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2.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297344, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568934

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly strained global healthcare, particularly in the management of patients requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). This study investigated the characteristics and prognoses of these patients. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort study gathered data from patients with COVID-19 across 26 medical centers. Logistic analysis was used to identify the factors associated with CRRT implementation. RESULTS: Of the 640 patients with COVID-19 who required MV, 123 (19.2%) underwent CRRT. Compared to the non-CRRT group, the CRRT group was older and exhibited higher sequential organ failure assessment scores. The incidence of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic neurological disease, and chronic kidney disease was also higher in the CRRT group. Moreover, the CRRT group had higher intensive care unit (ICU) (75.6% vs. 26.9%, p < 0.001) and in-hospital (79.7% vs. 29.6%, p < 0.001) mortality rates. CRRT implementation was identified as an independent risk factor for both ICU mortality (hazard ratio [HR]:1.833, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.342-2.505, p < 0.001) and in-hospital mortality (HR: 2.228, 95% CI: 1.648-3.014, p < 0.001). Refractory respiratory failure (n = 99, 19.1%) was the most common cause of death in the non-CRRT death group, and shock with multi-organ failure (n = 50, 40.7%) was the most common cause of death in the CRRT death group. Shock with multi-organ failure and cardiac death were significantly more common in the CRRT death group, compared to non-CRRT death group. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that CRRT is associated with higher ICU and in-hospital mortality rates in patients with COVID-19 who require MV. Notably, the primary cause of death in the CRRT group was shock with multi-organ failure, emphasizing the severe clinical course for these patients, while refractory respiratory failure was most common in non-CRRT patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Prognosis , Intensive Care Units , Multiple Organ Failure/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Renal Replacement Therapy
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 20(1): 134, 2024 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Porcine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) is one of the novel pathogens responsible for piglet diarrhea, contributing to substantial economic losses in the farming sector. The broad host range of SADS-CoV raises concerns regarding its potential for cross-species transmission. Currently, there are no effective means of preventing or treating SADS-CoV infection, underscoring the urgent need for identifying efficient antiviral drugs. This study focuses on evaluating quercetin as an antiviral agent against SADS-CoV. RESULTS: In vitro experiments showed that quercetin inhibited SADS-CoV proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner, targeting the adsorption and replication stages of the viral life cycle. Furthermore, quercetin disrupts the regulation of the P53 gene by the virus and inhibits host cell cycle progression induced by SADS-CoV infection. In vivo experiments revealed that quercetin effectively alleviated the clinical symptoms and intestinal pathological damage caused by SADS-CoV-infected piglets, leading to reduced expression levels of inflammatory factors such as TLR3, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, this study provides compelling evidence that quercetin has great potential and promising applications for anti- SADS-CoV action.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Swine Diseases , Swine , Animals , Coronavirus/genetics , Quercetin/pharmacology , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea/veterinary , Swine Diseases/drug therapy
4.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2887, 2024 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575573

ABSTRACT

Anthropogenic disturbances and the subsequent loss of biodiversity are altering species abundances and communities. Since species vary in their pathogen competence, spatio-temporal changes in host assemblages may lead to changes in disease dynamics. We explore how longitudinal changes in bat species assemblages affect the disease dynamics of coronaviruses (CoVs) in more than 2300 cave-dwelling bats captured over two years from five caves in Ghana. This reveals uneven CoV infection patterns between closely related species, with the alpha-CoV 229E-like and SARS-related beta-CoV 2b emerging as multi-host pathogens. Prevalence and infection likelihood for both phylogenetically distinct CoVs is influenced by the abundance of competent species and naïve subadults. Broadly, bat species vary in CoV competence, and highly competent species are more common in less diverse communities, leading to increased CoV prevalence in less diverse bat assemblages. In line with the One Health framework, our work supports the notion that biodiversity conservation may be the most proactive measure to prevent the spread of pathogens with zoonotic potential.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus , Animals , Coronavirus/genetics , Prevalence , Phylogeny , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology
6.
Protein Sci ; 33(4): e4923, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501465

ABSTRACT

The envelope (E) proteins of coronaviruses (CoVs) form cation-conducting channels that are associated with the pathogenicity of these viruses. To date, high-resolution structural information about these viroporins is limited to the SARS-CoV E protein. To broaden our structural knowledge of other members of this family of viroporins, we now investigate the conformation of the E protein of the human coronavirus (hCoV), NL63. Using two- and three-dimensional magic-angle-spinning NMR, we have measured 13 C and 15 N chemical shifts of the transmembrane domain of E (ETM), which yielded backbone (ϕ, ψ) torsion angles. We further measured the water accessibility of NL63 ETM at neutral pH versus acidic pH in the presence of Ca2+ ions. These data show that NL63 ETM adopts a regular α-helical conformation that is unaffected by pH and the N-terminal ectodomain. Interestingly, the water accessibility of NL63 ETM increases only modestly at acidic pH in the presence of Ca2+ compared to neutral pH, in contrast to SARS ETM, which becomes much more hydrated at acidic pH. This difference suggests a structural basis for the weaker channel conductance of α-CoV compared to ß-CoV E proteins. The weaker E channel activity may in turn contribute to the reduced virulence of hCoV-NL63 compared to SARS-CoV viruses.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Humans , Viroporin Proteins , Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Water
7.
J Med Virol ; 96(3): e29512, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483056

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) have continuously posed a threat to human and animal health. However, existing antiviral drugs are still insufficient in overcoming the challenges caused by multiple strains of CoVs. And methods for developing multi-target drugs are limited in terms of exploring drug targets with similar functions or structures. In this study, four rounds of structural design and modification on salinomycin were performed for novel antiviral compounds. It was based on the strategy of similar topological structure binding properties of protein targets (STSBPT), resulting in the high-efficient synthesis of the optimal compound M1, which could bind to aminopeptidase N and 3C-like protease from hosts and viruses, respectively, and exhibit a broad-spectrum antiviral effect against severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 pseudovirus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, feline infectious peritonitis virus and mouse hepatitis virus. Furthermore, the drug-binding domains of these proteins were found to be structurally similar based on the STSBPT strategy. The compounds screened and designed based on this region were expected to have broad-spectrum and strong antiviral activities. The STSBPT strategy is expected to be a fundamental tool in accelerating the discovery of multiple targets with similar effects and drugs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Animals , Cats , Mice , Swine , Humans , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry
8.
Ann Epidemiol ; 90: 35-41, 2024 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38501569

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study assessed opioid-involved overdose rates by age, sex, and race-ethnicity across strict pandemic mitigation phases and how this varied across data systems. METHODS: We examined opioid-involved overdoses using medical examiner and hospital data for Cook County, Illinois between 2016-2021. Multivariable segmented regression was used to assess weekly overdose rates across subgroups of age, sex and race/ethnicity and strict pandemic mitigation phases. RESULTS: The overall rate of weekly opioid-involved overdoses increased when assessing the medical examiner (ß = 0.01; 95% CI = 0.01,0.02; P ≤ .001) and emergency department visits data sources (ß = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.09,0.20; P ≤ .001) but not for the hospital admissions data source. We found differences in overdose rates across subgroups and phases of pandemic mandates. Fatal overdoses increased during lockdown-1 while admissions and emergency department (ED) visits for opioid-involved overdoses generally decreased across all phases of pandemic mitigation mandates except for the period following lockdown-1. Across pandemic mitigation phases, Hispanics and individuals under 25 years did not demonstrate any change in admissions and ED visits for overdoses. CONCLUSIONS: We underscore the importance of utilizing multiple sources of surveillance to better characterize opioid-involved overdoses and for public health planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Drug Overdose , Opiate Overdose , Humans , Analgesics, Opioid , Opiate Overdose/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital
9.
Carbohydr Res ; 538: 109098, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38527408

ABSTRACT

This study describes the novel development of quaternized cassava starch (Q-CS) with antimicrobial and antiviral properties, particularly effective against the MHV-3 coronavirus. The preparation of Q-CS involved the reaction of cassava starch (CS) with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride (GTMAC) in an alkaline solution. Q-CS physicochemical properties were determined by FTIR, NMR, elemental analysis, zeta potential, TGA, and moisture sorption. FTIR and NMR spectra confirmed the introduction of cationic groups in the CS structure. The elemental analysis revealed a degree of substitution (DS) of 0.552 of the cationic reagent on the hydroxyl groups of CS. Furthermore, Q-CS exhibited a positive zeta potential value (+28.6 ± 0.60 mV) attributed to the high positive charge density shown by the quaternary ammonium groups. Q-CS demonstrated lower thermal stability and higher moisture sorption compared to CS. The antimicrobial activity of Q-CS was confirmed against Escherichia coli (MIC = 0.156 mg mL-1) and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 0.312 mg mL-1), along with a remarkable ability to inactivate 99% of MHV-3 coronavirus after only 1 min of direct contact. Additionally, Q-CS showed high cell viability (close to 100%) and minimal cytotoxicity effects, guaranteeing its safe use. Therefore, these findings indicate the potential use of Q-CS as a raw material for antiseptic biomaterials.


Subject(s)
Ammonium Compounds , Coronavirus , Manihot , Manihot/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus , Starch/chemistry
10.
Bioorg Chem ; 146: 107322, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38555797

ABSTRACT

Porcine Delta Coronavirus (PDCoV) infection can induce serious dehydration, diarrhea and even death of piglets, which has caused huge losses to the breeding industry. PDCoV has been reported to have the potential for cross species transmission, and even reports of infecting humans have emerged. At present, there are still no effective prevention and control measures for PDCoV. In this study, we have designed and synthesized a series of unreported Dihydropteridone derivatives. All of these compounds were evaluated for the against PDCoV in vivo and in vitro for the first time. In this study, antiviral activity (17.34 ± 7.20 µM) and low cytotoxicity (>800 µM) was found in compound W8. Compound W8 exerts antiviral effect on PDCoV by inhibiting cell apoptosis and inflammatory factors caused by virus infection in vitro. In addition, lung and small intestinal lesions caused by PDCoV infection in mice could be significantly reduced by compound W8. These findings highlight the potential of compound W8 as a valuable therapeutic option against PDCoV infection, and lay a foundation for further research and development in this field.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Sulfonamides , Swine , Animals , Humans , Mice , Intestine, Small , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
12.
Redox Biol ; 71: 103112, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461791

ABSTRACT

The Warburg effect, also referred as aerobic glycolysis, is a common metabolic program during viral infection. Through targeted metabolomics combined with biochemical experiments and various cell models, we investigated the central carbon metabolism (CCM) profiles of cells infected with porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus with zoonotic potential. We found that PDCoV infection required glycolysis but decreased glycolytic flux, exhibiting a non-Warburg effect characterized by pyruvic acid accumulation. Mechanistically, PDCoV enhanced pyruvate kinase activity to promote pyruvic acid anabolism, a process that generates pyruvic acid with concomitant ATP production. PDCoV also hijacked pyruvic acid catabolism to increase biosynthesis of non-essential amino acids (NEAAs), suggesting that pyruvic acid is an essential hub for PDCoV to scavenge host energy and metabolites. Furthermore, PDCoV facilitated glutaminolysis to promote the synthesis of NEAA and pyrimidines for optimal proliferation. Our work supports a novel CCM model after viral infection and provides potential anti-PDCoV drug targets.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Swine Diseases , Swine , Animals , Coronavirus/metabolism , Pyruvic Acid/metabolism , Swine Diseases/metabolism , Swine Diseases/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology
14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 13(1): 2332653, 2024 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517703

ABSTRACT

Coinfection with multiple viruses is a common phenomenon in clinical settings and is a crucial driver of viral evolution. Although numerous studies have demonstrated viral recombination arising from coinfections of different strains of a specific species, the role of coinfections of different species or genera during viral evolution is rarely investigated. Here, we analyzed coinfections of and recombination events between four different swine enteric coronaviruses that infect the jejunum and ileum in pigs, including porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), and a deltacoronavirus, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV). Various coinfection patterns were observed in 4,468 fecal and intestinal tissue samples collected from pigs in a 4-year survey. PEDV/PDCoV was the most frequent coinfection. However, recombination analyses have only detected events involving PEDV/TGEV and SADS-CoV/TGEV, indicating that inter-species recombination among coronaviruses is most likely to occur within the same genus. We also analyzed recombination events within the newly identified genus Deltacoronavirus and found that sparrows have played a unique host role in the recombination history of the deltacoronaviruses. The emerging virus PDCoV, which can infect humans, has a different recombination history. In summary, our study demonstrates that swine enteric coronaviruses are a valuable model for investigating the relationship between viral coinfection and recombination, which provide new insights into both inter- and intraspecies recombination events among swine enteric coronaviruses, and extend our understanding of the relationship between coronavirus coinfection and recombination.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus , Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus , Humans , Swine , Animals , Coinfection/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/genetics , Recombination, Genetic
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(9): e37282, 2024 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38428903

ABSTRACT

The fear of COVID-19 significantly impacting the health of people globally. This study translated newly developed measurement tool New Fear of the Coronavirus Questionnaire (New_FCQ) into Chinese language and evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of New_FCQ among Chinese population. A total of 522 participants were included in the study. Internal consistency, construct validity, criterion validity, and concurrent validity of the Chinese version of New_FCQ were assessed in this study. The Chinese version of New_FCQ had excellent internal consistency (α = 0.97) and exploratory factor analysis demonstrated one-dimensional structure of the Chinese version of New_FCQ. The preliminary criterion validity revealed statistically significant differences in the fear of COVID-19 scores based on age and education level (P = .002 and P = .03, respectively). The good concurrent validity also established with the Chinese version Fear of COVID-19 Scale(P < .001). Psychometric proportions of the Chinese version of New_FCQ were established, which exhibited sufficient validity and reliability among Chinese population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Humans , Psychometrics/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Fear , Surveys and Questionnaires , Language
16.
Vet Microbiol ; 292: 110049, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38493699

ABSTRACT

Severe acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) was first detected in Guangdong province of China in 2017. And yet from May 2021 to Jun 2023, there were no SADS-CoV outbreaks. In this study, we reported the recent outbreak of SADS-CoV in China on Jun 2023. Phylogenetic analysis showed the novel strain was derived from the ongoing transmission and evolution of SADS-CoV in China, rather than a separate cross-species transmission from bats. Also, the novel strain was found to participate in a recombant event as a minor parent and a missing base in the genome was discovered indicating an novel evolutionary pathway. Through virulence assays in piglets, we further determined that novel strain (SADS-CoV/HNNY/2023) was a highly virulent SADS-CoV strain with typical clinical symptoms: acute diarrhea, vomiting, rapid weight loss. Therefore, the re-emergence of SADS-CoV strains should be brought to people's attention.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Swine , Phylogeny , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , China/epidemiology , Syndrome
17.
J Virol ; 98(4): e0017124, 2024 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38488361

ABSTRACT

The global impact of emerging viral infections emphasizes the urgent need for effective broad-spectrum antivirals. The cellular organelle, lipid droplet (LD), is utilized by many types of viruses for replication, but its reduction does not affect cell survival. Therefore, LD is a potential target for developing broad-spectrum antivirals. In this study, we found that 2-bromopalmitate (2 BP), a previously defined palmitoylation inhibitor, depletes LD across all studied cell lines and exerts remarkable antiviral effects on different coronaviruses. We comprehensively utilized 2 BP, alongside other palmitoylation inhibitors such as cerulenin and 2-fluoro palmitic acid (2-FPA), as well as the enhancer palmostatin B and evaluated their impact on LD and the replication of human coronaviruses (hCoV-229E, hCoV-Oc43) and murine hepatitis virus (MHV-A59) at non-cytotoxic concentrations. While cerulenin and 2-FPA exhibited moderate inhibition of viral replication, 2 BP exhibited a much stronger suppressive effect on MHV-A59 replication, although they share similar inhibitory effects on palmitoylation. As expected, palmostatin B significantly enhanced viral replication, it failed to rescue the inhibitory effects of 2 BP, whereas it effectively counteracted the effects of cerulenin and 2-FPA. This suggests that the mechanism that 2 BP used to inhibit viral replication is beyond palmitoylation inhibition. Further investigations unveil that 2 BP uniquely depletes LDs, a phenomenon not exhibited by 2-FPA and cerulenin. Importantly, the depletion of LDs was closely associated with the inhibition of viral replication because the addition of oleic acid to 2 BP significantly rescued LD depletion and its inhibitory effects on MHV-A59. Our findings indicate that the inhibitory effects of 2 BP on viral replication primarily stem from LD disruption rather than palmitoylation inhibition. Intriguingly, fatty acid (FA) assays demonstrated that 2 BP reduces the FA level in mitochondria while concurrently increasing FA levels in the cytoplasm. These results highlight the crucial role of LDs in viral replication and uncover a novel biological activity of 2 BP. These insights contribute to the development of broad-spectrum antiviral strategies. IMPORTANCE: In our study, we conducted a comparative investigation into the antiviral effects of palmitoylation inhibitors including 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP), 2-fluoro palmitic acid (2-FPA), and cerulenin. Surprisingly, we discovered that 2-BP has superior inhibitory effects on viral replication compared to 2-FPA and cerulenin. However, their inhibitory effects on palmitoylation were the same. Intrigued by this finding, we delved deeper into the underlying mechanism of 2-BP's potent antiviral activity, and we unveiled a novel biological activity of 2-BP: depletion of lipid droplets (LDs). Importantly, we also highlighted the crucial role of LDs in viral replication. Our insights shed new light on the antiviral mechanism of LD depletion paving the way for the development of broad-spectrum antiviral strategies by targeting LDs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Lipid Droplets , Palmitates , Propiolactone/analogs & derivatives , Mice , Animals , Humans , Lipid Droplets/metabolism , Palmitic Acid/pharmacology , Palmitic Acid/metabolism , Cerulenin/metabolism , Cerulenin/pharmacology , Virus Replication , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism
18.
Viruses ; 16(3)2024 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38543810

ABSTRACT

PDCoV, an enveloped RNA virus, causes atrophic enteritis in neonatal piglets, leading to diarrhea, malabsorption, dehydration, and death. The study aims to fill the gap in the current epidemiological information about PDCoV in the U.S. pig population after its emergence in 2014. Data from the Morrison Swine Health Monitoring Project (MSHMP) between January 2015 and December 2023 were analyzed, representing approximately 60% of the U.S. breeding herd. Participating herds report weekly PDCoV health status. In total, 244 PDCoV outbreaks occurred in 186 sites from 22 production systems across 16 states. Case counts peaked during winter, and incidence ranged from 0.44% in 2017 to 4.28% in 2023. For sites that experienced more than one PDCoV outbreak during the study period, the interval between outbreaks was a median of 2.11 years. The South and Midwest regions reported the majority of cases. In 2017, a shift in the spatial distribution of cases from the Midwest to the South was observed. The findings underscore the importance of continued monitoring and strengthened control measures to mitigate the impact of PDCoV in U.S. breeding herds.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Swine Diseases , Animals , United States/epidemiology , Swine , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Deltacoronavirus , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
19.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 18(4): e13279, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38556468

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses and seasonal coronaviruses are pathogens transmitted via an airborne route that can cause respiratory diseases in humans that have similar symptoms such as fever, cough, and pneumonia. These two viruses can infect similar human tissues, such as the respiratory tract and nasal, bronchial, and alveolar epithelial cells. Influenza virus and seasonal coronavirus coinfections are poorly understood. METHODS: Here, we coinfected normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells with influenza A/California/04/09 (IAV) or B/Victoria/504/2000 (IBV) strains and the seasonal human beta-coronavirus OC43 and evaluated viral replication capacities. We also examined changes in the expression of various cytokines/chemokines by qPCR and Luminex assay. RESULTS: We observed that the replication of IAV and IBV was not affected by coinfection with OC43. However, coinfection reduced OC43 titers (~3-fold) compared with infection with OC43 alone. Select cytokine/chemokine expression was increased in coinfected cells compared with all single infections with greater differences seen between coinfected cells and cells infected with OC43 alone compared with IAV- or IBV-infected cells. In addition, IL-8 and IL-1RA showed the highest expression among a panel of 22 cytokines by Luminex. CONCLUSIONS: As the rate of influenza and seasonal coronavirus coinfection continue to increase, our findings may help set guidelines for the treatments of the individuals coinfected with both viruses.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Epithelial Cells , Cytokines
20.
Games Health J ; 13(1): 40-49, 2024 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38300525

ABSTRACT

Background: Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) struggle with impaired attention, leading to impaired executive function and behavioral symptoms. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of attention training on executive functions and behavioral symptoms in children with ADHD, in a tele-cognitive-rehabilitation setting. Methods: Thirty children (mean age: 9.93 ± 1.68 years, 21 boys) with ADHD were randomly assigned to 2 equal groups of attention training and active control group. Attentive Rehabilitation and Improvement of Attention (ARIA) and a class of storytelling were used for intervention in two groups, in an online platform. Continuous performance test, one-back test, Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), Conner's parent rating scale, and behavioral rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF) were used for assessment in three-baseline, postintervention, and follow-up sessions. Repeated measures analysis of variances were used for analysis. Results: ARIA leads to significant improvement in omission error (P < 0.001), commission error (P = 0.006), and response time (P = 0.005) of continuous performance test, cluster (P = 0.001), but not preservation error (P = 0.110) of WCST, accuracy of NBT (P = 0.004) and the score of Conner's parent rating scale (P < 0.001) and BRIEF (P < 0.001). These results indicate improved attention and executive functions, amelioration of ADHD symptoms, and improved behavioral performance. Conclusion: This study suggests that attention can be trained through tele-cognitive rehabilitation using a remediation program in children with ADHD. The effectiveness of this training can be confirmed by examining the transfer of training effects to other untrained cognitive domains, executive functions, symptoms of ADHD, and behavioral performance.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Coronavirus , Male , Child , Humans , Executive Function/physiology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/therapy , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/psychology , Cognitive Training , Behavioral Symptoms , Cognition
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