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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e246463, 2024. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355899

ABSTRACT

Abstract Quilombola communities are present in many Brazilian states living in precarious health conditions. This is due to geographic isolation, limitations to the access of the area in which they live in, and the lack of quality in the service when it is needed to be provided. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the quality of life of women from a quilombola community in northeastern Brazil. It is an observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study. 160 adult women were first interviewed through a form to collect a profile and then it was applied the WHOQOL Quality of Life questionnaire - bref. It was observed that the women were on average 40.7 years old (±17.25), married, self-declared black, who did not finish elementary school, housewife, had no income, with their own masonry house, with up to 6 rooms, supplied by a box of community treated water. Quality of Life had median scores in the domains: physical (3.18), psychological (3.4), social relationships (3.45) and environment (2.59). With this research, it was possible to characterize the quilombola community of Santa Luzia do Norte-AL regarding the difficulties of access to health and income generation, issues that affect their health condition. The problems described in this study can contribute to health actions being planned and carried out in order to improve socioeconomic and health conditions in this community, considering the social, political and environmental context, valuing their traditional knowledge and practices.


Resumo As comunidades quilombolas, estão presentes em diversos estados brasileiros, vivendo em condições de saúde mais precárias. Isto ocorre por conta do isolamento geográfico, das limitações de acesso e da falta de qualidade no serviço quando este é prestado. Nesse sentido, o objetivo do estudo foi analisar a qualidade de vida de mulheres de uma comunidade quilombola do nordeste brasileiro. Estudo observacional, transversal e descritivo. Foram entrevistadas 160 mulheres adultas, através de um formulário para a coleta de perfil e do questionário de Qualidade de Vida WHOQOL - bref. Foi observado que as mulheres tinham em média 40,7 anos (±17,25), casadas, autodeclaradas negras, com fundamental incompleto, do lar, sem renda, com moradia de alvenaria, própria, com até 6 cômodos, abastecidas por caixa de água comunitária, tratada. A Qualidade de Vida, apresentou escores medianos nos domínios: físico (3,18), psicológico (3,4), relações sociais (3,45) e meio ambiente (2,59). Com a realização desta pesquisa foi possível caracterizar a comunidade quilombola de Santa Luzia do Norte-AL quanto as dificuldades de acesso a saúde e geração de renda, fatos que repercutem na sua condição de saúde. Os problemas descritos neste estudo podem contribuir para que ações de saúde sejam planejadas e efetivadas com o intuito de melhorar as condições socioeconômicas e de saúde nessa comunidade, considerando-se o contexto social, político e ambiental, valorizando seus saberes e práticas tradicionais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Quality of Life , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248778, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339371

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to analyze the socio-environmental characteristics, executive and nutritional functions in children aged 6 to 7 years, from public schools in Alagoas, Brazil. A quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study was performed involving 64 children of the mentioned age group, from public schools located in Alagoas: Maceió, on the coast; Major Isidoro, in the hinterland and Palmeira dos Índios, in the country. Such analyzes were made through the application of neuropsychological tests and anthropometric assessment with children and food and socio-environmental surveys with their parents. As for the type of housing, 100% were made of masonry, with a bathroom present in 98.4%. All children reported with the habit of bathing in the river / lagoon, presented some pathology. There was no significant difference between cities in terms of the sociodemographic characteristics evaluated, with the same result occurring with the factors associated with the occurrence of diseases in children. The subtests of WISC-IV, were below the average in all municipalities, and the TAC and SCC were classified within the average. However, even though the ranking were divided between below average and average, it is possible to identify from the subtests of WISC-IV, that the general IQ showed a cognitive level below the average. There was also no significant difference in the anthropometric assessment (weight, height, BMI and IMCI) between the evaluated students. The average weight was 23.3 kg to 25 kg, the height between 1.23 m to 1.24 m, the BMI between 16.4 to 17; the IMCI from 2.8 to 3.0. Children were classified within the average. Regarding micronutrients (Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na, and vitamins A, C, D, B1, B9 and B12) and calories, there was also no significant difference between the cities evaluated. The same occurred with macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids). This study showed that in general there was no difference between the students of the three municipalities. Probably, even though they are all public schools and from different cities, children have similar social conditions.


Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar as características socioambientais, funções executivas e nutricionais de crianças de 6 a 7 anos, de escolas públicas de Alagoas, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo quantitativo, transversal e descritivo envolvendo 64 crianças, na referida faixa etária, de escolas públicas localizadas em Alagoas: Maceió, no litoral; Major Isidoro, no sertão e Palmeira dos Índios, no país. Tais análises foram feitas por meio da aplicação de testes neuropsicológicos e avaliação antropométrica com crianças e inquéritos alimentares e socioambientais com seus pais. Quanto ao tipo de habitação, 100% eram de alvenaria, com banheiro presente em 98,4%. Todas as crianças relataram o hábito de tomar banho no rio / lagoa, apresentavam alguma patologia. Não houve diferença significativa entre os municípios quanto às características sociodemográficas avaliadas, ocorrendo o mesmo resultado com os fatores associados à ocorrência de doenças em crianças. Os subtestes do WISC-IV, ficaram abaixo da média em todos os municípios, e o TAC e SCC foram classificados dentro da média. Porém, mesmo que a classificação tenha sido dividida entre abaixo da média e média, é possível identificar a partir dos subtestes do WISC-IV, que o QI geral apresentou um nível cognitivo abaixo da média. Também não houve diferença significativa na avaliação antropométrica (peso, altura, IMC e AIDPI) entre os alunos avaliados. O peso médio foi de 23,3 kg a 25 kg, a altura entre 1,23 ma 1,24 m, o IMC entre 16,4 a 17; A AIDPI de 2.8 a 3.0. As crianças foram classificadas dentro da média. Em relação aos micronutrientes (Ca, Fe, K, Mg e Na e vitaminas A, C, D, B1, B9 e B12) e calorias, também não houve diferença significativa entre os municípios avaliados. O mesmo ocorreu com os macronutrientes (proteínas, carboidratos e lipídios). Este estudo mostrou que de maneira geral não houve diferença entre os alunos dos três municípios. Provavelmente, mesmo sendo todas escolas públicas e de diferentes cidades, as crianças têm condições sociais semelhantes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Energy Intake , Executive Function , Sodium , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249911, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339366

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.


Resumo As neoplasias hematológicas e de células hematopoiéticas dos genes e as células hematopoiéticas estão associadas à mutação genética, geralmente em nível cromossômico. O estudo citogenético padrão é amplamente aceito como um dos principais determinantes diagnósticos e prognósticos em pacientes. Portanto, o presente estudo descritivo e transversal buscou determinar a análise citogenética de neoplasias hematológicas frequentes no Paquistão. Um total de 202 amostras de medula óssea periférica ou sangue de pacientes com malignidade hematológica benigna e maligna foi coletado usando uma técnica convencional de banda G. Entre os pacientes inscritos, a média de idade foi de 21,5 anos ± 23,4, e a distribuição por gênero mostrou uma marcada predominância da população masculina de 147 (73%) em comparação com a feminina de 55 (27%). Pacientes na faixa etária (2-10 anos) tiveram a maior frequência, 48 (24%), de neoplasias hematológicas, seguida da idade (11-20 anos) com 40 (20%). Cariótipos normais (46, XX / 46, XY) foram encontrados em 51% (n = 103) dos pacientes. Além disso, a frequência de cariótipo complexo foi de 30 (15%), enquanto normal foi observada em 171 (85%) pacientes. Leucemia linfoblástica aguda pré-B (LLA Pré-B) foi a doença maligna mais prevalente de 66 (33%), seguida por leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) de 41 (20%) e leucemia linfocítica aguda de 29 (14%). A translocação foi o 50 mais prevalente (25%), seguido por hipotriploidia 14 (7%) e monossomia 8 (4%) na análise de aberração cromossômica. Além disso, a translocação t (9:22) encontrada foi de 20 (10%) na LMC, com a maioria na faixa etária (31-40 anos). Este estudo recomenda que o cariótipo deve ser testado com frequência em condições hematológicas porque pode fornecer informações sobre as alterações cromossômicas relativas associadas a doenças malignas específicas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Chromosome Aberrations , Hematologic Neoplasms/genetics , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Karyotyping
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249209, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339360

ABSTRACT

Abstract Alo vera is a centenary remedy use for minor wounds and burns, but its mechanism of wound healing has not been know since. This article will evaluate and gather evidence of the effectiveness and safety of the use of aloe vera in the treatment of burns. A systematic review was carried out on the databases: MEDLINE, LILACS, DECS, SCIELO, in the last 7 years, with the descriptors: "Aloe", "Burns" and "treatment". 16 articles were found. After using the exclusion criteria; research in non-humans and literature review; 5 articles were selected. The article Teplick et al. (2018) performed an in vitro clinical experiment in A. Vera solution, and demonstrated that there was proliferation and cell migration of human skin fibroblasts and keratinocytes, in addition to being protective in the death of keratonocytes. That is, it accelerates the healing of wounds. Muangman et al. (2016), evaluated 50 patients with 20% of the total body surface area burned with second-degree burns, between 18-60 years old, with half of the group receiving gauze dressings with soft paraffin containing 0.5% chlorhexidine acetate and the other half receiving polyester dressings containing extracts of medicinal plants mainly Aloe Vera. It had positive results, a higher healing speed and shorter hospital stay compared to the control group. Hwang et al. (2015) investigated the antioxidant effects of different extracts from 2,4,6,8,12 months of Aloe Vera. And the 6-month concentrated extract of 0.25 mg / mL had a higher content of flavonoids (9.750 mg catechin equivalent / g extract) and polyphenols (23.375 mg gallic acid equivalent / g extract) and the greater ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.047 mM equivalent ferrous sulfate / mg extract), that is, greater potential for free radical scavenging and also a protective effect against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP), suggesting evidence of a bioactive potential of A. vera . However, in the article Kolacz et al. (2014) suggested as an alternative treatment the use of Aloe Vera dressing in combination with honey, lanolin, olive oil, wheat germ oil, marshmallow root, wormwood, comfrey root, white oak bark, lobelia inflata, glycerin vegetable oil, beeswax and myrrh, without obtaining significant and conclusive results that would allow the conventional treatment of burns to be subsidized. Finally, in the article by Zurita and Gallegos (2017), it carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study with 321 people, both sexes between 17-76 years of age, of an inductive nature, exploring the experience of this population and their behavioral attitudes regarding the treatment of dermatoses. Aloe vera had 13.8% cited by individuals in the treatment of acne and 33.6% in the treatment of burns. Even with evidence that suggests the efficacy in the treatment of burns with the use of Aloe Vera extract, further clinical trials with larger sample space on the use of Aloe vera dressings in medium burns are suggested for further conclusions.


Resumo Alo vera é um remédio centenário usado para pequenas feridas e queimaduras, mas seu mecanismo de cicatrização de feridas não foi conhecido desde então. Este artigo avaliará e reunirá evidências da eficácia e segurança do uso de aloe vera no tratamento de queimaduras. Realizada revisão Sistemática nas bases de dados: MEDLINE, LILACS, DECS, SCIELO, nos últimos 7 anos, com os descritores: "Aloe", "Burns" and "treatment". Foram encontrados 16 trabalhos. Após utilizarmos os critérios de exclusão; pesquisa em nao humanos e revisão da literatura ; foram selecionados 5 artigos. O artigo Teplick et al. (2018) realizou um experimento clinico in vitro em solução de A. Vera, e demonstrou que houve proliferação e migração celular de fibroblastos e queratinócitos de pele humana, além de ser protetor na morte de queratonócitos. Ou seja, acelera a cicatrização das feridas. Já Muangman et al. (2016), avaliou 50 pacientes com 20% do total da área superficial corporal queimada com queimaduras de segundo grau, entre 18-60 anos, tendo metade do grupo como controle recebendo curativos de gaze com parafina mole contendo 0,5% acetado de clorexidina e a outra metade recebendo curativos com poliéster contendo extratos de plantas medicinais principalmente Aloe Vera. Teve resultados positivos, uma maior velocidade de cicatrização e menor tempo de internação comparado ao grupo controle. Já Hwang et al. (2015) investigou os efeitos antioxidante de diferentes extratos de 2,4,6,8,12 meses da Aloe Vera. E o extrato com 6 meses concentrado de 0,25 mg/mL teve maior teor de flavanóides (9,750 mg equivalente catequina / g extrato) e polifenóis (23,375 mg equivalente ácido gálico / g extrato) e o maior poder antioxidante redutor férrico (0,047 mM de sulfato ferroso equivalente / extrato mg), ou seja, maior potencial de eliminação de radicais livres e também efeito proteror contra o estresse oxidativo induzido por hidroperóxido de terc-butila (t-BHP), sugerindo indícios de um potencial bioativo da A. vera. Porém, no artigo Kolacz et al. (2014) sugeriu como tratamento alternativo o uso do curativo com Aloe Vera em conjunto de mel, lanolina, azeite de oliva, óleo de gérmen de trigo, raiz de marshmallow, absinto, raiz de confrei, casca de carvalho branco, lobelia inflata, glicerina vegetal, cera de abelha e mirra, não obtendo resultados significativos e conclusivos que permitam subsidiar o tratamento convencional das queimaduras. Por fim, no artigo de Zurita and Gallegos (2017), realizou um estudo descritivo transversal com 321 pessoas, ambos os sexos entre 17-76 anos, de natureza indutiva, explorando a vivência dessa população e suas atitudes comportamentais quanto ao tratamento de dermatoses. Aloe vera teve 13,8% citada pelos indivíduos no tratamento de acne e 33,6% no tratamento de queimaduras. Mesmo tendo evidências que sugerem a eficácia no tratamento de queimaduras com o uso do extrato da Aloe Vera, sugere-se mais ensaios clínicos com espaço amostral maior sobre o uso de curativos de Aloe vera em médio queimados para maiores conclusões.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Medicinal , Burns/drug therapy , Aloe , Wound Healing , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cross-Sectional Studies
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246514, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285640

ABSTRACT

Abstract The poultry sector in Pakistan is contributing mainly in bridging gap between demand and supply for protein. Mycoplasma gallisepticum is an emerging bacterium causing serious problems in poultry industry of Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the M. gallisepticum load in poultry populated regions of Pakistan. Total 600 serum and 600 swab samples were collected, 200 from each broiler, layers and breeders poultry in Rawalpindi and Abbottabad districts. Serum samples were analyzed through ELISA for seroprevalence. Swabs were cultured on Frey's medium followed by PCR and partial mgc2 gene sequencing. Results of seroprevalence of M. gallisepticum showed that layers (75%, n=150) are more positive as compared to breeders (70%, n=140) and broilers (50%, n=100). Typical colonies of the M. gallisepticum were observed in breeder (26.5%), followed by layer (21%) and broilers (9%). A total of 37.1% (n=42) samples were identified positive through PCR out of total 113 cultured based positive samples. A total of six M. gallisepticum isolates of current study showed 98-99 percent similarity with previously reported isolates on the basis of mgc2 gene partial sequencing. The M. gallisepticum was found highly prevalent in different poultry breads. Results of this study would add into basic data and provide a direction for livestock sector to strengthen a control strategy for mycoplasmosis in poultry farms.


Resumo O setor avícola do Paquistão está contribuindo principalmente para preencher a lacuna entre a demanda e a oferta de proteína. Mycoplasma gallisepticum é uma bactéria emergente que causa sérios problemas na indústria avícola do Paquistão. Um estudo transversal foi conduzido para avaliar a carga de M. gallisepticum em regiões de avicultura do Paquistão. Um total de 600 amostras de soro e 600 amostras de esfregaço foi coletado, 200 de cada frango de corte, poedeiras e aves reprodutoras nos distritos de Rawalpindi e Abbottabad. Amostras de soro foram analisadas por ELISA para soroprevalência. As zaragatoas foram cultivadas em meio Frey, seguido de PCR e sequenciação parcial do gene mgc2. Os resultados da soroprevalência de M. gallisepticum mostraram que as poedeiras (75%, n = 150) são mais positivas em comparação com matrizes (70%, n = 140) e frangos de corte (50%, n = 100). Colônias típicas de M. gallisepticum foram observadas em reprodutoras (26,5%), seguidas de poedeiras (21%) e frangos de corte (9%). Um total de 37,1% (n = 42) das amostras foi identificado como positivas por PCR de um total de 113 amostras positivas baseadas em cultura. Um total de seis isolados de M. gallisepticum do estudo atual mostrou 98-99% de similaridade com isolados relatados anteriormente com base no sequenciamento parcial do gene mgc2. O M. gallisepticum foi encontrado com alta prevalência em diferentes pães de aves. Os resultados deste estudo acrescentariam dados básicos e forneceriam orientação para o setor pecuário fortalecer uma estratégia de controle da micoplasmose em granjas avícolas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/genetics , Pakistan/epidemiology , Poultry , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Chickens , Cross-Sectional Studies
6.
J Biomech ; 134: 111002, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202964

ABSTRACT

Whether muscle properties gradually change with age and how muscle properties are affected by sex remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the influence of age and sex on the biomechanical and viscoelastic properties of arm muscles in middle-aged and older adults. In this cross-sectional study, 80 healthy participants were divided by sex (male and female), and each sex group, by 10-year age ranges (40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 years). Muscle properties, including tone, stiffness, elasticity, and mechanical stress relaxation time, were measured with the MyotonPRO. Our results showed that the muscle tone and elasticity of the deltoid and flexor carpi radialis, and the muscle tone of the flexor carpi ulnaris, were significantly greater in men than in women, whereas the stress relaxation time of the triceps was significantly greater in women than in men. Significantly greater muscle stiffness in the biceps brachii was found in the participants over 50 years old. Less muscle elasticity was found in the deltoid, triceps, and flexor carpi ulnaris in those over 70 years old. In conclusion, age and sex have considerable impacts on upper-limb muscle properties in middle-aged and older adults, which should be taken into consideration when planning health promotion projects.


Subject(s)
Sex Characteristics , Upper Extremity , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Pilot Projects
7.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 67-75, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130567

ABSTRACT

Resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome (RTHS) is defined as increased thyroxine and triiodothyronine associated with normal or increased thyrotropin. This is usually due to a pathogenic variant of the gene coding for thyroid hormone receptor B (THRB). THRB is a rare genetic disorder characterized by an altered response of target tissue to the thyroid hormone action. Retrospective cross-sectional observational study with diagnosis of RTHS evaluated in secondary and tertiary hospitals for 6 years, from 2014 to 2020, in order to describe variables including age, sex, anthropometric data, clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients, who were divided according to age, in a pediatric group from 0 to 14 years (index cases), and an adult group composed of adult relatives of index cases. A molecular analysis of the THRB gene was performed. The total retrospective cohort included 7 pediatric patients and 15 adults. We found 22 cases with a clear male predominance (14/22). Mean age is 24.8 years old (22 days-70 years). Patients were referred because of symptoms 18.2% (4/22), analysis results 22.7% (5/22), or familial study 59.1% (13/22). About 31.8% (7/22) cases show goiter, 31.8% (7/22) sympathetic symptoms and 13.6% (3/22) abnormalities in behavior. In most cases, 77.3%, (17/22) show familial background of thyroid abnormalities. It is important to remark that 18.2% (4/22) relatives received previous incorrect treatments such as thyroidectomy, because of wrong diagnosis. In conclusion, a better understanding of RTHS, its prompt molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling, could avoid unnecessary tests and inappropriate treatments.


Subject(s)
Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mutation , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta/genetics , Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome/diagnosis , Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome/genetics , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine , Young Adult
8.
Horm Metab Res ; 54(2): 104-112, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130571

ABSTRACT

Some studies have suggested that diabetes may be a risk factor for osteoarthritis. However, whether prediabetes is also associated with osteoarthritis has not been comprehensively examined. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between prediabetes and osteoarthritis. This meta-analysis included relevant observational studies from Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases. A random-effect model after incorporation of the intra-study heterogeneity was selected to pool the results. Ten datasets from six observational studies were included, which involved 41 226 general adults and 10 785 (26.2%) of them were prediabetic. Pooled results showed that prediabetes was not independently associated with osteoarthritis [risk ratio (RR): 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00 to 1.14, p=0.06, I2=0%]. Sensitivity limited to studies with adjustment of age and body mass index showed consistent result (RR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.14, p=0.09, I2=0%). Results of subgroup analyses showed that prediabetes was not associated with osteoarthritis in cross-sectional or cohort studies, in studies including Asian or non-Asian population, or in studies with different quality scores (p for subgroup difference>0.10). Besides, prediabetes was not associated with osteoarthritis in men or in women, in studies with prediabetes defined as impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or HbA1c (approximately 39-46 mmol/mol). Moreover, prediabetes was not associated with overall osteoarthritis, and knee or hip osteoarthritis. Current evidence does not support that prediabetes is independently associated with osteoarthritis in adult population.


Subject(s)
Glucose Intolerance , Osteoarthritis , Prediabetic State , Adult , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Male , Observational Studies as Topic , Osteoarthritis/complications , Osteoarthritis/epidemiology , Prediabetic State/complications , Prediabetic State/epidemiology , Prediabetic State/metabolism , Risk Factors
9.
AIDS Care ; 34(3): 301-309, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615903

ABSTRACT

HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is not yet included in India's national AIDS program, with demonstration projects for MSM in planning stages. In order to support PrEP roll-out for MSM, we assessed: (1) associations between guideline-informed PrEP eligibility, HIV risk perception, and perceived PrEP benefits and costs, with willingness to use PrEP (WTUP); and (2) correlates of non-WTUP among PrEP-eligible MSM. Data were collected from MSM (n = 197) sampled from cruising sites in Mumbai and Chennai. More than half (58.4%) reported inconsistent condom use with male partners, 88.3% >1 male partner, and 48.6% engaging in sex work (all past month). Overall, 76.6% reported they would "definitely use" PrEP. Among 92.9% deemed PrEP-eligible, 79.2% reported WTUP. In adjusted analyses, PrEP eligibility (aOR = 5.31, 95% CI 1.11, 25.45), medium (aOR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.03, 5.63) or high (aOR = 13.08, 95% CI 1.29, 132.27) perceived HIV risk, and greater perceived benefits (aOR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.24) were associated with higher odds of WTUP. Among PrEP-eligible MSM, non-WTUP was associated with low HIV risk perception and lower perceived benefits. Facilitating accurate risk assessment and promoting awareness of PrEP benefits and eligibility criteria may increase PrEP uptake among MSM in India.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , India , Male , Perception
10.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 20(1): 71, 2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35488344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is estimated that, worldwide, 9% of deaths occur as a result of insufficient physical activity (PA) practice. Practicing PA can prevent and/or reduce the deleterious effects of different types of diseases and can improve general health aspects related to health-related quality of life (HRQoL). PURPOSE: To analyze the relationship of different PA domains with different HRQoL domains over a two-year period. METHODS: This is an observational study with a two-year longitudinal design. The sample, composed of adults, was selected from a randomization of the streets of the different regions (north, south, east, west and center) covering individuals from all areas of the city. To assess the practice of PA, the Baecke questionnaire was used. The instrument Medical Outcomes Study SF-36-Item Short Form Health Survey was used to assess the HRQoL domains. Linear regression models were used to analyzed the association of different PA domains with changes in HRQoL. Multivariate statistical models were adjusted for gender, age, socioeconomic status, marital status, the respective PA score at baseline, smoking, body mass index, and morbidity. RESULTS: 331 adults were evaluated. There was a decrease in the practice of PA in the occupational domain and an increase in the leisure/locomotion domain. Regarding HRQoL, there was an increase in the scores of body pain and mental health, and a decrease in scores of general health, vitality, social aspects and emotional aspects. The PA practice in the occupational domain was inversely related to functional capacity (ß = - 7.2 [CI 95% - 13.0; - 1.4]). The practice of PA through sports in leisure time was positively associated with vitality (ß = 5.5 [CI 95% 0.2; 10.7]) and mental health (ß = 15.2 [CI 95% 6.8; 23.7]). PA practice during leisure and locomotion was inversely associated with functional capacity (ß = - 5.68 [CI 95% - 10.7; - 0.6]) and positively associated with vitality ß = 4.8 [CI 95% 0.8; 8.7]) and mental health (ß = 8.4 [CI 95% 2.0; 14.9]). The total PA practice was inversely associated with functional capacity (ß = - 3.8 [CI 95% - 6.5; - 1.2]) and positively associated with pain in the body (ß = 4.9 [CI 95% 0.3; 9.4]), vitality (ß = 2.9 [CI 95% 0.7; 5.0]) and mental health (ß = 5.7 [CI 95% 2.2; 9.2]). CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that practicing PA continuously within a period of two years can positively affect some physical aspects and some mental aspects related to HRQoL, but not all of them. A strategy for public policy actions is to explore these variables by domain and thus detect the real needs and improvements that can be made for the population.


Subject(s)
Health Status , Quality of Life , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise/psychology , Humans , Pain , Quality of Life/psychology
11.
Trop Med Int Health ; 27(4): 454-462, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35189005

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the characteristics of prophylactic antimicrobial use in clean and clean-contaminated surgical procedures and assessed the efficacy of a prophylactic antimicrobial stewardship intervention at Thong Nhat Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 354 patients who underwent either clean or clean-contaminated surgical procedures at Thong Nhat Hospital. Eligible patients were classified with respect to three periods of intervention from 2017 to 2020. Data collection included surgical procedures, patient characteristics, and prophylactic antimicrobial usage. We determined the efficacy of antimicrobial stewardship intervention based on comparisons among the primary outcome (the appropriateness of prophylactic antimicrobials) and secondary outcomes (postoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis (AP) prolongation, length of postoperative hospital stay, and cost of antimicrobials). RESULTS: The mean age of patients in periods 1, 2, and 3 was 54.5 ± 16.6, 50.2 ± 16.5, and 52.8 ± 17.3 years, respectively, with an overall male/female ratio of 1.1/1. No significant differences were detected in basic patient characteristics during the three periods. Majority of the surgical procedures were clean (56%-59%) and scheduled (85%-86%). Prophylactic antimicrobial stewardship intervention enhanced AP appropriateness (by 12.7%, 12.7%, and 39.0% in periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively, p < 0.001), decreased postoperative prophylactic antimicrobial duration [3.0 (0-6), 1.5 (0-5), and 0.0 (0-1) days, respectively, p < 0.001], and reduced average antimicrobial expenses (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The prophylactic antimicrobial stewardship interventions introduced at Thong Nhat Hospital had several positive impacts on the appropriateness of prophylactic antimicrobial use and treatment costs.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Stewardship , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Vietnam
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 816530, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35517647

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Like many other countries, the federal government of Malaysia took the initiative to implement nationwide home confinement as a preventive measure in response to the pandemic COVID-19 outbreak, better known as Movement Control Order (MCO). Many have suffered economically, which led to poor states of well-being. This study investigates the relationship between lifestyle, psychological factors affecting eating habits, and physical activity among government servants in states with the highest cumulative cases during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among 210 government servants from four states (Selangor, Sabah, Kuala Lumpur, and Johor) from May 2021 to June 2021. Three validated questionnaires were used, namely, Emotional-Eater Questionnaire (EEQ), and Malay International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-M) from López-Moreno et al. (1). Results: There were significant gender differences (P < 0.001) for supplement intake, with 30.4% among men and 62.3% in women. Almost half (49.1%) were classified as emotional or very emotional eaters. Also, a significant difference (P < 0.005) was found in the perception of boredom and apathy between men (35.7%) and women (31.8%). A majority (56.2%) stated that their mood positively affected their eating habits. The total metabolic equivalent of task (MET) for 132 subjects was 3495.8 ± 3862.7 min/week for physical activity. Significant differences were observed between MET and gender (Mann-Whitney U-test: P = 0.019), with men showing higher MET value (5001.4 ± 5354.0 min/week men, 2864.3 ± 2754.3 min/week women). A significant difference was observed among women for body weight and body mass index (BMI) before and during MCO (P < 0.001). For the emotional eater, there were correlations with eating habits before the MCO for quantity of food intake (P = 0.003), frequency of mealtime (P < 0.001), changes of food habits (P = 0.005), cooking methods (P = 0.016), and frequency of food intake (P = 0.020). There is no correlation (P = 0.577) between psychological factors affecting eating habits and physical activity during COVID-19. Conclusion: Changes were reported before and during MCO on lifestyle, eating habits, and physical activity. Such information will help design strategies to improve the economic and health status among government servants in Malaysia during the implementation of MCO or something similar.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , Government , Humans , Life Style , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics
13.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 868968, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35518931

ABSTRACT

Background: The association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality is controversial. Thus, the purpose of our research was to survey the association between BMI and postoperative 30-day mortality in brain tumor patients undergoing craniotomy. Methods: This study analyzed data collected in a multicenter, cross-sectional study that consecutively and nonselectively collected data from a total of 18,642 patients undergoing craniotomy for tumors in the ACS NSQIP from 2012 to 2015. We constructed three linear and non-linear binomial logistic models (the inflection point was set at 18.5) to evaluate the association between BMI and postoperative 30-day mortality, respectively. We also conducted subgroup analyses. Additionally, we compared non-linear models with vs. without interaction with sex. Results: A total of 17,713 patients were included in this analysis. Of these, 47.38% were male. The postoperative 30-day mortality of the included cases was 2.39% (423/17,713), and the mean BMI was 28.41 ± 6.05 kg/m2. The linear logistic models suggested that after adjusting for the covariates, BMI was not associated with postoperative 30-day mortality (OR=0.999; 95% CI: 0.981, 1.017). The non-linear binomial logistic models suggested a nonlinear relationship between BMI and postoperative 30-day mortality. When BMI was < 18.5, we observed a stronger negative association between them after adjusting for covariates; the OR and 95% CI were 0.719, 0.576-0.896. When BMI was > 18.5, the relationship between them was not significant. We also found that a one-unit decrease in BMI for male patients with BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 was related to a 34.6% increase in the risk of postoperative 30-day mortality (OR=0.654, 95% CI (0.472, 0.907). There was no significant association between them in male patients with BMI > 18.5 kg/m2 or female patients. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a non-linear relationship between BMI and the risk of postoperative death. Preoperative underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) would increase the risk of postoperative death in male patients (> 18 years old) undergoing craniotomy for brain tumors. Appropriate nutritional management prior to craniotomy for brain tumors may reduce the risk of postoperative 30-day mortality in underweight men.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms , Thinness , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , Brain Neoplasms/surgery , Craniotomy/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Risk Factors
14.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 817437, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35518936

ABSTRACT

Objective: According to a recent study, serum total bile acids (TBA) may preserve lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) in Cushing syndrome patients, and BMD is directly linked to bone health. We were interested in examining the association between TBA and in Chinese adults aged 20-59 years. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the physical examination results of 2,490 general healthy subjects in Hainan West Central Hospital. Femoral neck BMD and TBA were measured, and the relationship between TBA and femoral neck BMD was evaluated by curve fitting, a generalized additive model, and multiple linear regression analysis. Results: The fitted smooth curve and generalized additive model showed a nonlinear relationship between TBA and femoral neck BMD, and a positive correlation between TBA and femoral neck BMD was found after we made adjustments for the potential confounders. Conclusion: TBA is positively associated with femoral neck BMD in Chinese adults aged 20-59 years.


Subject(s)
Bile Acids and Salts , Bone Density , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 147, 2022.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35519155

ABSTRACT

Introduction: infertility is a real public health problem. Medically Assisted Procreation (MAP) with donor gametes is one of the possible solutions. In Benin, despite a well-defined legislative framework (children´s code), MAP using donated gametes has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of students at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences in Cotonou about the donation of gametes. Methods: we conducted a cross-sectional and descriptive study among second or third-year medical students at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences (FHMS) in Cotonou. Results: the surveyed sample consisted of 236 students, of whom 54% (n=127) were male and 46% (n=109) were female; the representative age range was between 18 and 24 years (87%). The knowledge of MAP using donated gametes was 90.6% (n=214). The possibility that this treatment might be performed in Benin was known to be 55.6% (n=131). More that eighty-eight percent (n=209) of respondents were unaware of the existence of legislation in force since 2015 on this matter and 69.5% (n=164) refused to donate gametes. Among the reasons mentioned, the ethical reason dominated. Conclusion: in Benin, students´ knowledge about MAP using donated gametes is adequate but there is a widespread refusal to donate their gametes among them, mainly because of ethical issues.


Subject(s)
Infertility , Students, Medical , Adolescent , Adult , Attitude , Benin , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Faculty , Female , Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Infertility/therapy , Male , Perception , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 150, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35519156

ABSTRACT

Introduction: maternal satisfaction is the key in health facilities utilization and so improving the birth outcome and reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. The main objective of this study was to assess women´s satisfaction with perinatal care provided in maternity at CHUB with its associated factors. Methods: a cross-sectional study was done at maternity of CHUB on clients´ satisfaction of maternity care. With a sample size of 422 mothers who were admitted for labor and delivery from July 1st to October 31st 2020. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and client's satisfaction (eight questions (CSQ-8). Every respondent had to answer all questions under guidance of a data collector. Excel, Stata and SPSS were used for data entry and data analysis. Chi-squared and multivariate regressions were used for analysis of the association. Results: eighty-nine point thirty four (89.34%) percent of our respondents reported that services they received helped them to deal more effectively with their problems; and they were most satisfied with a mean score of 3.9 (97.5%) and least satisfied with the fact that they were not allowed to decide themselves in their management, with a mean score of 3.1 (77.5%). The overall satisfaction of our respondent's equals to the mean score is 28.4/32= 88.75%. Factors found to affect mothers´ satisfaction were respecting mother´s privacy & values and allowing them to take decision and consenting before procedure. Conclusion: the majority of mothers were satisfied with received services. Respecting patients´ privacy and allowing them to participate in decision-making were two factors associated with high satisfaction.


Subject(s)
Cyprinidae , Labor, Obstetric , Maternal Health Services , Animals , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Patient Satisfaction , Personal Satisfaction , Pregnancy , Referral and Consultation , Rwanda , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 136, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35519158

ABSTRACT

Introduction: we examined HIV-related social norms and perceptions among South African adolescents aged 15-18 years and evaluated their openness to using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce HIV risk. Methods: we analyzed cross-sectional data of 4,567 adolescents aged 15-18 years from the "fifth South African National HIV prevalence, HIV incidence, behaviour and communication survey (2017/2018)". Outcomes of interest in our study were HIV-related social norms and awareness of HIV prevention methods, including pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Results: our results showed that compared to their female counterparts, a significantly higher percentage of male adolescents endorsed the statement "Men can have two or more sexual partners at the same time" (14.2% vs 10.1%, p=0.021). Condoms were the most popular method of HIV prevention, with 83.5% of all participants reporting awareness. Yet, 35.4% of those sexually active in the past year reported not using condoms all the time. Perceived parental sex education and exposure to community campaigns for HIV prevention were both associated with increased awareness of HIV prevention measures and openness to PrEP. Unaided recall of PrEP was very low (3.7%), but most of those who were HIV seronegative (69.3%) were open to using it after learning about it. Openness towards PrEP was significantly higher among those reporting vs not reporting past-year sexual activity (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR=1.16, 95%CI, 1.06-1.28), and binge-drinking (APR=1.24, 95%CI, 1.08-1.41). Conclusion: this study showed that while many South African adolescents were interested in trying PrEP, initial awareness was low. Ensuring barrier-free access to evidence-based preventive strategies may benefit public health.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , South Africa/epidemiology
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 134, 2022.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35519159

ABSTRACT

Early detection of sickle cell disease is crucial to improve people's survival. Both financial and geographic accessibility to sickle cell disease tools are barriers to universal screening in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the hospital prevalence of sickle cell disease and to assess the reliability of a rapid diagnostic tool, HemoTypeSC, in a resource-limited environment. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional descriptive study in the Department of Pediatrics of 5 health facilities in the city of Kindu, Maniema province, DRC, over a period of 10 months. The study consisted of HemoType SC rapid test screening for sickle cell disease and then diagnostic confirmation by hemoglobin electrophoresis. A total of 448 children less than 5 years of age were enrolled in the study. The overall hospital prevalence of patients with sickle cell disease was 31.9%, of whom 12.7% were homozygous (SS) and 19.2% trait carriers; the level of suspicion for sickle cell disease in hospitals was 6%; the clinical presumption regarding sickle cell disease was 8%; HemoType SC rapid test had good indicators of validity for the detection of hemoglobins A and S. The study shows that the hospital prevalence of major sickle cell disease is higher in children under 5 years of age with respect to clinical suspicion in the absence of laboratory tests. HemoTypeSC rapid test seems to be a reliable tool for the screening of the disease in the city of Kindu, a resource-limited environment.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell , Anemia, Sickle Cell/diagnosis , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Democratic Republic of the Congo/epidemiology , Humans , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 135, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35519160

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to evaluate the clinicobiological findings and the biotherapy treatment response of Moroccan patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and compare our results with those of populations of the same or different ethnicity. This retrospective cross-sectional study included patients aged 1-14 years, diagnosed between 2003 and 2018 with JIA according to the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) 2004 revised criteria, who received biologics and who followed up during the year 2018 in the day hospital of our single-center tertiary pediatric rheumatology unit. Among 59 patients, 53% had systemic JIA, 29% seronegative polyarticular JIA, 8% arthritis-related enthesitis, 5% seropositive polyarticular JIA, 3% oligoarthritis and 2% psoriatic arthritis. Tocilizumab was the most prescribed biologic (34 patients), followed by Etanercept (25 patients), Adalimumab (6 patients), Anakinra (3 patients) and biosimilar Infliximab (3 patients). Eleven patients switched biologics. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, number of active joints and the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score 27 (JADAS 27) decreased significantly at month three for 56 patients. These results were maintained at the last visit for 31 patients, while there was a slight worsening in 15 of them and no assessment in 13 patients due to lack of data. At the end of the evaluation, 39% of the patients were exclusively on biotherapy, while 61% were still on other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Twenty-eight patients developed lymphopenia, 4 patients had elevated transaminases, 4 patients developed moderate infection, and 2 patients developed macrophage activation syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Moroccan study on biotherapy in JIA. Our study population was characterized by a male predominance, a high frequency of the systemic form and a low percentage of positive antinuclear antibodies. We have shown that in the era of biologics, only 67.4% patients are nearly disease-free at the end of the study with a real risk of side effects. Although effective, biotherapy must be closely monitored because of potentially severe side effects, especially with Tocilizumab use.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis, Juvenile , Biological Products , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Biological Therapy , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 137, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35519167

ABSTRACT

Introduction: infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) poses a significant risk of developing renal dysfunction in people living with HIV (PLHIV). Renal dysfunction contributes to the morbidity and mortality of PLHIV. There is limited information on renal dysfunction among PLHIV in the Southern Highland, the highest HIV prevalent area in Tanzania. We conducted a study to estimate the magnitude and predictors of renal dysfunction among PLHIV on ART. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted at Njombe Town Council Hospital from December 2019 to April 2020, recruiting 396 participants. Serum was obtained to measure creatinine level then calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using CKD-EPI and the Bedside Schwartz equations. The participants' informations were collected using a structured questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using STATA version 15; a modified Poisson regression model was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR). The level of significance was specified at 0.05. Results: the overall prevalence of renal dysfunction defined as GFR less than 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 was 20.7%, which increased by 4% as the age increases. The prevalence of renal dysfunction was higher in PLHIV on ART for more than six months to 24 months compared to their counterparts. Likewise, obese individuals had a 2.5 times higher prevalence of renal dysfunction than normal individuals. Conclusion: there is a relatively high prevalence of renal dysfunction among PLHIV on ART, predicted by age, duration on ART, and nutrition status.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Kidney Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Tanzania/epidemiology
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