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1.
Virology ; 565: 58-64, 2022 01 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739917

ABSTRACT

Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea (PED) is a highly contagious intestinal disease which mostly caused by Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV). The PED has caused huge economic losses to the pig industry all over the world and a valid PEDV vaccine is needed to prevent the infection. In this study, we constructed expression plasmid based on the spike (S) gene of the epidemic PEDV strain. The recombinant eukaryotic S (Se) and prokaryotic S (Sp) subunit proteins were expressed and purified as vaccine antigens. We designed a new subunit vaccine based on S proteins, adjuvanted with layered double hydroxide (LDH). The results indicated that the LDH adjuvanted subunit vaccines induced a better immune effect in terms of antibody level and cellular immune response. In conclusion, this study showed a new design of a PEDV subunit vaccine with nanotechnology and demonstrated the potential for its clinical application.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Hydroxides/chemistry , Immunity , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , /chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epidemics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Nanotechnology/methods , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Swine , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Swine Diseases/virology , /methods
2.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 69(1): 185-202, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794674

ABSTRACT

Prevention of emerging infections in children is a dynamic arena where substantial medical advances have enabled intervention and prevention of infection outbreaks. This article discusses 5 infections causing significant morbidity and mortality across Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Avian influenza and the Middle East respiratory syndrome are highly contagious zoonoses spread through aerosol and droplets, affecting predominantly Asia. Dengue infection and chikungunya are endemic mosquito-borne viruses in tropical regions across Asia, Latin America, and Africa. Ebola is a highly contagious virus spread through human-to-human contact. The latest information in clinical manifestations, infection, prevention control, chemoprophylaxis, vaccination, and public health measures is reviewed.


Subject(s)
Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Dengue/prevention & control , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Adolescent , Africa , Animals , Asia , Birds , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Global Health , Humans , Infant , Influenza in Birds/prevention & control , Latin America , Vaccination/methods
3.
J Virol Methods ; 299: 114347, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728273

ABSTRACT

The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), belonging to the family Coronaviridae and genus Betacoronavirus, has been recognized as a highly pathogenic virus. Due to the lack of therapeutic or preventive agents against MERS-CoV, developing an effective vaccine is essential for preventing a viral outbreak. To address this, we developed a recombinant S1 subunit of MERS-CoV spike protein fused with the human IgG4 Fc fragment (LV-MS1-Fc) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Thereafter, we identified the baculovirus gp64 signal peptide-directed secretion of LV-MS1-Fc protein in the extracellular fluid. To demonstrate the immunogenicity of the recombinant LV-MS1-Fc proteins, BALB/c mice were inoculated with 2.5 µg of LV-MS1-Fc. The inoculated mice demonstrated a significant humoral immune response, measured via total IgG and neutralizing antibodies. In addition, human dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) transgenic mice vaccinated with LV-MS1-Fc showed the protective capacity of LV-MS1-Fc against MERS-CoV with no inflammatory cell infiltration. These data showed that the S1 and Fc fusion protein induced potent humoral immunity and antigen-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice, and conferred protection against coronavirus viral challenge, indicating that LV-MS1-Fc is an effective vaccine candidate against MERS-CoV infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , CHO Cells , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2410: 149-175, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34914046

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are causative agents of different zoonosis including SARS, MERS, or COVID-19 in humans. The high transmission rate of coronaviruses, the time-consuming development of efficient anti-infectives and vaccines, the possible evolutionary adaptation of the virus to conventional vaccines, and the challenge to cover broad human population worldwide are the major reasons that made it challenging to avoid coronaviruses outbreaks. Although, a plethora of different approaches are being followed to design and develop vaccines against coronaviruses, most of them target subunits, full-length single, or only a very limited number of proteins. Vaccine targeting multiple proteins or even the entire proteome of the coronavirus is yet to come. In the present chapter, we will be discussing multi-epitope vaccine (MEV) and multi-patch vaccine (MPV) approaches to design and develop efficient and sustainably successful strategies against coronaviruses. MEV and MPV utilize highly conserved, potentially immunogenic epitopes and antigenic patches, respectively, and hence they have the potential to target large number of coronavirus proteins or even its entire proteome, allowing us to combat the challenge of its evolutionary adaptation. In addition, the large number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles targeted by the chosen specific epitopes enables MEV and MPV to cover broader global population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Viral Vaccines , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Proteome , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Vaccines/immunology
5.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 42(6): 828-838, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34918324

ABSTRACT

The past two decades have witnessed the emergence of three zoonotic coronaviruses which have jumped species to cause lethal disease in humans: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2. MERS-CoV emerged in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and the origins of MERS-CoV are not fully understood. Genomic analysis indicates it originated in bats and transmitted to camels. Human-to-human transmission occurs in varying frequency, being highest in healthcare environment and to a lesser degree in the community and among family members. Several nosocomial outbreaks of human-to-human transmission have occurred, the largest in Riyadh and Jeddah in 2014 and South Korea in 2015. MERS-CoV remains a high-threat pathogen identified by World Health Organization as a priority pathogen because it causes severe disease that has a high mortality rate, epidemic potential, and no medical countermeasures. MERS-CoV has been identified in dromedaries in several countries in the Middle East, Africa, and South Asia. MERS-CoV-2 causes a wide range of clinical presentations, although the respiratory system is predominantly affected. There are no specific antiviral treatments, although recent trials indicate that combination antivirals may be useful in severely ill patients. Diagnosing MERS-CoV early and implementation infection control measures are critical to preventing hospital-associated outbreaks. Preventing MERS relies on avoiding unpasteurized or uncooked animal products, practicing safe hygiene habits in health care settings and around dromedaries, community education and awareness training for health workers, as well as implementing effective control measures. Effective vaccines for MERS-COV are urgently needed but still under development.


Subject(s)
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Camelus/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19930, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620923

ABSTRACT

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by aerosols has played a significant role in the rapid spread of COVID-19 across the globe. Indoor environments with inadequate ventilation pose a serious infection risk. Whilst vaccines suppress transmission, they are not 100% effective and the risk from variants and new viruses always remains. Consequently, many efforts have focused on ways to disinfect air. One such method involves use of minimally hazardous 222 nm far-UVC light. Whilst a small number of controlled experimental studies have been conducted, determining the efficacy of this approach is difficult because chamber or room geometry, and the air flow within them, influences both far-UVC illumination and aerosol dwell times. Fortunately, computational multiphysics modelling allows the inadequacy of dose-averaged assessment of viral inactivation to be overcome in these complex situations. This article presents the first validation of the WYVERN radiation-CFD code for far-UVC air-disinfection against survival fraction measurements, and the first measurement-informed modelling approach to estimating far-UVC susceptibility of viruses in air. As well as demonstrating the reliability of the code, at circa 70% higher, our findings indicate that aerosolized human coronaviruses are significantly more susceptible to far-UVC than previously thought.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human/radiation effects , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus OC43, Human/radiation effects , Disinfection/methods , Ultraviolet Rays , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , Aerosols/isolation & purification , Air Microbiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus 229E, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , Disinfection/instrumentation , Equipment Design , Humans , Models, Biological
8.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 224: 112319, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34598020

ABSTRACT

The germicidal properties of short wavelength ultraviolet C (UVC) light are well established and used to inactivate many viruses and other microbes. However, much less is known about germicidal effects of terrestrial solar UV light, confined exclusively to wavelengths in the UVA and UVB regions. Here, we have explored the sensitivity of the human coronaviruses HCoV-NL63 and SARS-CoV-2 to solar-simulated full spectrum ultraviolet light (sUV) delivered at environmentally relevant doses. First, HCoV-NL63 coronavirus inactivation by sUV-exposure was confirmed employing (i) viral plaque assays, (ii) RT-qPCR detection of viral genome replication, and (iii) infection-induced stress response gene expression array analysis. Next, a detailed dose-response relationship of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus inactivation by sUV was elucidated, suggesting a half maximal suppression of viral infectivity at low sUV doses. Likewise, extended sUV exposure of SARS-CoV-2 blocked cellular infection as revealed by plaque assay and stress response gene expression array analysis. Moreover, comparative (HCoV-NL63 versus SARS-CoV-2) single gene expression analysis by RT-qPCR confirmed that sUV exposure blocks coronavirus-induced redox, inflammatory, and proteotoxic stress responses. Based on our findings, we estimate that solar ground level full spectrum UV light impairs coronavirus infectivity at environmentally relevant doses. Given the urgency and global scale of the unfolding SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, these prototype data suggest feasibility of solar UV-induced viral inactivation, an observation deserving further molecular exploration in more relevant exposure models.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus NL63, Human/radiation effects , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Sunlight , Ultraviolet Rays , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus NL63, Human/physiology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Genome, Viral/radiation effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transcriptome/radiation effects , Viral Plaque Assay , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , Virus Replication/radiation effects
9.
Cell Rep ; 37(5): 109929, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710354

ABSTRACT

Current coronavirus (CoV) vaccines primarily target immunodominant epitopes in the S1 subunit, which are poorly conserved and susceptible to escape mutations, thus threatening vaccine efficacy. Here, we use structure-guided protein engineering to remove the S1 subunit from the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein and develop stabilized stem (SS) antigens. Vaccination with MERS SS elicits cross-reactive ß-CoV antibody responses and protects mice against lethal MERS-CoV challenge. High-throughput screening of antibody-secreting cells from MERS SS-immunized mice led to the discovery of a panel of cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies. Among them, antibody IgG22 binds with high affinity to both MERS-CoV and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 S proteins, and a combination of electron microscopy and crystal structures localizes the epitope to a conserved coiled-coil region in the S2 subunit. Passive transfer of IgG22 protects mice against both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Collectively, these results provide a proof of principle for cross-reactive CoV antibodies and inform the development of pan-CoV vaccines and therapeutic antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Reactions , Drug Design , Epitope Mapping , Female , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Vaccines/immunology
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(43)2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34686605

ABSTRACT

Self-amplifying RNA replicons are promising platforms for vaccine generation. Their defects in one or more essential functions for viral replication, particle assembly, or dissemination make them highly safe as vaccines. We previously showed that the deletion of the envelope (E) gene from the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) produces a replication-competent propagation-defective RNA replicon (MERS-CoV-ΔE). Evaluation of this replicon in mice expressing human dipeptidyl peptidase 4, the virus receptor, showed that the single deletion of the E gene generated an attenuated mutant. The combined deletion of the E gene with accessory open reading frames (ORFs) 3, 4a, 4b, and 5 resulted in a highly attenuated propagation-defective RNA replicon (MERS-CoV-Δ[3,4a,4b,5,E]). This RNA replicon induced sterilizing immunity in mice after challenge with a lethal dose of a virulent MERS-CoV, as no histopathological damage or infectious virus was detected in the lungs of challenged mice. The four mutants lacking the E gene were genetically stable, did not recombine with the E gene provided in trans during their passage in cell culture, and showed a propagation-defective phenotype in vivo. In addition, immunization with MERS-CoV-Δ[3,4a,4b,5,E] induced significant levels of neutralizing antibodies, indicating that MERS-CoV RNA replicons are highly safe and promising vaccine candidates.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , RNA, Viral/administration & dosage , Replicon , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Defective Viruses/genetics , Defective Viruses/immunology , Female , Gene Deletion , Genes, env , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/immunology , Vaccines, DNA , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/genetics , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/immunology , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virulence/genetics , Virulence/immunology
11.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2603-2613, 2021 Aug 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472281

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is a major disease of pigs that inflicts heavy losses on the global pig industry. The etiologic agent is the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which is assigned to the genus Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae. This review consists of five parts, the first of which provides a brief introduction to PEDV and its epidemiology. Part two outlines the passive immunity in new born piglets and the important role of colostrum, while the third part summarizes the characteristics of the immune systems of pregnant sows, discusses the concept of the "gut-mammary gland-secretory IgA(sIgA) axis" and the possible underpinning mechanisms, and proposes issues to be addressed when designing a PEDV live vaccine. The final two parts summarizes the advances in the R&D of PEDV vaccines and prospects future perspectives on prevention and control of PEDV, respectively.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Female , Immunization , Pregnancy , Swine , Swine Diseases/prevention & control
12.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2779-2785, 2021 Aug 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472295

ABSTRACT

To investigate whether the engineered Lactobacillus plantarum expressing the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) S1 gene can protect animals against PEDV, guinea pigs were fed with recombinant L. plantarum containing plasmid PVE5523-S1, with a dose of 2×108 CFU/piece, three times a day, at 14 days intervals. Guinea pigs fed with wild type L. plantarum and the engineered L. plantarum containing empty plasmid pVE5523 were used as negative controls. For positive control, another group of guinea pigs were injected with live vaccine for porcine epidemic diarrhea and porcine infectious gastroenteritis (HB08+ZJ08) by intramuscular injection, with a dose of 0.2 mL/piece, three times a day, at 14 days intervals. Blood samples were collected from the hearts of the four groups of guinea pigs at 0 d, 7 d, 14 d, 24 d, 31 d, 41 d and 48 d, respectively, and serum samples were isolated for antibody detection and neutralization test analysis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The spleens of guinea pigs were also aseptically collected to perform spleen cells proliferation assay. The results showed that the engineered bacteria could stimulate the production of secretory antibody sIgA and specific neutralizing antibody, and stimulate the increase of IL-4 and IFN-γ, as well as the proliferation of spleen cells. These results indicated that the engineered L. plantarum containing PEDV S1 induced specific immunity toward PEDV in guinea pigs, which laid a foundation for subsequent oral vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Lactobacillus plantarum , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Guinea Pigs , Lactobacillus plantarum/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Swine , Viral Vaccines/genetics
13.
Avian Dis ; 65(1): 18-25, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339117

ABSTRACT

Severity of the tracheal histologic inflammatory response induced in broilers by ocular inoculation of two infectious bronchitis (IBV) and three Newcastle disease virus (NDV) commercial vaccines were evaluated. The vaccine was delivered by eye drop with a coarse spray to day-old chicks. The vaccines were given individually or in various combinations and were evaluated relative to nonvaccinated controls. Evaluations were performed on postvaccination (PV) days 7 and 14. Histologic endpoints included semiquantitative severity scoring of inflammatory components and quantitative morphometric determinations of inflammatory cell concentration, mucosal thickness, and percentage of ciliated mucosal surface. Strong positive correlations were observed between routine severity scoring and morphometric inflammatory parameters, whereas a negative correlation was present between inflammation severity and the percentage of mucosal ciliation. Variable, sometimes extensive, and often statistically significant differences in inflammatory responses were observed between the various vaccines. One IBV Massachusetts strain vaccine (IBV-A) produced the greatest overall inflammatory response when given alone or in combination with the NDV vaccines. Enhancement of tracheitis was seen on PV day 14 by covaccination of IBV-A with the NDV vaccines, but not by covaccination of another IBV Massachusetts strain vaccine (IBV-B) with NDV. Reduction in cilia percentage was observed for all vaccine groups relative to controls on PV day 7. However, although reactive cilia regeneration occurred on PV day 14 for most vaccine groups, a cilia regenerative response was not apparent for individual or NDV combination vaccination for IBV-A. The study also demonstrates that substantial microscopic trachea pathology may be present in vaccinated birds not exhibiting apparent clinical respiratory signs.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Newcastle Disease/prevention & control , Newcastle disease virus/immunology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Vaccination/veterinary , Viral Vaccines/adverse effects , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Newcastle Disease/virology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Trachea/pathology , Trachea/virology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Combined/adverse effects
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27026, 2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449478

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is no definite conclusion about comparison of better effectiveness between N95 respirators and medical masks in preventing health-care workers (HCWs) from respiratory infectious diseases, so that conflicting results and recommendations regarding the protective effects may cause difficulties for selection and compliance of respiratory personal protective equipment use for HCWs, especially facing with pandemics of corona virus disease 2019. METHODS: We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, medRxiv, and Google Scholar from initiation to November 10, 2020 for randomized controlled trials, case-control studies, cohort studies, and cross-sectional studies that reported protective effects of masks or respirators for HCWs against respiratory infectious diseases. We gathered data and pooled differences in protective effects according to different types of masks, pathogens, occupations, concurrent measures, and clinical settings. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO (registration number: 42020173279). RESULTS: We identified 4165 articles, reviewed the full text of 66 articles selected by abstracts. Six randomized clinical trials and 26 observational studies were included finally. By 2 separate conventional meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials of common respiratory viruses and observational studies of pandemic H1N1, pooled effects show no significant difference between N95 respirators and medical masks against common respiratory viruses for laboratory-confirmed respiratory virus infection (risk ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86-1.13, I2 = 0.0%), clinical respiratory illness (risk ratio 0.89, 95% CI 0.45-1.09, I2 = 83.7%, P = .002), influenza-like illness (risk ratio 0.75, 95% CI 0.54-1.05, I2 = 0.0%), and pandemic H1N1 for laboratory-confirmed respiratory virus infection (odds ratio 0.92, 95% CI 0.49-1.70, I2 = 0.0%, P = .967). But by network meta-analysis, N95 respirators has a significantly stronger protection for HCWs from betacoronaviruses of severe acute respiratory syndrome, middle east respiratory syndrome, and corona virus disease 2019 (odds ratio 0.43, 95% CI 0.20-0.94). CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide moderate and very-low quality evidence of no significant difference between N95 respirators and medical masks for common respiratory viruses and pandemic H1N1, respectively. And we found low quality evidence that N95 respirators had a stronger protective effectiveness for HCWs against betacoronaviruses causative diseases compared to medical masks. The evidence of comparison between N95 respirators and medical masks for corona virus disease 2019 is open to question and needs further study.


Subject(s)
Health Personnel , Masks , N95 Respirators , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Network Meta-Analysis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology
15.
Avian Dis ; 65(3): 364-372, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427409

ABSTRACT

We previously reported that recombinant Newcastle disease virus LaSota (rLS) expressing infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) Arkansas (Ark)-type trimeric spike (S) ectodomain (Se; rLS/ArkSe) provides suboptimal protection against IBV challenge. We have now developed rLS expressing chicken granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) and IBV Ark Se in an attempt to enhance vaccine effectiveness. In the current study, we first compared protection conferred by vaccination with rLS/ArkSe and rLS/ArkSe.GMCSF. Vaccinated chickens were challenged with virulent Ark, and protection was determined by clinical signs, viral load, and tracheal histomorphometry. Results showed that coexpression of GMCSF and the Se from rLS significantly reduced tracheal viral load and tracheal lesions compared with chickens vaccinated with rLS/ArkSe. In a second experiment, we evaluated enhancement of cross-protection of a Massachusetts (Mass) attenuated vaccine by priming or boosting with rLS/ArkSe.GMCSF. Vaccinated chickens were challenged with Ark, and protection was evaluated. Results show that priming or boosting with the recombinant virus significantly increased cross-protection conferred by Mass against Ark virulent challenge. Greater reductions of viral loads in both trachea and lachrymal fluids were observed in chickens primed with rLS/ArkSe.GMCSF and boosted with Mass. Consistently, Ark Se antibody levels measured with recombinant Ark Se protein-coated ELISA plates 14 days after boost were significantly higher in these chickens. Unexpectedly, the inverse vaccination scheme, that is, priming with Mass and boosting with the recombinant vaccine, proved somewhat less effective. We concluded that a prime and boost strategy by using rLS/ArkSe.GMCSF and the worldwide ubiquitous Mass attenuated vaccine provides enhanced cross-protection. Thus, rLS/GMCSF coexpressing the Se of regionally relevant IBV serotypes could be used in combination with live Mass to protect against regionally circulating IBV variant strains.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/immunology , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Newcastle disease virus/genetics , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Chickens/genetics , Chickens/immunology , Chickens/virology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Protection , Gene Expression , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/administration & dosage , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/chemistry , Infectious bronchitis virus/genetics , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Newcastle disease virus/metabolism , Poultry Diseases/immunology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/administration & dosage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Trachea/immunology , Trachea/virology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Viral Load
16.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e050901, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446498

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a viral respiratory infection caused by the MERS-CoV. MERS was first reported in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 2012. Every year, the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca attracts more than two million pilgrims from 184 countries, making it one of the largest annual religious mass gatherings (MGs) worldwide. MGs in confined areas with a high number of pilgrims' movements worldwide continues to elicit significant global public health concerns. MERCURIAL was designed by adopting a seroconversion surveillance approach to provide multiyear evidence of MG-associated MERS-CoV seroconversion among the Malaysian Hajj pilgrims. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: MERCURIAL is an ongoing multiyear prospective cohort study. Every year, for the next 5 years, a cohort of 1000 Hajj pilgrims was enrolled beginning in the 2016 Hajj pilgrimage season. Pre-Hajj and post-Hajj serum samples were obtained and serologically analysed for evidence of MERS-CoV seroconversion. Sociodemographic data, underlying medical conditions, symptoms experienced during Hajj pilgrimage, and exposure to camel and untreated camel products were recorded using structured pre-Hajj and post-Hajj questionnaires. The possible risk factors associated with the seroconversion data were analysed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The primary outcome of this study is to better enhance our understanding of the potential threat of MERS-CoV spreading through MG beyond the Middle East. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has obtained ethical approval from the Medical Research and Ethics Committee (MREC), Ministry of Health Malaysia. Results from the study will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and presented in conferences and scientific meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NMRR-15-1640-25391.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Islam , Middle East/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Travel
17.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101324, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358949

ABSTRACT

Avian infectious bronchitis (IB), a highly contagious disease hazardous to the poultry industry, is caused by an etiological agent called the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Some IBV strains (IBVs) alone usually do not cause high mortality in field conditions if not with secondary pathogens including Escherichia coli (E. coli). Herein, we established an IBV and E. coli co-infection model to evaluate the protective efficacy of two IBV vaccine strains against a new emerging genotype GVI-1 with mild virulence in experimental conditions. Chickens were inoculated with IBV field isolate ZQX (genotype GVI-1) and challenged 4 dlater with the E. coli strain MS160427 (serotype O8). Subsequently, these chickens were euthanized at seven days postchallenge (d.p.c.) with E. coli. An autopsy revealed that lesions in the IBV plus E. coli co-infection group were more severe than those in the IBV-infected group. This pathological model was used to assess the protective effect of two commonly used vaccine strains (H120 and 4/91) against the IBV ZQX strain, and a significantly better protective efficacy was observed for 4/91 compared with H120. Thus, IBV and E. coli co-infection could be employed in assessing the protective efficacy of IBV vaccines.


Subject(s)
Bronchitis , Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Bronchitis/veterinary , Chickens , Coinfection/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Escherichia coli , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control
18.
Clin Ter ; 172(4): 268-270, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247208

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has created havoc worldwide ever since its emergen-ce in December 2019. The current evidence indicates that the virus remains viable in aerosols for hours and on fomites for few days. A little information is available on the topic, the present communication reviews the perseverance and distribution of the novel coronavirus in the aerosol and on various inanimate surfaces so that the appropriate safety measures can be undertaken and the virus protection guidelines may be framed accordingly.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Fomites/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Safety Management/methods , Humans
19.
Prev Vet Med ; 194: 105430, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303288

ABSTRACT

The source of emerging diseases and antimicrobial resistance is of increasing interest to epidemiologists. This paper looks at village chickens as such a source. In addition, infectious diseases constitute a major challenge to the growth and profitability of the rural poultry sector in Sub-Saharan Africa. A serological survey was conducted to estimate the apparent seroprevalence of selected chicken diseases in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa alongside a sociological survey of poultry farmers and the remedies most commonly used to prevent diseases in their flocks. Sera collected from village chickens (n = 1007) in the province were screened for specific antibodies against Newcastle disease (ND), avian influenza (AI), avian infectious bronchitis (IB) and Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG). The overall seroprevalence of ND, AI, IB and MG in the province was found to be 69.2 % (95 % CI 51.9-86.5%); 1.8 % (95 % CI 0.2-3.4%); 78.5 % (95 % CI 74.9-82%) and 55.8 % (95 % CI 41.3-70.3%) respectively with clustering found at the District level. Cross hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests indicated that the chickens were exposed to the ND vaccine. AI ELISA-positive samples were tested using HIs against the H5, H6 and H7-subtypes, but only H6-specific antibodies were detected. Avian influenza strains shared the common ancestor responsible for the 2002 chicken outbreak in KwaZulu-Natal Province. The majority of chicken farmers were females and pensioners (69 % and 66.1 % respectively) and had a primary school education (47.1 %). Traditional remedies were commonly used by farmers (47.15 %) and among the remedies, Aloe plant (Aloe ferox Mill.) or ikhala (Xhosa) was the most commonly used product (28.23 %) for preventing and reducing mortalities among village chickens. The findings stress the importance of village chickens as a substitute for social welfare and highlight the exposure of village chickens to important chicken pathogens. The economic impact of these pathogens on the development of this sub-sector needs further investigation. Village chickens are a potential source of virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) because of the lack of vaccination and biosecurity. They may serve as amplification hosts which increases the probability that virulent NDV could spill over into commercial poultry flocks due to large amounts of circulating virus. The zoonotic threat of circulating H6N2 viruses raise concern due to their mutation and reassortment among chickens and a potential movement of infected birds within the province. Finally, the use of antibiotics by untrained chicken farmers constitute another major concern as it could serve as a source of antimicrobial resistance (AMR).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Farmers , Female , Humans , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza in Birds/prevention & control , Male , Mycoplasma Infections/epidemiology , Mycoplasma Infections/prevention & control , Mycoplasma Infections/veterinary , Newcastle Disease/epidemiology , Newcastle Disease/prevention & control , Newcastle disease virus/immunology , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Seroepidemiologic Studies , South Africa/epidemiology
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15431, 2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326355

ABSTRACT

Currently, no approved vaccine is available against the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which causes severe respiratory disease. The spike glycoprotein is typically considered a suitable target for MERS-CoV vaccine candidates. A computational strategy can be used to design an antigenic vaccine against a pathogen. Therefore, we used immunoinformatics and computational approaches to design a multi-epitope vaccine that targets the spike glycoprotein of MERS-CoV. After using numerous immunoinformatics tools and applying several immune filters, a poly-epitope vaccine was constructed comprising cytotoxic T-cell lymphocyte (CTL)-, helper T-cell lymphocyte (HTL)-, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-inducing epitopes. In addition, various physicochemical, allergenic, and antigenic profiles were evaluated to confirm the immunogenicity and safety of the vaccine. Molecular interactions, binding affinities, and the thermodynamic stability of the vaccine were examined through molecular docking and dynamic simulation approaches, during which we identified a stable and strong interaction with Toll-like receptors (TLRs). In silico immune simulations were performed to assess the immune-response triggering capabilities of the vaccine. This computational analysis suggested that the proposed vaccine candidate would be structurally stable and capable of generating an effective immune response to combat viral infections; however, experimental evaluations remain necessary to verify the exact safety and immunogenicity profile of this vaccine.


Subject(s)
Epitopes/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines/immunology , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phylogeny , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Vaccines/pharmacology , Vaccines, DNA , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology
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