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1.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 11-27, oct.-dic. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-229226

ABSTRACT

La formación docente es esencial dentro del proceso de educación inclusiva permitiendo responder a la diversidad de los estudiantes a partir de estrategias que promuevan su aprendizaje y participación. Este estudio analiza la formación en inclusión de 253 docentes de instituciones públicas mediante el Cuestionario de Valoración Docente de la Inclusión Educativa (CEFI-R). Los resultados indican niveles bajos de formación en las dimensiones concepciones, apoyos y metodologías. Lo que sugiere que no existe una preparación integral del profesorado para la inclusión y los planes de formación deben abordar desde aspectos conceptuales hasta la implementación de ajustes en el aula. (AU)


Teacher training is essential within the inclusive education process, allowing students to respond to diversity through strategies that promote their learning and participation. This study analyzes the inclusion training of 253 teachers in public institutions, through the Cuestionario de Valoración Docente de la Inclusión Educativa (CEFI-R). The results indicate low levels of training in the conceptual dimensions, supports and methodologies. This suggests that there is no comprehensive preparation of teachers for inclusion and training plans should address conceptual aspects to the implementation of adjustments in the classroom. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Teacher Training/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies
2.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 11-27, oct.-dic. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-556

ABSTRACT

La formación docente es esencial dentro del proceso de educación inclusiva permitiendo responder a la diversidad de los estudiantes a partir de estrategias que promuevan su aprendizaje y participación. Este estudio analiza la formación en inclusión de 253 docentes de instituciones públicas mediante el Cuestionario de Valoración Docente de la Inclusión Educativa (CEFI-R). Los resultados indican niveles bajos de formación en las dimensiones concepciones, apoyos y metodologías. Lo que sugiere que no existe una preparación integral del profesorado para la inclusión y los planes de formación deben abordar desde aspectos conceptuales hasta la implementación de ajustes en el aula. (AU)


Teacher training is essential within the inclusive education process, allowing students to respond to diversity through strategies that promote their learning and participation. This study analyzes the inclusion training of 253 teachers in public institutions, through the Cuestionario de Valoración Docente de la Inclusión Educativa (CEFI-R). The results indicate low levels of training in the conceptual dimensions, supports and methodologies. This suggests that there is no comprehensive preparation of teachers for inclusion and training plans should address conceptual aspects to the implementation of adjustments in the classroom. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Teacher Training/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(3): [100512], jul.-sept2024. graf, tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-231875

ABSTRACT

Purpose: In children under 20 years, refractive development targets a cycloplegic refractive error of +0.5 to +1.5D, while presbyopes over 40 years generally have non-cycloplegic errors of ≥ +1D. Some papers suggest these periods are separated by a period of myopic refractive error (i.e., ≤ –0.50D), but this remains unclear. Hence, this work investigates the mean cycloplegic refractive error in adults aged between 20 – 40 years. Methods: In 2002 a cross-sectional study with stratified cluster sampling was performed on the population of Tehran, providing cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refractive error data for the right eyes of 3,576 participants, aged 30.6 ± 18.6 years (range: 1–86 years). After grouping these data into age groups of 5 years, the refractive error histogram of each group was fitted to a Bigaussian function. The mean of the central, emmetropized peak was used to estimate the mean refractive error without the influence of myopia. Results: The mean cycloplegic refractive error at the emmetropized peak decreased from +1.10 ± 0.11D (95 % confidence interval) to +0.50 ± 0.04D before 20 years and remains stable at that value until the age of 50 years. The non-cycloplegic refractive error also sees a stable phase at 0.00 ± 0.04D between 15 – 45 years. After 45 – 50 years both cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refractive error become more hypermetropic over time, +1.14 ± 0.12D at 75 years. Conclusions: The cycloplegic refractive error in adults is about +0.50D between 20 – 50 years, disproving the existence of the myopic period at those ages.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Vision, Ocular , Vision Tests , Refractive Errors , Emmetropia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Iran
4.
Eur. j. psychiatry ; 38(2): [100235], Apr.-Jun. 2024.
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-231861

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives The Economic Activity Restriction (EAR) due to health conditions is being utilized as a foundational measure for the European indicator Healthy Life Years (HLY). The EAR group is experiencing limitations not only in economic activities but also in overall activities, and it is a population with a high likelihood of transitioning to mental illness due to health condition. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between EAR and mental illness. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the association between EAR due to health conditions and mental illness for those aged 45 and older in South Korea. Methods We obtained data from the 2006–2020 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. EAR was assessed using self-reported questionnaires based on the Global Activity Limitation Indicator. mental illness was assessed based on the diagnosis data for participants who had been diagnosed. After excluding missing values, the data of 9,574 participants were analyzed using the chi-square test, log-rank tests, and time-dependent Cox proportional hazard model to evaluate the association between EAR and mental illness. Results Out of the 9,574 participants gathered at baseline, the mental illness rate was 4.8 %. The hazard ratio (HR) of mental illness in those in the “very probable” of EAR was 2.351 times higher (p-value <0.0001) compared with “not at all” of EAR. In model 1 which includes under 64 years, HR of mental illness in “very probable” of EAR was 3.679 times higher (p-value: 0.000) and in “probable” of EAR was 2.535 time higher (p-value: 0.001) compared with “not at all” of EAR. Conclusion If we provide opportunities to participate in community activities or provide the mental health promotion programs for middle-aged population who are experiencing EAR due to health condition... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Mentally Ill Persons/psychology , Sick Leave , /psychology , Cohort Studies , Prospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 78(7): 179-183, Ene-Jun, 2024. mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-232185

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las miopatías relacionadas con el receptor de rianodina de tipo 1 (RYR1-RM) constituyen la categoría más frecuente de miopatías congénitas. La introducción de técnicas genéticas ha cambiado el paradigma diagnóstico y sugiere la prioridad de estudios moleculares sobre biopsias. Este estudio busca explorar las características clinicoepidemiológicas de pacientes con variantes del gen RYR1 en un hospital pediátrico de tercer nivel con el objetivo de ampliar la comprensión de la correlación genotipo-fenotipo en las RYR1-RM. Pacientes y métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal, de pacientes menores de 14 años con síntomas miopáticos y variantes potencialmente patógenas del gen RYR1 entre enero de 2013 y diciembre de 2023, considerando variables como sexo, edad, desarrollo motor, variantes genéticas, patrón de herencia y otras manifestaciones. Todas las variables fueron tabuladas frente a la variante genética. Resultados: De los nueve pacientes incluidos, la incidencia estimada fue de aproximadamente 1/10.000 nacidos vivos. La mediana en el momento del diagnóstico fue de 6 años, con una variabilidad fenotípica significativa. Se observaron síntomas comunes, como debilidad y retraso del desarrollo motor. Las variantes genéticas afectaron al gen RYR1 de manera diversa, y hubo cinco variantes previamente no descritas. La biopsia muscular se realizó en cinco pacientes, en dos de ellos de tipo miopatía central core; en uno, multiminicore; en uno, desproporción congénita de fibras; y en otro, de patrón inespecífico. Conclusiones: Las RYR1-MR de nuestra serie ofrecieron variabilidad fenotípica y de afectación, con una incidencia en nuestra área de en torno a 1/10.000 recién nacidos. La mayoría de los casos fueron varones, de variantes missense dominantes. Aportamos cinco variantes genéticas no descritas con anterioridad.(AU)


Introduction: Ryanodine receptor type 1-related myopathies (RYR1-RM) represent the most prevalent category of congenital myopathies. The introduction of genetic techniques has shifted the diagnostic paradigm, suggesting the prioritization of molecular studies over biopsies. This study aims to explore the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with RYR1 gene variants in a tertiary pediatric hospital, intending to enhance the understanding of the genotype-phenotype correlation in RYR1-RM. Patients and methods: An observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study was conducted on patients under 14 years old with myopathic symptoms and potentially pathogenic RYR1 gene variants from January 2013 to December 2023. Variables such as gender, age, motor development, genetic variants, inheritance pattern, and other manifestations were considered. All variables were tabulated against the genetic variant. Results: Of the nine included patients, the estimated incidence was approximately 1 in 10,000 live births. The median age at diagnosis was six years, with significant phenotypic variability. Common symptoms such as weakness and delayed motor development were observed. Genetic variants affected the RYR1 gene diversely, including five previously undescribed variants. Muscle biopsy was performed in five patients, revealing central core myopathy in two, multiminicore in one, congenital fiber-type disproportion in one, and a nonspecific pattern in another.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Muscular Diseases/classification , Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel , Incidence , Inheritance Patterns , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genetic Association Studies
6.
Hipertens. riesgo vasc ; 41(2): 87-94, abr.-jun2024. tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-ADZ-177

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Empagliflozin plays a beneficial role in individuals with type 2 diabetes at high risk of cardiovascular complications. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of individuals with type 2 diabetes who required empagliflozin based on clinical guidelines between the years 2022 and 2023. Material and methods: This study was a descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study conducted on a target population of patients with type 2 diabetes. Patient data, including demographic characteristics, smoking status, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, renal insufficiency, retinopathy, and proteinuria, were collected. The indication for prescribing empagliflozin was determined based on the risk of cardiovascular complications. Results: A total of 398 individuals with type 2 diabetes with a mean age of 58.4 years were examined. Overall, 87.4% of the patients had an indication for empagliflozin prescription. The indication for empagliflozin prescription was significantly higher in men, individuals with hyperlipidemia, those over 55 years of age, obese individuals, and smokers. The mean age, body mass index, and triglyceride levels were higher in candidates for empagliflozin prescription. Male candidates for empagliflozin had significantly higher rates of smoking and systolic blood pressure compared to females. Conclusions: The findings of this study demonstrated that a significant percentage of individuals with type 2 diabetes had an indication for empagliflozin prescription based on clinical and laboratory criteria. (AU)


Introducción: La empagliflozina tiene un papel beneficioso en las personas con diabetes tipo 2 con alto riesgo de complicaciones cardiovasculares. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la prevalencia de pacientes con este padecimiento que requerían empagliflozina según las guías clínicas entre los años 2022 y 2023. Material y métodos: Se trata de un estudio transversal descriptivo-analítico realizado en una población objetivo de personas con diabetes tipo 2. Se recogieron los datos de los pacientes, incluyendo las características demográficas, el hábito tabáquico, la hipertensión, la hiperlipidemia, la insuficiencia renal, la retinopatía y la proteinuria. La indicación para prescribir empagliflozina se determinó en función del riesgo de complicaciones cardiovasculares. Resultados: Se examinaron un total de 398 individuos con diabetes tipo 2 con una edad media de 58,4 años. En general, 87,4% de estos tenía una indicación para la prescripción de empagliflozina, la cual fue significativamente mayor en los hombres, aquellos con hiperlipidemia, obesidad, los mayores de 55 años y los fumadores. La edad media, el índice de masa corporal y los niveles de triglicéridos fueron mayores en los candidatos a la prescripción de este medicamento. Los candidatos masculinos a este fármaco tenían tasas significativamente más altas de tabaquismo y presión arterial sistólica, en comparación con las mujeres. Conclusiones: Los resultados de este estudio demostraron que un porcentaje significativo de personas con diabetes tipo 2 tenía una indicación para la prescripción de empagliflozina según los criterios clínicos y de laboratorio. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors , Tobacco Smoking , Hypertension , Hyperlipidemias , Cross-Sectional Studies
7.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(2): [100492], Abr-Jun, 2024. tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-231621

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Given the increase in demand for optometry services by society and the importance of the Optometry profession in Portugal and Spain, the objective of this study was to determine job satisfaction and important factors related to this satisfaction in a sample of Portuguese and Spanish optometrists. Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional, and observational study was carried out from June to December 2021. An adaptation of the 15-item job satisfaction in eye-care personnel (JSEP) questionnaire validated by Paudel et al. was administered to Portuguese and Spanish optometrists. The questionnaire was shared through different social media (Facebook, LinkedIn, WhatsApp, etc.) in a Google form during the months of June to December 2021 in Portugal and Spain. Results: A total of 530 surveys were collected in Portugal (42.3%; n = 224) and Spain (57.7%; n = 306). The factors that most influence overall job satisfaction are salary, career development opportunities, recognition/prestige in society, good work-life balance (all p<0.001), workplace equipment and facilities, and encouragement reward positive feedback (both p = 0.002). When comparing the determinants of job satisfaction of optometrists, it was found that Portuguese professionals were generally more satisfied than Spanish ones (p<0.001). However, Spanish optometrists reported feeling more supported by their colleagues (p<0.001). Conclusion: This study has shown that the level of job satisfaction was higher in Portugal than in Spain. The most important factors influencing job satisfaction were salary, job stability, and support from colleagues.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Job Satisfaction , Vision, Ocular , Optometrists , Optometry , Spain , Portugal , Prospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 13(8): e034118, 2024 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563374

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the wake of pandemic-related health decline and health care disruptions, there are concerns that previous gains for cardiovascular risk factors may have stalled or reversed. Population-level excess burden of drug-treated diabetes and hypertension during the pandemic compared with baseline is not well characterized. We evaluated the change in incident prescription claims for antihyperglycemics and antihypertensives before versus during the pandemic. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this retrospective, serial, cross-sectional, population-based study, we used interrupted time series analyses to examine changes in the age- and sex-standardized monthly rate of incident prescriptions for antihyperglycemics and antihypertensives in patients aged ≥66 years in Ontario, Canada, before the pandemic (April 2014 to March 2020) compared with during the pandemic (July 2020 to November 2022). Incident claim was defined as the first prescription filled for any medication in these classes. The characteristics of patients with incident prescriptions of antihyperglycemics (n=151 888) or antihypertensives (n=368 123) before the pandemic were comparable with their pandemic counterparts (antihyperglycemics, n=97 015; antihypertensives, n=146 524). Before the pandemic, monthly rates of incident prescriptions were decreasing (-0.03 per 10 000 individuals [95% CI, -0.04 to -0.01] for antihyperglycemics; -0.14 [95% CI, -0.18 to -0.10] for antihypertensives). After July 2020, monthly rates increased (postinterruption trend 0.31 per 10 000 individuals [95% CI, 0.28-0.34] for antihyperglycemics; 0.19 [95% CI, 0.14-0.23] for antihypertensives). CONCLUSIONS: Population-level increases in new antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive prescriptions during the pandemic reversed prepandemic declines and were sustained for >2 years. Our findings are concerning for current and future cardiovascular health.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents , Hypoglycemic Agents , Humans , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Prescriptions , Ontario/epidemiology
9.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1333081, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566790

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Many researchers have focused their studies on hypertension due to its over-representation among COVID-19 patients. Both retrospective and observational studies conducted close to the Wuhan area have reported that hypertension is the most common comorbidity observed in patients affected by COVID-19. Objective: Our objective is that patients with arterial hypertension have a worse prognosis in terms of evolution leading to higher costs. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 3,581 patients from La Paz University Hospital (LPUH) during the period between 15 July 2020 and 31 July 2020 were included in this study. Results: It should be noted that 40.71% of the patients were hypertensive. As expected, hypertension was associated with men, among whom we observed a higher prevalence and a higher age (median age of 77 years (IQI: 65-85) versus 52 years (IQI: 37-64), p-value < 0.001). Hypertensive patients had a higher prevalence of dyspnea (52.14% vs. 47.15%, p-value = 0.004) and altered awareness (14.89% vs. 4.30%, p-value <0.001). The non-parametric Kaplan-Meier curve estimates the survival of patients in the two study groups. We can see how patients with hypertension have a higher associated mortality, with the difference being statistically significant, p-value (log-rank) = 0.004. Only for the appearance of complications during hospitalization, the group of hypertensive patients reached the figure of €1,355,901.71 compared to the total of 421,403.48 € for normotensive patients. Conclusion: Our study shows the worse clinical evolution of patients with COVID-19 in terms of associated morbidity and mortality. It also shows that the cost of managing patients with hypertension is greater than that of managing normotensive patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Hypertension/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Female
10.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 363, 2024 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570769

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Female breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer, and knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, and symptoms is crucial for early diagnosis and prevention. This study aims to evaluate breast cancer awareness among female students at a pharmacy faculty in Turkey. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey study was conducted among female students at the Suleyman Demirel University Faculty of Pharmacy between 2 November and 17 November 2023, in Isparta, Turkey. RESULTS: This survey was answered by 237 (74.5%) female students. The median breast cancer risk factors score was 8 (IQR, 5-11), and the median breast cancer symptoms score was 5 (IQR, 2-8). Additionally, the breast cancer risk factors score was 46.16% (mean/max = 8.31/18, SD = 4.33) and the breast cancer symptom score was 58.5% (mean/max = 4.68/8, SD = 2.8). Few of the respondents (26.2%, and 20.3%, respectively) knew breast cancer risk factors such as late menopause, and no childbirth experience. Most respondents correctly answered symptoms of breast cancer, such as a painless and palpable breast lump, indrawing of the nipple, and sudden changes in breast shape (76.8%,44.3%, and 67.1% respectively). The students' sources of information were medical websites (29.5%), social media (27%), physicians (22.8%), friends & family (14.8%), and pharmacists (5.9%). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that students' knowledge of breast cancer risk factors was poor, but their knowledge of breast cancer symptoms was acceptable. Breast cancer awareness courses should be included in faculties. Additionally, more attention should be given to different educational interventions such as social media, television, and brochure distribution.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Students, Pharmacy , Female , Humans , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Turkey , Universities
11.
Clin Imaging ; 109: 110129, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582071

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Breast arterial calcifications (BAC) are incidentally observed on mammograms, yet their implications remain unclear. We investigated lifestyle, reproductive, and cardiovascular determinants of BAC in women undergoing mammography screening. Further, we investigated the relationship between BAC, coronary arterial calcifications (CAC) and estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular (ASCVD) risk. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we obtained reproductive history and CVD risk factors from 215 women aged 18 or older who underwent mammography and cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) within a 2-year period between 2007 and 2017 at hospital. BAC was categorized as binary (present/absent) and semi-quantitatively (mild, moderate, severe). CAC was determined using the Agatston method and recorded as binary (present/absent). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, accounting for age as a confounding factor. ASCVD risk over a 10-year period was calculated using the Pooled Cohort Risk Equations. RESULTS: Older age, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, higher parity, and younger age at first birth (≤28 years) were significantly associated with greater odds of BAC. Women with both BAC and CAC had the highest estimated 10-year risk of ASCVD (13.30 %). Those with only BAC (8.80 %), only CAC (5.80 %), and no BAC or CAC (4.40 %) had lower estimated 10-year risks of ASCVD. No association was detected between presence of BAC and CAC. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the hypothesis that BAC on a screening mammogram may help to identify women at potentially increased risk of future cardiovascular disease without additional cost and radiation exposure.


Subject(s)
Breast Diseases , Calcinosis , Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronary Artery Disease , Vascular Calcification , Female , Humans , Breast/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mammography/methods , Breast Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/complications , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging , Vascular Calcification/epidemiology
12.
J Psychiatr Res ; 173: 355-362, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38581904

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to discover the association between disability in everyday life and social activities due to chronic diseases and suicidal ideation (SI), suicidal plan (SP), and suicidal attempt (SA) from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), considering the cross-sectional design of this study, 2016-2018 dataset. Variables for finding the associated factors of SI, SP, and SA were confirmed through random forest (RF), decision tree, generalized linear model (GLM), and support vector machine (SVM), and the performance of each model is listed. A total of 17,323 (males: 7,530, females: 9793) responders from the KNHANES from 2016 to 2018 were employed for the study. The relationship between restrictions on daily life, social activities, and three stages of suicidal behaviors due to diseases were analyzed using the R function (R version 4.2.0), randomForest, ctree, glm, and ksvm. The F1-score is a measure used to evaluate the accuracy of the performance of a model, in the binary classification. The score of 1 indicates good performance, whereas a score of 0 signifies poor performance. Due to chronic diseases, disability in everyday life and social activities lead to suicide behaviors. In our study, we examined the impact of limitations in daily living and social activities on suicidal behaviors among participants. Our findings revealed that for those experiencing such limitations, the odds ratios (ORs) for SIs were 6.10 (95% CI: 3.99-9.34) for males and 2.61 (1.79-3.81) for females. SPs were 3.69 (2.36-5.78) for males and 3.94 (2.70-5.75) for females. Similarly, the odds ratios for SAs were 5.04 (2.51-10.13) for males and 2.71 (1.48-4.98) for females, indicating a significant association between these limitations and increased suicidal behaviors, with variances observed between genders. These results underscore the necessity of addressing daily living and social activity restrictions when considering mental health interventions and suicide prevention strategies. In RF, GLM, and SVM, F1-score were 0.8192, 0.6887, and 0.9687 in SA, respectively. Among the patients with chronic disease, those with sequelae, low incomes, and low levels of education had limitations in daily activities and social activities, which increased the likelihood of suicidal thoughts, planning, and attempts.


Subject(s)
Suicidal Ideation , Suicide, Attempted , Humans , Male , Female , Nutrition Surveys , Cross-Sectional Studies , Chronic Disease , Risk Factors
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(15): e37712, 2024 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38608110

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the risk factors related to sleep disorders in patients undergoing hemodialysis using a nomogram model. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a hospital in Zhejiang province, China from January 1, 2020, to November 31, 2022 among patients undergoing hemodialysis. Dietary intake was assessed applying a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Sleep quality was evaluated by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Evaluation of risk factors related to sleep disorders in patients undergoing hemodialysis was using a nomogram model. This study included 201 patients and 87 individuals (43.3%, 87/201) exhibited sleep disorders. The average age of included patients was 51.1 ±â€…9.0 years, with males accounting for 55.7% (112/201). Results from nomogram model exhibited that potential risk factors for sleep disorders in patients undergoing hemodialysis included female, advanced age, increased creatinine and alanine aminotransferase levels, as well as higher red meat consumption. Inversely, protective factors against sleep disorders in these patients included higher consumption of poultry, fish, vegetables, and dietary fiber. The C-index demonstrated a high level of discriminative ability (0.922). This study found that age, sex, and dietary factors were associated with sleep disorders in hemodialysis patients. Hemodialysis patients with sleep disorders require urgent dietary guidance.


Subject(s)
Nomograms , Sleep Wake Disorders , Animals , Male , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/etiology
14.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 24(1): 165, 2024 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616259

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the prevalence of low corneal endothelial cell density and correlates of corneal endothelial cell density among adults attending Mbarara University and Referral Hospital Eye Centre in Uganda. METHODS: In this hospital-based cross-sectional study, participants 18 years and older, were enrolled. We obtained informed consent, and basic demographic data. We also conducted visual acuity, a detailed slit lamp examination, intra-ocular pressure, corneal diameter, tear-film break-up time, keratometry, A-scan, and pachymetry on all participants. A confocal microscope Heidelberg HRT3 was used to examine the central cornea and to obtain the mean cell density (cells/mm2). To calculate the proportion of low endothelial cell density, descriptive statistics were used, whereas correlates of endothelial cell density were assessed, using linear regression analyses. RESULTS: We evaluated a total of 798 eyes of 404 participants aged between 18 and 90 years (males = 187, females = 217). The average endothelial cell density was 2763.6 cells/mm2, and there was a decrease in endothelial cell density with increasing age, irrespective of gender. There was no significant difference in endothelial cell density between males and females. Increasing age (adjusted coefficient - 10.1, p < 0.001), history of smoking (adjusted coefficient - 439.6, p = 0.004), history of ocular surgery (adjusted coefficient - 168.0, p = 0.023), having dry eye (adjusted coefficient - 136.0, p = 0.051), and having arcus senilis (adjusted coefficient - 132.0, p = 0.08), were correlated with lower endothelial cell density. However, increasing corneal diameter (adjusted coefficient 134.0, p = 0.006), increasing central corneal thickness (adjusted coefficient 1.2, p = 0.058), and increasing axial length (adjusted coefficient 65.8, p = 0.026), were correlated with higher endothelial cell density. We found five eyes (0.63%) from different participants with a low endothelial cell density (< 1000cells/mm2). CONCLUSION: Our study established baseline normal ranges of ECD in a predominantly black African population, and found that low ECD is rare in our population. The elderly, smokers, and those with past ocular surgery are the most vulnerable. The low prevalence could be due to a lack of reference values for the black African population.


Subject(s)
Cornea , Hospitals , Adult , Aged , Female , Male , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Uganda/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endothelial Cells
15.
BMC Emerg Med ; 24(1): 62, 2024 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emergency medical service (EMS) workers face challenging working conditions that are characterized by high stress and a susceptibility to making errors. The objectives of the present study were (a) to characterize the psychosocial working conditions of EMS workers, (b) to describe the perceived quality of patient care they provide and patient safety, and (c) to investigate for the first time among EMS workers associations of psychosocial working conditions with the quality of patient care and patient safety. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, we carried out an online survey among 393 EMS workers who were members of a professional organization. Working conditions were measured by the Demand-Control-SupportQuestionnaire (DCSQ) and seven self-devised items covering key stressors. Participants reported how often they perceived work stress to affect the patient care they provided and we inquired to what extent they are concerned to have made a major medical error in the last three months. Additionally, we used parts of the Emergency Medical Services - Safety Inventory (EMS-SI) to assess various specific errors and adverse events. We ran descriptive analyses (objective a and b) and multivariable logistic regression (objective c). RESULTS: The most common stressors identified were communication problems (reported by 76.3%), legal insecurity (69.5%), and switching of colleagues (48.9%) or workplaces (44.5%). Overall, 74.0% reported at least one negative safety outcome based on the EMS-SI. Concerns to have made an important error and the perception that patient care is impaired by work stress and were also frequent (17.8% and 12.7%, respectively). Most psychosocial working conditions were associated with the perception that patient care is impaired due to work stress. CONCLUSIONS: Work stress in EMS staff is pronounced and negative safety outcomes or potential errors are perceived to occur frequently. Poor psychosocial working conditions were only consistently associated with perceived impairment of patient care due to work stress. It seems necessary to reduce communication problems and to optimize working processes especially at interfaces between emergency services and other institutions. Legal insecurity could be reduced by clarifying and defining responsibilities. Communication and familiarity between team colleagues could be fostered by more consistent composition of squads.


Subject(s)
Emergency Medical Services , Occupational Stress , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Patient Safety , Working Conditions , Germany , Occupational Stress/epidemiology
16.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 239, 2024 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616274

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the surface electromyography (sEMG) of pelvic floor muscles (PFMs), compare between vaginal birth and cesarean section and correlate with maternity and obstetrics characteristics in primiparous 6-8 weeks postpartum. METHODS: PFMs surface electromyography screening data of primiparous postpartum women in our hospital at 6-8 weeks postpartum from 2018 to 2021 were selected and analyzed. The study collected data on delivery activities of 543 postpartum women totally. RESULTS: In general, the abnormal incidence of pelvic floor electromyography in postpartum women mainly occurred in slow muscle (type I fiber) stage and endurance testing stage. Compared to vaginal birth postpartum women, the incidence of abnormal pelvic floor electromyography in cesarean section postpartum women is lower. There were statistical differences in measurement values of pelvic floor electromyography in several different stages between cesarean section and vaginal birth (P < 0.005). Regarding the influence on pelvic floor electromyography, there were more influencing factors on vaginal birth postpartum women including age, height, weight, weight gain during pregnancy, gestational week, and first and second stage of labor than on cesarean section postpartum women whose influencing factors included age, weight gain during pregnancy, and newborn weight. CONCLUSION: Effects on surface electromyography (sEMG) of pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) at 6-8 weeks postpartum differed based on the different modes of delivery. The high-risk obstetric factors closely related to abnormal surface electromyography (sEMG) of pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) were maternal age, height, weight, and second stage of labor.


Subject(s)
Cesarean Section , Pelvic Floor , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electromyography , Postpartum Period , Weight Gain
17.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 21(1): 54, 2024 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Incorporating instrument measurements into clinical assessments can improve the accuracy of results when assessing mobility related to activities of daily living. This can assist clinicians in making evidence-based decisions. In this context, kinematic measures are considered essential for the assessment of sensorimotor recovery after stroke. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of using an Android device to evaluate kinematic data during the performance of a standardized mobility test in people with chronic stroke and hemiparesis. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study including 36 individuals with chronic stroke and hemiparesis and 33 age-matched healthy subjects. A simple smartphone attached to the lumbar spine with an elastic band was used to measure participants' kinematics during a standardized mobility test by using the inertial sensor embedded in it. This test includes postural control, walking, turning and sitting down, and standing up. Differences between stroke and non-stroke participants in the kinematic parameters obtained after data sensor processing were studied, as well as in the total execution and reaction times. Also, the relationship between the kinematic parameters and the community ambulation ability, degree of disability and functional mobility of individuals with stroke was studied. RESULTS: Compared to controls, participants with chronic stroke showed a larger medial-lateral displacement (p = 0.022) in bipedal stance, a higher medial-lateral range (p < 0.001) and a lower cranio-caudal range (p = 0.024) when walking, and lower turn-to-sit power (p = 0.001), turn-to-sit jerk (p = 0.026) and sit-to-stand jerk (p = 0.001) when assessing turn-to-sit-to-stand. Medial-lateral range and total execution time significantly correlated with all the clinical tests (p < 0.005), and resulted significantly different between independent and limited community ambulation patients (p = 0.042 and p = 0.006, respectively) as well as stroke participants with significant disability or slight/moderate disability (p = 0.024 and p = 0.041, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study reports a valid, single, quick and easy-to-use test for assessing kinematic parameters in chronic stroke survivors by using a standardized mobility test with a smartphone. This measurement could provide valid clinical information on reaction time and kinematic parameters of postural control and gait, which can help in planning better intervention approaches.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Walking , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Decision Making , Paresis/etiology
18.
Ital J Pediatr ; 50(1): 68, 2024 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616286

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Child development is shaped throughout the first years of life through the interaction of genetics and the environment. Bayley-III is valuably used to determine early developmental delay (DD). The aim of this study was to detect the differences in performance of a sample of apparently healthy Egyptian infants and toddlers on the Bayley-III scales in relation to their age and gender. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. Bayley scales were applied to 270 of the 300 recruited children following the inclusion criteria; to avoid potential risk factors affecting development. Assessment included cognitive, language and motor skills. Engaged children aged 18-42 months were divided into 4 age groups with six-month intervals. RESULTS: Approximately 78.4%, 76.2%, and 72% of the participants had average and above average scores in the cognitive, motor, and language domains, respectively. The language domain was characteristically impacted. The oldest age group (36-42 months) scored the highest means composite scores, while the 2nd group aged 24 - <30 months, scored the lowest means in the three evaluated domains. In general, girls had non-significantly higher composite scores than boys, with a small effect size (d = 0.2-0.4). In the language domain, girls aged 30 to < 36 months scored significantly higher composite scores than boys (p < 0.05), with a medium effect size (d = 0.73). CONCLUSION: The study indicates that the performance of apparently healthy Egyptian children on the Bayley III evaluation differs in relation to age and sex. The most vulnerable age group at potential risk of DD was children aged 24-30 months. Efforts must be directed to investigate the nutritional, physical, psychological and safety needs of this group. Attention must be paid to early childhood intervention programs that stimulate development, especially language development, and they must be tailored on the basis of age and gender. Gender-specific norms may be needed in the evaluation of language development.


Subject(s)
Language Development , Language , Child, Preschool , Male , Female , Infant , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Egypt , Child Development
19.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 21(4): 599-602, 2024 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bruch's membrane opening area is the circular area around the disc of Bruch's membrane, which is devoid of Bruch's membrane and can be assessed by capturing the retinal imaging system by Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. BMOA can be a new landmark in analyzing the glaucomatous optic nerve head, myopic optic disc, optic neuropathy and uveitic disc edema. This is the first study from South Asia to evaluate the normal Bruch's membrane opening area among Nepalese eyes. METHODS: This hospital-based, cross-sectional, quantitative, observational study cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary eye care hospital in Nepal. Healthy immunocompetent Nepalese participants of both genders and different age groups were enrolled. The mean average Bruch's membrane opening area of each eyes, the difference in Bruch's membrane opening area between the two eyes and the gender of varying age groups were analyzed. RESULTS: Around 162 eyes (81 participants) were analyzed. The mean age was 56.69±17.5years. The mean average Bruch's membrane opening area of the right and left eye was 2.53±0.58 mm2 and 2.50 ±0.58 mm2. There was no significant difference in the Bruch's membrane opening area in either eye in both genders of any age group. CONCLUSION: The Bruch's membrane opening area does not differ significantly according to the laterality, gender and age group in Nepalese eyes.


Subject(s)
Bruch Membrane , South Asian People , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Bruch Membrane/diagnostic imaging , Cross-Sectional Studies , Functional Laterality , Nepal
20.
Inquiry ; 61: 469580241246460, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38616652

ABSTRACT

Cancer is a leading cause of death, with a rapidly increasing global burden. Chemotherapy is the most effective cancer treatment, and with its benefits, there exist potential problems. The present study assesses cancer patients' knowledge, attitude, and practice toward chemotherapy use. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the oncology wards of various tertiary care hospitals and cancer care centers in Lahore, Pakistan. Patients were included in the study based on convenient sampling. A structured questionnaire with 25 (close-ended) questions and a demographic profile was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze frequencies and percentages. Independent sample t-test and ANOVA were used to calculate the mean and standard deviation. Most patients were females (54%) and married (52.6%), with an unemployment rate of 39%. Patients with higher education depicted significantly higher scores in knowledge (9.61 ± 2.65), attitude (19.37 ± 2.70), and practice (3.89 ± 1.03) domains. Surprisingly, throughout the whole KAP domain, the patient's attitude (18.42 ± 3.31) toward chemotherapy use, showed higher values, as compared to their knowledge (7.78 ± 3.26) and practice (3.66 ± 1.08) scores. The majority of the study participants had a positive attitude toward chemotherapy use, with limited knowledge, and practice.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Hospitals , Pakistan
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