the chickens were infected with 4/91 IBV/Ck/Can/17-038913 isolate. Swab samples were collected at predetermined time points. Five birds from the infected and the control groups were euthanized at 3, 7- and 10-days post-infection (dpi) to collect lung and kidney tissues. The results indicate IBV replication in these tissues at all three time points with prominent histological lesions, significant immune cell recruitment and up regulation of proinflammatory mediators. Overall, our findings add to the understanding of the pathogenesis of 4/91 infection and the subsequent host responses in the lungs and kidneys following experimental infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Infectious bronchitis virus/pathogenicity , Kidney/immunology , Lung/immunology , Poultry Diseases/immunology , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Avian Proteins/genetics , Avian Proteins/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , Canada , Cell Movement , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gene Expression , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/growth & development , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Interferon-gamma/genetics , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Kidney/virology , Lung/virology , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/virology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/genetics , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/immunology , Poultry Diseases/pathology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Viral Load , Virus Replication
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...