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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 640, 2024 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Burnout levels in medical students are higher than in other student groups. Empathy is an increasingly desired outcome of medical schools. Empathy is negatively associated with burnout in physicians. Our objective was to quantitatively review the available literature on associations between empathy and burnout in medical students, and to explore associations between specific empathy aspects (cognitive and affective) and burnout sub-dimensions (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment). METHODS: A comprehensive search of the literature published up until January 2024 was undertaken in the PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO databases. Two independent reviewers screened 498 records and quality-rated and extracted data from eligible studies. The effect size correlations (ESr) were pooled using a random-effects model and between-study variation explored with meta-regression. The review was preregistered with PROSPERO (#CRD42023467670) and reported following the PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: Twenty-one studies including a total of 27,129 medical students published between 2010 and 2023 were included. Overall, empathy and burnout were negatively and statistically significantly associated (ESr: -0.15, 95%CI [-0.21; -0.10], p < .001). When analyzing sub-dimensions, cognitive empathy was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion (ESr: -0.10, 95%CI [-0.17; -0.03], p = .006) and depersonalization (ESr: -0.15, 95%CI [-0.24; 0.05], p = .003), and positively associated with personal accomplishment (ESr: 0.21, 95%CI [0.12; 0.30], p < .001). Affective empathy was not statistically significantly associated with emotional exhaustion, depersonalization or personal accomplishment. Supplementary Bayesian analysis indicated the strongest evidence for the positive association between cognitive empathy and personal accomplishment. Response rate and gender moderated the relationship so that higher response rates and more male respondents strengthen the negative association between empathy and burnout. CONCLUSION: Greater empathy, in particular cognitive empathy, is associated with lower burnout levels in medical students. This appears to be primarily driven by cognitive empathy's positive association with personal accomplishment. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: #CRD42023467670.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , Empathy , Students, Medical , Humans , Students, Medical/psychology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Depersonalization/psychology
2.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; 25(5): 291-303, 2024 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38679810

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Depersonalisation-derealization disorder (DPD) is a dissociative disorder that impairs cognitive function and occupational performance. Emerging evidence indicate the levels of tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin associated with the dissociative symptoms. In this study, we aimed to explore the role of the immune system in the pathology of DPD. METHODS: We screened the protein expression in serum samples of 30 DPD patients and 32 healthy controls. Using a mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach, we identified differential proteins that were verified in another group of 25 DPD patients and 30 healthy controls using immune assays. Finally, we performed a correlation analysis between the expression of differential proteins and clinical symptoms of patients with DPD. RESULTS: We identified several dysregulated proteins in patients with DPD compared to HCs, including decreased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), complement C1q subcomponent subunit B, apolipoprotein A-IV, and increased levels of alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (SERPINA3). Moreover, the expression of CRP was positively correlated with visuospatial memory and the ability to inhibit cognitive interference of DPD. The expression of SERPINA3 was positively correlated with the ability to inhibit cognitive interference and negatively correlated with the perceptual alterations of DPD. CONCLUSIONS: The dysregulation of the immune system may be the underlying biological mechanism in DPD. And the expressions of CRP and SERPINA3 can be the potential predictors for the cognitive performance of DPD.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein , Depersonalization , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Depersonalization/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Proteomics , Middle Aged , Immune System/physiopathology , alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin/blood
3.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 196, 2024 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459472

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Symptoms of depersonalization (DP) and derealization (DR) are a risk factor for more severe impairment, non-response to various treatments, and a chronic course. In this study, we investigated the effects of DP/DR symptoms in patients with clinically significant depressive symptoms on clinical characteristics and various outcomes in a representative population-based sample with a 5-year follow-up. METHODS: The middle-aged sample comprised n = 10,422 persons at baseline, of whom n = 9,301 were free from depressive and DP/DR symptoms. N = 522 persons had clinically significant depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) and co-occurring DP/DR symptoms, and n = 599 persons had clinically significant depression (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) without DP/DR symptoms. RESULTS: There were substantial health disparities between persons with and without depression. These disparities concerned a wide range of life domains, including lower quality of the recalled early life experiences with the parents, current socioeconomic status, social integration (partnership, loneliness), current social and interpersonal stressors (family, work), functional bodily complaints (e.g., tinnitus, migraine, chest pain), unhealthy lifestyle, and the prevalence of already developed physical diseases. These disparities persisted to the 5-year follow-up and were exceptionally severe for depressed persons with co-occurring DP/DR symptoms. Among the depressed persons, the co-occurrence of DP/DR symptoms more than doubled the risk for recurrence or persistence of depression. Only 6.9% of depressed persons with DP/DR symptoms achieved remission at the 5-year follow-up (PHQ-9 < 5). Depression with and without co-occurring DP/DR worsened self-rated physical health significantly. The impact of depression with co-occurring DP/DR on the worsening of the self-rated physical health status was stronger than those of age and major medical diseases (e.g., heart failure). However, only depression without DP/DR was associated with mortality in a hazard regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, and lifestyle. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated that DP/DR symptoms represent an important and easily assessable prognostic factor for the course of depression and health outcomes. Given the low remission rates for depression in general and depression with DP/DR in particular, efforts should be made to identify and better support this group, which is disadvantaged in many aspects of life.


Subject(s)
Depersonalization , Depression , Middle Aged , Humans , Depression/complications , Depression/epidemiology , Depersonalization/epidemiology , Depersonalization/diagnosis , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Patient Health Questionnaire
4.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38538235

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the depersonalization status and to analyze the effect of workplace incivility perception, intrusive rumination and fear of negative evaluation on depersonalization in clinical nurses. Methods: In May 2019, 10 cities were selected as sampling cities by the method of grabbing random ball in Henan Province and Fujian Province. Using the stratified sampling, clinical nurses were selected as the research objects for a questionnaire survey in 22 tertiary hospitals and 23 secondary hospitals, included 1200 nurses. A total of 1200 questionnaires were issued and collected, and 1159 valid questionnaires were collected with effective recovery of 96.6%. Clinical nurses were investigated by Workplace Incivility Scale, Event Related Rumination Inventory, Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. The demographic characteristics of nurses' depersonalization were compared and analyzed with t test and single factor analysis of variance. The influence mechanism of workplace incivility perception, intrusive rumination and fear of negative evaluation on depersonalization was analyzed with Bootstrap. Results: Depersonalization scores were (9.3±2.6) points, 467 of those had depersonalization symptoms in clinical nurses (40.3%). The scores of depersonalization of those with <3 years of service [ (10.5±2.9) points] was higher than those with 3-10 years [ (9.1±2.8) points] and 11-31 years [ (9.0±2.9) points]. The scores of depersonalization of those with monthly earning of <3000 yuan [ (10.1±2.8) points] was higher than those with 3000-7999 yuan [ (8.4±2.7) points] and 8000-12000 yuan [ (8.0±2.9) points]. The scores of depersonalization of clinical nurses in surgical departments [ (10.0±2.9) points] was higher than those in non-surgical departments [ (8.7±2.6) points]. The scores of depersonalization of clinical nurses in tertiary hospitals [ (10.0±2.7) points] was higher than those in secondary hospitals [ (8.6±2.8) points]. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Workplace incivility perception affected depersonalization through the single mediating role of intrusive rumination, fear of negative evaluation and the chain mediating role of intrusive rumination and fear of negative evaluation (ß=0.16, 0.17, 0.07, 95%CI: 0.15-0.20, 0.15-0.21, 0.03-0.09, P<0.05) . Conclusion: Workplace incivility perception directly or through the independent mediating effects of intrusive rumination or fear of negative evaluation, and the chain mediating effects of intrusive rumination and fear of negative evaluation influences the depersonalization of clinical nurses.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , Nurses , Psychological Tests , Self Report , Humans , Depersonalization , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Hospitals , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace
5.
Artif Intell Med ; 149: 102755, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462269

ABSTRACT

Mental health disorders are typically diagnosed based on subjective reports (e.g., through questionnaires) followed by clinical interviews to evaluate the self-reported symptoms. Therefore, considering the interconnected nature of psychiatric disorders, their accurate diagnosis is a real challenge without indicators of underlying physiological dysfunction. Depersonalisation/derealisation disorder (DPD) is an example of dissociative disorder affecting 1-2 % of the population. DPD is characterised mainly by persistent disembodiment, detachment from surroundings, and feelings of emotional numbness, which can significantly impact patients' quality of life. The underlying neural correlates of DPD have been investigated for years to understand and help with a more accurate and in-time diagnosis of the disorder. However, in terms of EEG studies, which hold great importance due to their convenient and inexpensive nature, the literature has often been based on hypotheses proposed by experts in the field, which require prior knowledge of the disorder. In addition, participants' labelling in research experiments is often derived from the outcome of the Cambridge Depersonalisation Scale (CDS), a subjective assessment to quantify the level of depersonalisation/derealisation, the threshold and reliability of which might be challenged. As a result, we aimed to propose a novel end-to-end EEG processing pipeline based on deep neural networks for DPD biomarker discovery, which requires no prior handcrafted labelled data. Alternatively, it can assimilate knowledge from clinical outcomes like CDS as well as data-driven patterns that differentiate individual brain responses. In addition, the structure of the proposed model targets the uncertainty in CDS scores by using them as prior information only to guide the unsupervised learning task in a multi-task learning scenario. A comprehensive evaluation has been done to confirm the significance of the proposed deep structure, including new ways of network visualisation to investigate spectral, spatial, and temporal information derived in the learning process. We argued that the proposed EEG analytics could also be applied to investigate other psychological and mental disorders currently indicated on the basis of clinical assessment scores. The code to reproduce the results presented in this paper is openly accessible at https://github.com/AbbasSalami/DPD_Analysis.


Subject(s)
Depersonalization , Mental Disorders , Humans , Depersonalization/diagnosis , Depersonalization/epidemiology , Depersonalization/psychology , Quality of Life , Reproducibility of Results , Emotions
6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 186, 2024 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448871

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Depersonalization and derealization can occur not just from psychiatric causes but also from various organic etiologies, such as seizures and intracerebral structural abnormalities. However, there have been no previous reported cases to the authors' knowledge detailing isolated depersonalization and derealization in the absence of clinical seizure activity or other psychiatric pathology, as sequelae of structural intracerebral lesions. CASE PRESENTATION: In this case report, we detail the unique presentation of a 68-year-old woman under the care of palliative medicine who experienced depersonalization and derealization secondary to a metastatic lesion in her temporal lobe, in the parahippocampal gyrus to medial occipitotemporal gyrus region. These symptoms were present in the absence of any clinical seizure activity or other psychiatric symptomatology and largely resolved with the use of steroidal therapy, before returning secondary to disease progression. CONCLUSIONS: We discuss the relationship among isolated depersonalization and derealization with pathology of the left posterior temporal lobe in the context of this interesting case. This case expands our knowledge of the neurobiology of these phenomena, given the specific localization of the intracerebral pathology and temporal specificity of symptoms relative to tumor growth and treatment course.


Subject(s)
Depersonalization , Temporal Lobe , Humans , Female , Aged , Depersonalization/complications , Occipital Lobe , Disease Progression , Seizures
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 6107, 2024 03 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480797

ABSTRACT

Depersonalisation (DP) is characterized by fundamental alterations to the sense of self that include feelings of detachment and estrangement from one's body. We conducted an online study in healthy participants (n = 514) with DP traits to investigate and quantify the subjective experience of body and self during waking and dreaming, as the vast majority of previous studies focussed on waking experience only. Investigating dreams in people experiencing DP symptoms may help us understand whether the dream state is a 'spared space' where people can temporarily 'retrieve' their sense of self and sense of bodily presence. We found that higher DP traits-i.e. higher scores on the Cambridge Depersonalisation Scale (CDS)-were associated with more frequent dream experiences from an outside observer perspective (r = 0.28) and more frequent dream experiences of distinct bodily sensations (r = 0.23). We also found that people with higher CDS scores had more frequent dream experiences of altered bodily perception (r = 0.24), more frequent nightmares (r = 0.33) and higher dream recall (r = 0.17). CDS scores were negatively correlated with body boundary scores (r = - 0.31) in waking states and there was a negative association between CDS scores and the degree of trust in interoceptive signals (r = - 0.52). Our study elucidates the complex phenomenology of DP in relation to bodily selfhood during waking and dreaming and suggests avenues for potential therapeutic interventions in people with chronic depersonalisation (depersonalisation -derealisation disorder).


Subject(s)
Cognition , Depersonalization , Humans , Dreams , Emotions
8.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2312, 2024 01 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38282043

ABSTRACT

The European healthcare sector faces a significant shortage of healthcare workers. Assessing the prevalence of this issue and understanding its direct and indirect determinants are essential for formulating effective recruitment programs and enhancing job retention strategies for physicians and nurses. A multicentric cross-sectional study was conducted, involving 381 physicians and 1351 nurses recruited from eight European hospitals in Belgium, the Netherlands, Italy, and Poland. The study focused on assessing turnover intentions among healthcare workers based on the Job Demands-Resources model, using an online questionnaire. Structural equation models were employed to test the data collection questionnaires' construct validity and internal consistency. The turnover intention was assessed by agreement with the intention to leave either the hospital or the profession. Among physicians, 17% expressed an intention to leave the hospital, while 9% intended to leave the profession. For nurses, the figures were 8.9% and 13.6%, respectively. The internal consistency of the questionnaires exceeded 0.90 for both categories of health workers. Depersonalization and job dissatisfaction were identified as direct determinants of turnover intention, with work engagement being particularly relevant for nurses. We found a higher intention to leave the hospital among physicians, while nurses were more prone to leave their profession. To mitigate turnover intentions, it is recommended to focus on improving job satisfaction, work engagement and fostering a positive working climate, thereby addressing depersonalisation and promoting job retention.


Subject(s)
Nurses , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Physicians , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Cross-Sectional Studies , Intention , Depersonalization , Europe , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
J Trauma Dissociation ; 25(1): 6-29, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37431255

ABSTRACT

Depersonalization-derealization disorder (DPD) is characterized by persistent or recurrent experiences of detachment from oneself and surroundings, as well as a sense of unreality. Considering the inadequacy of current research on treatment, we performed a systematic review of the available pharmacotherapies, neuromodulations, and psychotherapies for DPD. The systematic review protocol was based on PRISMA 2020 guidelines and pre-registered. The PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Scopus, and ScienceDirect databases were searched from inception to June 2021. All treatments for DPD and all study types, including controlled and observational studies as well as case reports, were assessed. Of the identified 17,540 studies, 41 studies (four randomized controlled trials, one non-randomized controlled trial, 10 case series, and 26 case reports) involving 300 participants met the eligibility criteria. We identified 30 methods that have been applied independently or in combination to treat DPD since 1955. The quality of these studies was considered. The relationship between individual differences, such as symptoms, comorbidities, history, and duration since onset, and treatment effects was explored. The results suggest that a series of treatments, such as pharmacotherapies, neuromodulation, and psychotherapies, could be considered in combination. However, the quality and quantity of studies were generally low considering the high prevalence of DPD. The review concludes with suggestions for future research and an urgent call for more high-quality research.


Subject(s)
Depersonalization , Psychotherapy , Humans , Comorbidity , Depersonalization/therapy , Psychotherapy/methods
10.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 123(11. Vyp. 2): 68-73, 2023.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38127703

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study psychopathological structure characteristics of depersonalization depression in young women and nonsuicidal autoaggressive and suicidal behavior characteristics in these states. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 36 adolescent female patients (16-25 years) with endogenous depression (F31.3-4; F34.0; F21.3-4+F31.3-4; F60.X+F31.3-4), whose clinical picture was dominated by depersonalization disorders represented by their auto-, allo-, and somatopsychic forms or combinations. RESULTS: Depersonalization depressions in young female patients are characterized by the following features: the dominance of the manifestations of the sensory («hysterical¼) form of depersonalization (83.3%; n=30); the proximity of the phenomenon of somatopsychic depersonalization (77.8%, n=28) to the manifestations of dysmorphic disorders; the specificity of the manifestations of derealization in the form of a feeling of «pretended, staged¼ environment; infrequent manifestations of psychic anesthesia; marked polymorphism of the clinical picture with comorbid obsessive-compulsive, hysteria-conversion, senestopathic, dysmorphic, and attenuated psychotic disorders; high risk of suicide (83.3%; n=30) with the predominance of planned suicide attempts over impulsive ones; significant frequency and variety of nonsuicidal self-harm with the predominance of «depersonalizing¼ motives for its commission. CONCLUSIONS: Depersonalization depression in young female patients is characterized by the clinical specificity manifested both in depersonalization symptomatology and spectrum of comorbid disorders and in the specificity of motives and methods of suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-harm.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , Psychotic Disorders , Adolescent , Humans , Female , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depersonalization , Suicide, Attempted
11.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 49(11): 1447-1459, 2023 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37870823

ABSTRACT

Depersonalization is a common and distressing experience characterized by a feeling of estrangement from one's self, body, and the world. In order to examine the relationship between depersonalization and selfhood we conducted an experimental study comparing processing of three types of self-related information between nonclinical groups of people experiencing high and low levels of depersonalization. Using a sequential matching task, we compared three types of biases for processing of self-related information: prioritization of one's name, of self-associated abstract stimuli (geometrical shapes), and of self-associated bodily stimuli (avatar faces). We found that both groups demonstrated the standard pattern of results for self-prioritization of one's name and geometrical shapes, but they differed with regard to avatar faces. While people with low depersonalization showed the standard prioritization of avatar faces, people with high depersonalization showed overall better response accuracy with avatar faces, and faster response times for stranger-associated avatar faces. These results were complemented by the additional finding that people with high depersonalization reported being more likely to use avatars of a different gender to their own outside of the experimental context. Finally, in this large sample (N = 180) we investigated the relationships between different measures of self-related processing and self-identification, finding no correlation between explicit reports of self-identification with self-associated avatar faces and geometrical shapes, self-prioritization of these stimuli, and prioritization of one's name. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Depersonalization , Gender Identity , Humans
12.
Nurs Open ; 10(12): 7725-7737, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37752778

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate the factors influencing three dimensions of burnout among clinical nurses in South Korea. DESIGN: Descriptive, correlational and cross-sectional study. METHODS: We recruited 300 clinical nurses to participate in an online survey conducted in June 2021. Purposive sampling was used for the survey. Multiple linear regression was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The regression models explained 55.8%, 45.8% and 34.3% variances in emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment respectively. Emotional exhaustion was influenced by experience in the current department, working overtime, shift type, depression, job stress and emotional labour. Depersonalization was influenced by gender, hospital size, the associated department, overtime, coping strategies, depression and emotional labour. Personal accomplishment was influenced by clinical experience, shift type, resilience and the perceived threat of coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , Occupational Stress , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depersonalization/psychology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Emotions
13.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 14: 21501319231194148, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37599442

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: During the surge of the COVID-19 pandemic, burnout among physicians increased significantly. In the spring of 2023, the COVID national emergency was terminated in the U.S. To investigate whether provider burnout rates have returned to pre-pandemic levels, the current study compared dimensions of burnout among pediatricians pre- and post-pandemic. METHOD: As part of 2 separate behavioral health trainings held at a Midwest academic health center in 2019 and virtually in 2023, data on burnout was collected from 52 pediatricians pre-pandemic and 38 pediatricians post-pandemic. Participants completed an online survey during the trainings and responded to items reflecting 3 dimensions of burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in pre- and post-pandemic burnout amongst pediatricians in terms of total scores, number of pediatricians who met the clinical cutoff for each dimension, number of cutoffs met, or number of providers reporting elevated burnout on at least 1 dimension (p > .05 for all comparisons). Participants were 1.77 times more likely to meet the cutoff for emotional exhaustion post-pandemic than pre-pandemic. Over half of providers met this cutoff post-pandemic, compared to only 35% pre-pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: While post-pandemic rates of burnout among pediatricians appear to be statistically similar to pre-pandemic levels, there appear to be clinically significant differences in emotional exhaustion between groups. With 63% of the post-pandemic group meeting the cutoff score for at least 1 dimension, it is imperative for the healthcare system to consider ways to mitigate burnout.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depersonalization , Pediatricians/psychology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Clin Med Res ; 21(2): 63-68, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37407217

ABSTRACT

Objective: Burnout syndrome is common in physicians, but little is known about burnout in lung transplant physicians specifically. The purpose of this study was to explore burnout and its relationship to job factors and depression in lung transplant physicians.Design: A cross-sectional study that included lung transplant pulmonologists and surgeons was performed via electronic survey.Setting: The lung transplant physicians surveyed practiced worldwide.Methods: The survey incorporated questions about demographics and job characteristics as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Patient Health Questionnaire-2. Burnout was defined by high emotional exhaustion or depersonalization.Participants: Ninety physicians worldwide completed the survey.Results: Of the 90 physicians who completed the entire survey, 44 (48.9%) had burnout with 38 (42.2%) having high emotional exhaustion, 15 (16.7%) having high depersonalization, and 9 (10.0%) with both. Of the respondents, 14 (15.6%) had high risk of depression, and of these, 13 also had high emotional exhaustion. There was a positive correlation between depression score and emotional exhaustion score (P=0.67, P<0.001). Depression was more common in surgeons compared with pulmonologists (35.7% versus 11.8%, P=0.02). There was a trend toward more burnout by emotional exhaustion in physicians with more versus less work experience (68.4% versus 31.6%, P=0.056).Conclusions: Emotional exhaustion is common in lung transplant physicians and is associated with depression and a negative impact on life.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , Surgeons , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depersonalization/psychology , Burnout, Psychological , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 16(6)2023 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37280010

ABSTRACT

Depersonalisation/derealisation (DD) syndrome is often associated with severe traumatic experiences and the use of certain medications. Our patient reported experiencing a transient DD phenomenon a few hours after taking 37.5 mg of tramadol, together with etoricoxib, acetaminophen and eperisone. His symptoms subsided upon tramadol discontinuation, suggesting the possibility of tramadol-induced DD. A study of the patient's cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 polymorphism, which mainly metabolises tramadol, indicated normal metaboliser status with reduced function. The concomitant administration of the CYP2D6 inhibitor, etoricoxib, would have led to higher concentrations of the serotonergic parent tramadol, providing an explanation for the patient's symptoms.


Subject(s)
Tramadol , Humans , Tramadol/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Depersonalization , Etoricoxib , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6
16.
J Psychiatr Res ; 162: 193-199, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37172509

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dissociative and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are commonly co-occurring responses to psychological trauma. Yet, these two groups of symptoms appear to be related to diverging patterns of physiological response. To date, few studies have examined how specific dissociative symptoms, namely, depersonalization and derealization, relate to skin conductance response (SCR), a marker of autonomic function, within the context of PTSD symptoms. We examined associations among depersonalization, derealization, and SCR during two conditions - resting control and breath-focused mindfulness - in the context of current PTSD symptoms. METHODS: Sixty-eight trauma-exposed women (82.4% Black; Mage = 42.5, SDage = 12.1) were recruited from the community for a breath-focused mindfulness study. SCR data were collected during alternating resting control and breath-focused mindfulness conditions. Moderation analyses were conducted to examine relations among dissociative symptoms, SCR, and PTSD for these different conditions. RESULTS: Moderation analyses revealed that depersonalization was linked to lower SCR during resting control, B = 0.0005, SE = 0.0002, p = .006, in participants low-to-moderate PTSD symptoms; however, depersonalization was associated with higher SCR during breath-focused mindfulness, B = -0.0006, SE = 0.0003, p = .029, in individuals with similar levels of PTSD symptoms. No significant interaction between derealization and PTSD symptoms on SCR was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Depersonalization symptoms may associate with physiological withdrawal during rest, but greater physiological arousal during effortful emotion regulation in individuals with low-to moderate levels of PTSD, which has significant implications for barriers to treatment engagement as well as treatment selection in this population.


Subject(s)
Mindfulness , Psychological Trauma , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Female , Adult , Child , Depersonalization/psychology , Dissociative Disorders
17.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 32(4): 1171-1177, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37138469

ABSTRACT

This study examined the level of perceived responsibility junior and senior psychiatric nurses have for human resources and governance in Saudi Arabia. Bullying is a significant issue in nursing and an entrenched cultural practice that highlights a failure in governance and human resource responsibilities. A total of 90 responses (43.1%) to a 5-point Likert Scale survey that sought respondent perceptions on leadership, governance and human resources. This study is reported using EQUATOR network recommendations (SQUIRE 2.0). This survey revealed that junior and senior nursing respondents weakly agree with all statements. Neither nurse rank, educational status nor nationality affected the answers of the respondents; there were age, gender and experience effects. There is a significant correlation between all responses to the statements implying there is a social desirability bias to the responses. If bullying, and its derived consequence of burnout, is to be addressed there needs to be a cultural shift in the attitudes of junior and senior nurses towards more acceptance of their HR and governance responsibilities. Furthermore, there needs to be an increased focus on shared leadership responsibilities, with greater nurse-manager interaction and cooperation on transformational practices that will bring cultural change to the clinical space.


Subject(s)
Bullying , Burnout, Professional , Nurses , Humans , Saudi Arabia , Depersonalization , Leadership , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workforce
18.
J Trauma Dissociation ; 24(5): 575-608, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37006162

ABSTRACT

Anomalous strange-face illusions (SFIs) are produced when mirror gazing under a low level of face illumination. In contrast to past studies in which an observer's task was to pay attention to the reflected face and to perceive potential facial changes, the present research used a mirror gazing task (MGT) that instructed participants to fixate their gaze on a 4-mm hole in a glass mirror. The participants' eye-blink rates were thus measured without priming any facial changes. Twenty-one healthy young individuals participated in the MGT and a control panel-fixation task (staring at a hole in a gray non-reflective panel). The Revised Strange-Face Questionnaire (SFQ-R) indexed derealization (deformations of facial features; FD), depersonalization (bodily face detachment; BD), and dissociative identity (new or unknown identities; DI) scales. Mirror-fixation increased FD, BD, and DI scores compared to panel-fixation. In mirror-fixation, FD scores revealed fading specific to facial features, distinct from "classical" Troxler- and Brewster-fading. In mirror-fixation, eye-blink rates correlated negatively with FD scores. Panel-fixation produced low BD scores, and, in a few participants, face pareidolias as detected on FD scores. Females were more prone to early derealization and males to compartmentalization of a dissociative identity. SFQ-R may be a valuable instrument for measuring face-specific dissociation (FD, BD, DI) produced by MGT. Use of MGT and panel-fixation task for differential diagnoses between schizophrenia and dissociative identity disorder is discussed.


Subject(s)
Illusions , Schizophrenia , Male , Female , Humans , Depersonalization , Surveys and Questionnaires , Dissociative Disorders/diagnosis
19.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 51: 101749, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37018935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Depersonalization-derealization disorder (DDD) is a dissociative disorder encompassing pronounced disconnections from the self and from external reality. As DDD is inherently tied to a detachment from the body, dance/movement therapy could provide an innovative treatment approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed two online dance tasks to reduce detachment either by training body awareness (BA task) or enhancing the salience of bodily signals through dance exercise (DE task). Individuals with DDD (n = 31) and healthy controls (n = 29) performed both tasks individually in a cross-over design. We assessed symptom severity (Cambridge Depersonalization Scale), interoceptive awareness (Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness - II), mindfulness (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire), and body vigilance (Body Vigilance Scale) before, during and after the tasks. RESULTS: At baseline, individuals with DDD exhibited elevated depersonalization-derealization symptoms alongside lower levels of interoceptive awareness and mindfulness compared to controls. Both tasks reduced symptoms in the DDD group, though dance exercise was perceived as easier. The DE task increased mindfulness in those with DDD more than the BA task, whereas controls showed the opposite pattern. In the DDD group, within-subject correlations showed that lower levels of symptoms were associated with task-specific elevations in interoceptive awareness and mindfulness. CONCLUSION: Individual and structured dance/movement practice, performed at home without an instructor present, offers an effective tool to reduce symptoms in DDD and can be tailored to address specific cognitive components of a mindful engagement with the body.


Subject(s)
Dance Therapy , Dancing , Humans , Depersonalization/therapy , Depersonalization/diagnosis , Depersonalization/psychology , Awareness , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Cogn Neuropsychiatry ; 28(3): 196-206, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37057376

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Here we present a case of Depersonalisation-Derealisation Disorder which involves an unusual environmental trigger and profile of symptoms in a patient with an underlying left frontal encephalomalacia. METHODS: The clinical information has been collected from multiple neurological, psychiatric, neuropsychological examinations and from the patient's medical records. RESULTS: The neuropsychiatric assessment showed depersonalisation, derealisation, de-somatisation and de-affectualisation, along with a good response to SSRI + Lamotrigine; all typical features of DPD. The neuropsychological assessment showed language problems, and other mild cognitive difficulties that may provide a neuropsychological foundation contributing to the DPD episodes. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Given Mr R's underlying neuropsychological deficit, hearing voices without speech-associated gestures might place excessive demands on his ability to process the information, exacerbating his feelings of threat. This sets up the pattern of suppressed insula activation, and possibly the suppression of the auditory cortex leading to the presented unusual DPD symptoms.


Subject(s)
Depersonalization , Emotions , Humans , Depersonalization/diagnosis , Depersonalization/psychology , Emotions/physiology , Neuropsychological Tests
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