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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 23-34, ene.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-189158

ABSTRACT

In a countermeasures experiment, we examined to what extent liars who learn about the Model Statement tool and about the proportion of complications (complications/complications + common knowledge details + self-handicapping strategies) can successfully adjust their responses so that they sound like truth tellers. Truth tellers discussed a trip they had made; liars fabricated a story. Participants were of Lebanese, Mexican, and South-Korean origin. Prior to the interview they did or did not receive information about (I) the working of the Model statement and (II) three types of verbal detail: complications, common knowledge details and self-handicapping strategies. We found no evidence that liars sounded like truth tellers after being informed about the Model Statement and/or types of detail we examined. Actually, veracity differences were similar across experimental conditions, with truth tellers reporting more detail and more complications and obtaining a higher proportion of complications score than liars


En un experimento de contramedidas examinamos hasta qué punto los mentirosos que reciben información sobre la Declaración modelo y la proporción de complicaciones que presenta (complicaciones / complicaciones + detalles de conocimiento general + estrategias de autoobstaculización) pueden ajustar sus respuestas con éxito para que parezca que dicen la verdad. Los que dicen la verdad declararon sobre un viaje que habían hecho; los mentirosos inventaron una historia. Los participantes eran de origen libanés, mexicano y surcoreano. Antes de la entrevista habían recibido o no información sobre (I) el funcionamiento de la Declaración modelo y (II) tres tipos de detalles verbales: complicaciones, detalles de conocimiento general y estrategias de autoobstaculización. No encontramos evidencia de que los mentirosos se parecieran a los que dicen la verdad después de ser informados sobre la Declaración modelo y los tipos de detalle que examinamos. En realidad, las diferencias de veracidad fueron semejantes en todas las condiciones experimentales: los que decían la verdad informaron con mayor detalle y de más complicaciones y obtuvieron una mayor puntuación en la proporción de complicaciones que los mentirosos


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Psychology, Experimental/methods , Lie Detection/psychology , Truth Disclosure , Data Collection/classification , Interviews as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Mental Processes/classification , Students/psychology
2.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(1): 35-42, ene.-jun. 2020. tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-189159

ABSTRACT

Statement Validity Assessment (SVA) proposes that baseline statements on different events can serve as a within-subject measure of a witness' individual verbal capabilities when evaluating scores from Criteria-based Content Analysis (CBCA). This assumes that CBCA scores will generally be consistent across two accounts by the same witness. We present a first pilot study on this assumption. In two sessions, we asked 29 participants to produce one experience-based and one fabricated baseline account as well as one experience-based and one fabricated target account (each on different events), resulting in a total of 116 accounts. We hypothesized at least moderate correlations between target and baseline indicating a consistency across both experience-based and fabricated CBCA scores, and that fabricated CBCA scores would be more consistent because truth-telling has to consider random event characteristics, whereas lies must be constructed completely by the individual witness. Results showed that differences in correlations between experience-based CBCA scores and between fabricated CBCA scores took the predicted direction (cexperience-based = .44 versus cfabricated =.61) but this difference was not statistically significant. As predicted, a subgroup of event-related CBCA criteria were significantly less consistent than CBCA total scores, but only in experience-based accounts. The discussion considers methodological issues regarding the usage of total CBCA scores and whether to measure consistency with correlation coefficients. It is concluded that more studies are needed with larger samples


El Statement Validity Assessment (SVA) propone que las declaraciones sobre diferentes eventos pueden servir como una línea base intrasujeto de la medida de las capacidades verbales individuales de un testigo al evaluar las puntuaciones del Criteria Based Content Analysis (CBCA). Esto implica que las puntuaciones del CBCA serán congruentes en dos relatos del mismo testigo. Presentamos un primer estudio piloto sobre este supuesto. Se pidió a 29 participantes en dos sesiones que elaboraran un relato verdadero (línea base) y otro inventado, además de un relato verdadero y otro inventado (cada uno en situaciones diferentes), arrojando un total de 116 relatos. Se planteó la hipótesis de una correlación al menos moderada entre la declaración fabricada y la verdadera, que indicaría una consistencia entre las puntuaciones en el CBCA de relatos inventados y experimentados y que las puntuaciones en el CBCA inventadas serían más consistentes porque la verdad incluye las características aleatorias de los hechos, mientras que las mentiras las construye totalmente el testigo. Los resultados mostraron que las diferencias en las correlaciones entre las puntuaciones en el CBCA de relatos experimentados y fabricados iban en la dirección predicha (cvivido = .44 frente a cinventado = .61), pero esta diferencia no fue significativa. Como se predijo, un subgrupo de criterios de CBCA relacionados con los hechos fue menos congruente que las puntuaciones totales de CBCA, pero sólo en los relatos de hechos experimentados. Se discuten las implicaciones metodológicas relacionadas con el uso de las puntuaciones totales del CBCA y si se debe medir la consistencia mediante el coeficiente de correlación. Se concluye que se necesitan otros estudios con muestras más grandes


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Psychometrics/instrumentation , Psychology, Experimental/methods , Lie Detection/psychology , Truth Disclosure , Data Collection/classification , Interviews as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Mental Processes/classification , Verbal Behavior/classification , Hypothesis-Testing
3.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2020-06-02. (OPAS-W/BRA/COVID-19/20-082).
Non-conventional in Portuguese | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-52364

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O rastreamento de contatos é uma medida de saúde pública essencial e um componente fundamental das estratégias abrangentes para controlar a disseminação da COVID-19. O rastreamento de contatos interrompe as cadeias de transmissão entre as pessoas ao identificar quem foi exposto a casos confirmados, colocando-os em quarentena, seguindo-os para garantir o isolamento rápido e fornecendo-lhes teste e tratamento caso desenvolvam sintomas. Quando implantadas de forma sistemática e efetiva, essas ações podem garantir que o número de novos casos gerados para cada caso confirmado fique abaixo de um. No contexto da COVID-19, o rastreamento de contatos requer a identificação de pessoas que podem ter sido expostas a uma pessoa com COVID-19 e seu seguimento diário durante um período de monitoramento de 14 dias a partir da última exposição. Já que a transmissão da COVID-19 pode ocorrer antes do desenvolvimento de sintomas, os contatos devem permanecer em autoquarentena durante o período de monitoramento de 14 dias para limitar a possibilidade de expor outras pessoas à infecção caso fiquem doentes. Elementos fundamentais na implantação do rastreamento de contatos incluem a participação da comunidade e o apoio público; planejamento cuidadoso e consideração dos contextos, comunidades e culturas locais; uma força de trabalho de rastreadores de contato e de supervisores capacitados; apoio logístico para as equipes de rastreamento de contatos; e um sistema de informação bem projetado para a coleta, gerenciamento e análise de dados em tempo real...


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Software , Public Health Informatics , Betacoronavirus , Data Collection
4.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 May 29.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468999

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Sedentarism rates are increasing at school age, and it is necessary to know how it affects both rural and urban contexts. The present study aimed to identify whether the place of residence, rural or urban, influenced the level of physical activity that schoolchildren had in Primary Education and in Secondary Education. METHODS: A longitudinal study was carried out using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) for data collection. The sample consisted of 542 students (272 boys and 270 girls), aged between 11 and 13 years, who were interviewed at two different times: during the sixth year of primary education, and later in the first year of secondary education. A descriptive analysis of the items and final score of the PAQ-C in the rural and urban environment were carried out in both educational periods and an ANCOVA analysis of the final score; The association between the level of physical activity and the variables used was studied through corrected typified residuals and Cramer's V. The effect size was calculated. RESULTS: The results obtained confirmed that there are significant differences in the course variable (f=63,757; p<0.001; η2sup>=0.056) but not in the type of locality (p>0.05), nor in the locality x course interaction. (p>0.05) when the sex variable was controlled (f=27,325; p<0.001; η2=0.025). CONCLUSIONS: The transition to Secondary Education implies the increase of a sedentary lifestyle, both in rural and urban areas.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Adolescent , Child , Data Collection , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Rural Population , Schools , Spain , Students , Urban Population
5.
J Emerg Manag ; 18(3): 191-203, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441036

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Identify operational lessons to support hospital and health system preparedness and response for sea-sonal and pandemic influenza based on firsthand experiences from the 2017-2018 influenza season. DESIGN: We conducted semistructured, retrospective interviews with New York City Health+Hospitals (NYCH+H) personnel to gather firsthand experiences from the 2017-2018 influenza season and evaluated stress data across four operational domains reported by NYCH+H hospitals during the 2017-2018 influenza season. SETTING: Frontline hospitals in the NYCH+H health system during and after the 2017-2018 influenza season. PARTICIPANTS: Interviews conducted with personnel from 5 NYCH+H frontline hospitals. Operational stress data reported by 11 NYCH+H hospitals during the 2017-2018 influenza season. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Operational challenges and lessons from frontline hospitals responding to severe seasonal influenza. RESULTS: Operational stresses during the 2017-2018 influenza season varied over the influenza season, between facilities, and across operational domains. Patient surge and staff absenteeism pushed some facilities to their limits, and supply shortages highlighted shortcomings in existing procurement systems. Resources tied to pandemic influ-enza were unavailable without a pandemic declaration. CONCLUSION: Seasonal influenza poses dynamic operational stresses across health systems and cities, poten-tially causing major impacts outside of declared pandemics. Lessons from NYCH+H can help other hospitals and health systems anticipate operational challenges, but novel solutions are needed to mitigate effects of patient surge and personnel and supply shortages during severe influenza seasons and pandemics. Improved data collection can help health systems better understand operational stresses and challenges across their facilities.


Subject(s)
Data Collection , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Disaster Planning/organization & administration , Health Planning/organization & administration , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Cities , Hospital Bed Capacity , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , New York City , Retrospective Studies , Seasons
6.
J Emerg Manag ; 18(3): 247-260, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441041

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Thirty-three separate local emergency medical services (EMS) authority agencies serve the 58 counties in California. Each local emergency medical services agency dictates widely different treatment and trans-port protocols for its paramedics. Although previous research has established the problem of geographic EMS dis-parities, nothing definitively explains their cause. METHODS: We analyze California's most recently available EMS performance-measure data to determine if there is still disparity in EMS patient care and patient outcomes in California. If there is a disparity, we determine whether the differences are accounted for by socioeconomic factors, geographical differences, or population size, by combin-ing California EMS data with other state and county level data. If none of these factors are significantly correlated, this supports the hypothesis that something different, such as system structure, could be a potential cause of Califor-nia's EMS disparities. As a secondary analysis, we attempt to replicate these types of analyses at national and inter-national levels, which could potentially permit a structural comparison as well. RESULTS: There is still disparity in EMS patient care and patient outcomes in California. Regression analyses did not identify a single factor to explain the disparity in performance measures. Most notably, the regression found that basic socioeconomic factors and geographical differences frequently speculated as common drivers for disparity of services, including median income, population density, and availability of specialty care facilities, did not account for the disparity in services. CONCLUSIONS: Unfortunately, the striking lack of performance-measure data-a data desert-for EMS throughout the United States meant that the secondary analyses were inconclusive. Based on these results, we propose three recommendations:(1) most importantly, the lack of data must be addressed. Data collection should be standardized and mandatory for all EMS providers. (2) Treatment protocols for the state should be standardized and based on the latest evidence-based research. Providers should be required to offer the same level of care, to all geographic re-gions. (3) It may be beneficial to consider restructuring the California EMS system. While the research is limited due to imperfect information, consolidated systems seem to perform better. An existing framework for this already exists.


Subject(s)
Emergency Medical Services/organization & administration , Healthcare Disparities , Residence Characteristics , California , Data Collection , Geographic Information Systems , Humans , United States
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 732: 139204, 2020 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438190

ABSTRACT

The development of biodiversity-friendly agricultural landscapes is of major importance to meet the sustainable development challenges of our time. The emergence of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), i.e. drones, has opened a new set of research and management opportunities to achieve this goal. On the one hand, this review summarizes UAV applications in agricultural landscapes, focusing on biodiversity conservation and agricultural land monitoring, based on a systematic review of the literature that resulted in 550 studies. Additionally, the review proposes how to integrate UAV research in these fields and point to new potential applications that may contribute to biodiversity-friendly agricultural landscapes. UAV-based imagery can be used to identify and monitor plants, floral resources and animals, facilitating the detection of quality habitats with high prediction power. Through vegetation indices derived from their sensors, UAVs can estimate biomass, monitor crop plant health and stress, detect pest or pathogen infestations, monitor soil fertility and target patches of high weed or invasive plant pressure, allowing precise management practices and reduced agrochemical input. Thereby, UAVs are helping to design biodiversity-friendly agricultural landscapes and to mitigate yield-biodiversity trade-offs. In conclusion, UAV applications have become a major means of biodiversity conservation and biodiversity-friendly management in agriculture, while latest developments, such as the miniaturization and decreasing costs of hyperspectral sensors, promise many new applications for the future.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Biodiversity , Animals , Data Collection , Plants , Soil
8.
Science ; 368(6497): 1362-1367, 2020 06 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371477

ABSTRACT

The rapid pace of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presents challenges to the robust collection of population-scale data to address this global health crisis. We established the COronavirus Pandemic Epidemiology (COPE) Consortium to unite scientists with expertise in big data research and epidemiology to develop the COVID Symptom Study, previously known as the COVID Symptom Tracker, mobile application. This application-which offers data on risk factors, predictive symptoms, clinical outcomes, and geographical hotspots-was launched in the United Kingdom on 24 March 2020 and the United States on 29 March 2020 and has garnered more than 2.8 million users as of 2 May 2020. Our initiative offers a proof of concept for the repurposing of existing approaches to enable rapidly scalable epidemiologic data collection and analysis, which is critical for a data-driven response to this public health challenge.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Data Collection/methods , International Cooperation , Mobile Applications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Big Data , Data Collection/instrumentation , Global Health , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , United Kingdom , United States
12.
Acta Med Port ; 33(4): 229-236, 2020 Apr 01.
Article in Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238236

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Sao Tome and Principe is an African low-and-middle-income country, where extreme poverty causes major health inequalities. No systematic research has been done on the consumption of alcohol and drugs in Sao Tome and Principe, and only overall statistics are available based on the importation of alcoholic drinks and their distribution among the population. There are also no studies on consumption of alcohol and illicit substances in children and youth and no preventive measures being undertaken. Besides that, manual databases present significant limitations, considering the lack of causes associated with mortality rates (0 - 5 years and > 5), and the difficulty to establish a cause/effect relation between diseases, deaths and life expectancy. No relevant data with burden of life was found in the reports of Centro Nacional de Endemias or the non-governmental, organization Instituto Marques de Valle Flor, a facilitator on healthcare clinical specialties selected on a voluntary basis by doctors from Portuguese hospitals. So, we proposed to provide a first overview of family and housing conditions, and above all, the consumption of alcohol and illegal drugs in young people. Thus, a project, the National Survey on Harmful Consumption of Alcohol and Drugs in Schools of Sao Tome and Principe, will be realized in order to better characterize the situation among children and young students and test public health communication strategies and preventive interventions aimed at this target-population. Interventions were designed taking into consideration local sociocultural realities of target audiences. We considered dialect language, single-parent families (matriarchal structure) and polygamy (mostly) in men and a country and governments led by men (patriarchal structure) and, in which the woman's role, as Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reports, remains overlooked. Subsequently, we will collect traditional alcohols samples from the two main islands for analysis (at Laboratório de Estudos Farmacêuticos and Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil - Portugal) and to determine heavy metals in the production process and impact on burden of life. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In order to characterise the country's situation in terms of alcohol and illicit substances consumption a literature review was carried out through a search in several international electronic databases, such as those of the World Health Organization, World Health Organization Africa, United Nation, The Lancet and Lancet Global Health, etc. Available data of the following institutions of Sao Tome and Príncipe was also analyzed: National Institute of Statistics, Ministry of Education, Culture and Training and Ministry of Health and Social Affairs. Several interviews with community and church leaders as well as with members of catholic missions were carried out to better understand the local situation. Following this, a nationwide cross-sectional survey of a sample of 2064 students will be carried out. This will include a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyles, health behaviors/attitudes, alcohol and illicit substances consumption. Finally, based on the overall diagnosis obtained, some edutainment health communication preventive interventions will be tested in the primary schools of three districts (EDUCA_TURTLE) and on the radio journalists (EDUCA_PRESS). These were evaluated by primary school teachers and by radio journalists.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cultural Characteristics , Data Collection , Databases, Factual/standards , Family Characteristics , Female , Health Surveys , Housing/standards , Humans , Life Expectancy , Male , Public Health , Sao Tome and Principe , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Neurocrit Care ; 32(3): 667-671, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346843

ABSTRACT

The magnitude of the COVID-19 pandemic will result in substantial neurological disease, whether through direct infection (rare), para-infectious complications (less rare), or critical illness more generally (common). Here, we raise the importance of stringent diagnosis and data collection regarding neurological complications of COVID-19; we urge caution in the over-diagnosis of neurological disease where it does not exist, but equally strongly encourage the concerted surveillance for such conditions. Additional to the direct neurological complications of COVID-19 infection, neurological patients are at risk of harm from both structural limitations (such as number of intensive care beds), and a hesitancy to treat with certain necessary medications given risk of nosocomial COVID-19 infection. We therefore also outline the specific management of patients with neuroinflammatory diseases in the context of the pandemic. This article describes the implications of COVID-19 on neurological disease and advertises the Neurocritical Care Society's international data collection collaborative that seeks to align data elements.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Data Collection , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Infection Control , International Cooperation , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications
14.
Sao paulo; APH; abr. 2020. 46 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, HomeoIndex Homeopathy | ID: biblio-1088074

ABSTRACT

A infecção humana causada pelo vírus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), diagnosticada como pneumonia de causa desconhecida originalmente na cidade de Wuhan (China), foi considerada como pandemia pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Sua transmissibilidade parece ser bastante elevada, tendo afetado quase dois milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo e provocado mais de 130 mil mortes. Surgiu no Brasil em fevereiro de 2020, inicialmente na cidade de São Paulo. Afeta de forma mais grave os idosos e portadores de algumas comorbidades (tais como doenças cardiovasculares, hipertensão arterial, diabetes, câncer, DPOC e doenças cerebrovasculares, entre outras), tendo uma sintomatologia variável e tratamentos empíricos que estão sendo testados de forma mais rigorosa desde o seu aparecimento. Na ausência de vacina para proteção dos sadios, tem sido adotada a estratégia de isolamento social e tratamento com medidas de suporte geral e/ou avançado. Neste contexto, cabe investigar a contribuição da terapêutica homeopática no enfrentamento da doença, notadamente no alívio dos sintomas desconfortáveis por ela provocados em sua fase inicial, com acompanhamento e registro dos resultados obtidos pelos médicos homeopatas. Este estudo nacional pretende coletar, durante o período em que durar a pandemia da COVID-19 no Brasil, informações de pacientes diagnosticados com a doença, tratados com medicamentos homeopáticos escolhidos de acordo com a sintomatologia apresentada pelo paciente, por experientes médicos homeopatas. Todos os medicamentos homeopáticos estão descritos na Farmacopéia Homeopática Brasileira, não envolvendo qualquer medicamento que não tenha sido anteriormente aprovado para uso homeopático. Serão avaliados os efeitos no estado de saúde do paciente, por meio de escores e escalas clínicas, bem como aspectos relacionados à segurança do medicamento, variação na duração da doença e medicamentos mais associados a eventuais sucessos terapêuticos. Questionário padronizado e específico para a COVID-19 foi elaborado e disponibilizado em formulários google para preenchimento dos médicos colaboradores do estudo durante o acompanhamento dos pacientes. Os dados serão armazenados em planilhas eletrônicas e serão analisados com técnicas estatísticas descritivas e inferenciais. Todos os dados dos pacientes serão coletados de forma totalmente anonimizada para proteger a privacidade dos pacientes, que serão identificados no formulário eletrônico, única e exclusivamente, por um código alfanumérico, escolhido pelo seu médico homeopata e registrado no seu prontuário médico. Dada a situação pandêmica, nos casos em que não for possível o atendimento presencial será enviado uma folha de informações sobre o estudo e TCLE para preenchimento pelo paciente, bem como feitas as teleconsultas de seguimento para acompanhamento do caso. Além de gerar o desenvolvimento de novas aplicações da telemedicina na área homeopática, o projeto visa também a coleta de informações úteis que poderão ser utilizadas em futuros estudos multicêntricos randomizados e controlados para tratamento com medicamentos homeopáticos de quadros epidêmicos, podendo servir também de modelo para novos estudos clínicos de avaliação dos benefícios do tratamento homeopático em outras doenças ou agravos à saúde. (AU)


Infection in humans caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19), diagnosed as pneumonia of unknown cause originally in the city of Wuhan (China) in December 2019, was considered a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Its transmissibility seems to be quite high, affecting almost two million people worldwide and causing more than 130 thousand deaths. It appeared in Brazil in February 2020, initially in the city of São Paulo. It affects more severely the elderly and people with some comorbidities (such as cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, malignancy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cerebrovascular disease, among others), with a rich clinical symptomatology. Empirical treatments are being tested in more rigorous clinical trials. In the absence of a vaccine to protect the healthy, the strategy of social isolation and treatment with general and / or advanced support measures has been adopted. In this context, it is worth investigating the potential contribution of homeopathy for relieving the distressing symptoms caused by coronavirus in its initial phase, together with monitoring and recording outcomes collected by homeopathic doctors. This national study intends to collect information from suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19 patients, during the current pandemic in Brazil. The patients will be attended by experienced homeopathic doctors with the prescription of remedies according to the symptoms presented by the patient in the pandemic. All homeopathic medicines are described in the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. The effects on patients' health status will be evaluated by means of scores and clinical scales, together with measures on safety, duration of the disease and medicines better related with good results. A standardized and specific questionnaire for COVID-19 had been designed and will be available on google forms to be filled out by doctors during the study. The data will be stored in electronic spreadsheets and will be analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. All patient data will be collected in a completely anonymous way to protect patients' privacy. Patients will be identified exclusively by an alphanumeric code, to be registered in doctors' medical records. Given the pandemic situation, in cases in which face-to-face health care is not obligatory, an information sheet about the study will be sent to the patient in order to get the informed consent. Teleconsultations will take place in some cases for follow-up of patients. In addition to enlarge telemedicine applications for homeopathy, this project also aims to collect useful information that could be used in future randomized and controlled multicenter trials to evaluate the role of homeopathy in epidemic or transmissible diseases. It could also be helpful for designing clinical studies using homeopathic medicines in other diseases or health problems. (AU)


La infección en humanos causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), diagnosticada como neumonía de causa desconocida originalmente en la ciudad de Wuhan (China) en diciembre de 2019, fue considerada una pandemia por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Su transmisibilidad parece ser bastante alta, afectando a casi dos millones de personas en todo el mundo y causando más de 130 mil muertes. Apareció en Brasil en febrero de 2020, inicialmente en la ciudad de São Paulo. Afecta más severamente a los ancianos y personas con algunas comorbilidades (como enfermedades cardiovasculares, presión arterial alta, diabetes, malignidad, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica y enfermedad cerebrovascular, entre otros), con una rica sintomatología clínica. Los tratamientos empíricos se están probando en ensayos clínicos más rigurosos. En ausencia de una vacuna para proteger a los sanos, se ha adoptado la estrategia de aislamiento social y tratamiento con medidas de apoyo generales y / o avanzadas. En este contexto, se puede investigar la contribución potencial de la homeopatía para aliviar los síntomas causados por el coronavirus en su fase inicial, junto con el monitoreo y registro de los resultados recopilados por los médicos homeópatas. Este estudio nacional tiene la intención de recopilar información de casos sospechosos o confirmados de pacientes con COVID-19, durante la pandemia actual en Brasil. Los pacientes serán atendidos por médicos homeópatas experimentados con la prescripción de remedios de acuerdo con los síntomas presentados por el paciente en la pandemia. Todos los medicamentos homeopáticos se describen en la Farmacopea Homeopática Brasileña. Los efectos sobre el estado de salud de los pacientes se evaluarán mediante puntajes de síntomas y escalas clínicas, junto con medidas de seguridad, duración de la enfermedad y revelación de medicamentos más asociados con buenas respuestas clínicas. Se diseñó un cuestionario estandarizado y específico para COVID-19, que estará disponible en los formularios de Google para que los médicos lo completen durante el estudio. Los datos se almacenarán en hojas de cálculo electrónicas y se analizarán mediante técnicas estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales. Todos los datos del paciente se recopilarán de forma completamente anónima para proteger la privacidad de los pacientes. Los pacientes serán identificados exclusivamente por un código alfanumérico, que se registrará en los registros médicos de los médicos. Dada la situación de pandemia, en los casos en que la atención médica presencial no es obligatoria, se enviará una hoja de información sobre el estudio al paciente para obtener el consentimiento informado. Se realizarán teleconsultas en algunos casos para el seguimiento de los pacientes. Además de ampliar las aplicaciones de telemedicina para la homeopatía, este protocolo también tiene como objetivo recopilar información útil que podría utilizarse en futuros ensayos multicéntricos controlados y aleatorizados para evaluar el papel de la homeopatía en enfermedades epidémicas o transmisibles. También podría ser útil para diseñar estudios clínicos con medicamentos homeopáticos en otras enfermedades o problemas de salud.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Data Collection , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Coronaviridae Infections/therapy , SARS Virus , Homeopathy , Brazil/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology
17.
Recenti Prog Med ; 111(4): 198-201, 2020 04.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319439

ABSTRACT

Chronicity and comorbidity influence the risk of CoViD-19 infection and the course of the disease. Epidemiological data and studies performed show different rates of chronic diseases and multimorbidity among patients affected by CoViD-19 in the various countries and areas, but they consistently stress their impact on CoViD-19 infection. In order to protect chronic and frail patients, the Italian Medicines Agency has taken measures to extend the therapeutic plans and monitoring registers; hopefully, therapeutic plans for antidiabetics, drugs for respiratory diseases and oral anticoagulant drugs will be abolished since they do not offer any additional advantage in terms of appropriateness and traceability of outcomes. The MaCroScopio project (Observatory on Chronic Diseases), regarding the CoViD-19 emergency, has started a new research path to foster the integration of the administrative data flows with the CoViD-19 Registers for planning and research purposes in the context of chronicity, as well as to evaluate the economic and organizational impact of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Chronic Disease , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Data Collection , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Patient Care Planning , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Risk Factors , Vulnerable Populations
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(4): e19016, 2020 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287039

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is taking a toll on the world's health care infrastructure as well as the social, economic, and psychological well-being of humanity. Individuals, organizations, and governments are using social media to communicate with each other on a number of issues relating to the COVID-19 pandemic. Not much is known about the topics being shared on social media platforms relating to COVID-19. Analyzing such information can help policy makers and health care organizations assess the needs of their stakeholders and address them appropriately. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify the main topics posted by Twitter users related to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Leveraging a set of tools (Twitter's search application programming interface (API), Tweepy Python library, and PostgreSQL database) and using a set of predefined search terms ("corona," "2019-nCov," and "COVID-19"), we extracted the text and metadata (number of likes and retweets, and user profile information including the number of followers) of public English language tweets from February 2, 2020, to March 15, 2020. We analyzed the collected tweets using word frequencies of single (unigrams) and double words (bigrams). We leveraged latent Dirichlet allocation for topic modeling to identify topics discussed in the tweets. We also performed sentiment analysis and extracted the mean number of retweets, likes, and followers for each topic and calculated the interaction rate per topic. RESULTS: Out of approximately 2.8 million tweets included, 167,073 unique tweets from 160,829 unique users met the inclusion criteria. Our analysis identified 12 topics, which were grouped into four main themes: origin of the virus; its sources; its impact on people, countries, and the economy; and ways of mitigating the risk of infection. The mean sentiment was positive for 10 topics and negative for 2 topics (deaths caused by COVID-19 and increased racism). The mean for tweet topics of account followers ranged from 2722 (increased racism) to 13,413 (economic losses). The highest mean of likes for the tweets was 15.4 (economic loss), while the lowest was 3.94 (travel bans and warnings). CONCLUSIONS: Public health crisis response activities on the ground and online are becoming increasingly simultaneous and intertwined. Social media provides an opportunity to directly communicate health information to the public. Health systems should work on building national and international disease detection and surveillance systems through monitoring social media. There is also a need for a more proactive and agile public health presence on social media to combat the spread of fake news.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Data Mining , Health Communication , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Media , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus , Data Collection , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health
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