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2.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e226321, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO - Dentistry | ID: biblio-1354787

ABSTRACT

Aim: This cross-sectional observational study aimed to evaluate the influence of the Universities lockdown measures on academic perspectives and psychosocial aspects of Brazilian finalyear dental students. Methods: 268 undergraduate students regularly enrolled in a Dentistry course at public universities were asked about anxiety, depression, stress sensitivity, and their academic perspectives by using an online survey. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to measure anxiety and depression, while the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) evaluated stress levels. The academic perspective was evaluated by five affirmatives regarding possible difficulties that will be faced when school reopens and after graduation. The possible association between fear of having COVID-19 with psychosocial outcomes and COVID-19 association with academic perspectives were analyzed by ANOVA and chisquare tests, respectively, considering a significance level of 5%. Results: Considering possible associations between the fear of having COVID-19 and psychosocial aspects, significant values were found for anxiety (P = 0.018) and stress sensitivity (P = 0.002). Regarding students' academic perspectives, COVID-19 had significant impact on less opportunity to perform procedures (P = 0.023), additional expenses with personal protective equipment (P = 0.007), and concerns of consulting elderly people (P = 0.012). Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic led to increased psychological impairments and enlarged concerns with learning and biosecurity, which might impact academic perspectives. Thus, being aware of these apprehensions, university professors and staff can improve the clinical training of final-year dental students in an empathetic way


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Anxiety , Students, Dental , Depression , Pandemics , COVID-19
3.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 63: 103888, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35661570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The present cross-national study addressed the relationship among three pandemic-related variables and multiple sclerosis (MS) disability outcomes among people with MS in Italy and the United States (US). METHODS: This cross-sectional web-based study was administered to 708 patients with MS from the US and Italy in late Spring through mid-Summer of 2020. Pandemic-related variables assessed worry, self-protection, and post-traumatic growth. The Performance Scales© assessed MS disability. Multivariate multiple regression models addressed, separately by country, the relationship among worry, protection, and post-traumatic growth with MS disability, after covariate adjustment. RESULTS: The Italian sample (n = 292) was younger and less disabled than the US group (n = 416). After covariate adjustment, all three pandemic-related variables were associated with MS disability outcomes in the US sample, but only worry and post-traumatic growth were associated in the Italian sample. Worse cognitive and depression symptoms were associated with worry, and lesser mobility disability was associated with endorsed growth in both countries. More disability variables were associated with worry and growth in the Italian sample. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic's negative aspects were associated with worse disability in both countries, and reported post-traumatic growth was associated with lesser disability. These findings may suggest directions for clinical intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/complications , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis/psychology , United States/epidemiology
4.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 33(5): 397-405, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678797

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies report an increased prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in patients with atopic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, and chronic urticaria. Both disease groups have a higher incidence of psychological disorders. In this study, we aimed to examine the relationship of irritable bowel syndrome with the presence and severity of allergic diseases and accom- panying anxiety and depression. METHODS: One hundred sixty-two patients (56 with AR, 34 with AA, and 72 with CU) and 43 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Demographic and clinical data, along with disease duration and severity, was analyzed. Irritable bowel syndrome was diagnosed using Rome IV criteria. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used to evaluate anxiety and depression. All statistical analyses were performed using Statistic Program for Social Sciences 23.0. RESULTS: Irritable bowel syndrome prevalence in the control group was 9.3% and 56% in atopic patients (P < .0001). Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety scores of 11 and above increased the odds of IBS approximately 14 times, and independently, the presence of allergic disease increased the odds 10 times. In the allergic patient subgroup, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale anxiety scores of 11 and above increased the risk of irritable bowel syndrome approximately 18 times. CONCLUSION: In this first study using Rome IV criteria to examine the relationship of irritable bowel syndrome, allergic diseases, and anxiety and depression, irritable bowel syndrome was more frequent in allergic patients, especially in patients with anxiety. Awareness of a disease cluster where these 3 disease groups intersect will guide clinicians from different disciplines involved in patients' treatment and follow-up.


Subject(s)
Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , Case-Control Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/complications , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/epidemiology , Rome , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Steroids ; 184: 109058, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679911

ABSTRACT

Mifepristone is a non-selective progesterone (PR), glucocorticoid (GR), and androgen receptor (AR) antagonist with antidepressant and anxiolytic effects. The dose and duration of mifepristone administration vary in rodent preclinical studies to evaluate depression-like and anxiety-like behavior. This review summarizes the findings so far and attempts to reconcile some of the differences in the results. While a few studies assessed basal depression- and anxiety-like behavior, several studies have used mifepristone in conjunction with stress, corticosterone/dexamethasone (after adrenalectomy), or progesterone administration. The effect of mifepristone on depression-like behavior appears to depend not only on the dose and duration of administration but also on the intensity or type of stress. In addition, the anxiolytic effects may depend on the species and strain of the experimental animals. More reports assess antidepressant-like or anxiolytic-like effects following acute than chronic administration. These effects are dependent on the paradigms and the nature of stressors. Most mifepristone studies implicate the role of GRs, yet only two reports have confirmed its role using a genetic approach, whereas none implicate the role of PRs/ARs. There are several novel selective GR antagonists whose effects on depression- and anxiety-like behavior are yet to be studied. Future studies could aim to confirm the role of GRs and evaluate the contribution of PRs/ARs to the effects of mifepristone. Such studies will contribute to a better understanding of depression, anxiety, and other mood disorders and develop novel strategies, particularly for treatment-resistant conditions.


Subject(s)
Anti-Anxiety Agents , Mifepristone , Animals , Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Anxiety/drug therapy , Depression/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids , Mifepristone/pharmacology , Progesterone , Receptors, Glucocorticoid , Rodentia
7.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682388

ABSTRACT

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) and the worldwide health crisis have significantly changed both people's habits and lifestyles. Most of the studies found in the literature were carried out on specific professional categories in the socio-health sector, taking into consideration psychological disorders in relation to work. The purpose of this study was to analyze the psychological impact on a portion of the normal population subjected to lockdown. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed in the period between 23 March 2020 and 18 May 2020 (during Italian lockdown) using an online platform. The scales GAD-7, IES-r, PHQ-9 and MANSA were used to investigate the level of anxiety, the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder, the severity of depression and the perceived quality of life, respectively. Results: Four hundred and eight Italian subjects responded. Females and younger people were more affected by anxiety and depression. Post-traumatic stress disorder affected about 40% of the population sample, significantly young people and women, thus attesting to an important psychopathological response. About one-fifth of the sample population recorded an unsatisfactory quality of life. Conclusions: The results highlight the need to set up preventive interventions (primary and secondary), trying to focus on the most fragile group of subjects from a psychosocial point of view, in order to obtain a significant reduction in psychophysical damage in terms of relapses and outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Physical Distancing , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 100: 19-23, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691177

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A marked response to L-Dopa and L-Dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) make the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) highly likely. This paper evaluates response to L-Dopa in Perry syndrome (PS), parkinsonism with distinct molecular and neuropathologic characteristics. METHODS: Six patients with PS with a mean follow-up of 5 years (0.5-12) were assessed by movement disorder specialists and video recorded in states off and on. Additionally, DATSCAN-SPECT was performed in 3 subjects. RESULTS: Four patients displayed a marked and sustained response to L-Dopa and LID. Additionally, we observed a distinct pattern of off-state predominant craniocervical dystonia responsive to L-Dopa in 4 patients, truncal dystonia in one, and dystonic head tremor in another. DATSCAN-SPECT was abnormal in 3 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with PS may present PD-like parkinsonism with a marked and sustained response to L-Dopa and LID. The characteristic pattern of craniocervical dystonia may be a helpful clue to the diagnosis of PS.


Subject(s)
Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced , Dystonia , Dystonic Disorders , Parkinson Disease , Parkinsonian Disorders , Antiparkinson Agents/adverse effects , Depression , Dystonia/drug therapy , Dystonia/etiology , Dystonic Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Dystonic Disorders/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoventilation , Levodopa/adverse effects , Parkinson Disease/complications , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Parkinson Disease/pathology , Parkinsonian Disorders/complications , Parkinsonian Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Parkinsonian Disorders/drug therapy
9.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 40(6): 1194-1201, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699055

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a syndrome of unknown aetiology characterised by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain and associated with high rates of psychiatric comorbidities, mainly mood and anxiety disorders.This study aims to determine the age at onset (AAO) and temporal sequencing patterns of FM and its frequent and distinguishable psychiatric comorbidities, the major depressive episode/s (MDE), and panic disorder (PD). METHODS: Diagnosis of MDE and PD were assigned using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV). The AAO of FM, MDE, and PD was defined using the event history calendar. All patients completed a sociodemographic data form, self-report questionnaires measuring FM-related symptoms and function, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-28 (CTQ-28). RESULTS: 98 (83%) of the 118 recruited patients with FM had at least one psychiatric comorbidity. Two main temporal patterns were identified among the 83 patients (70.3 %) who could reliably report the age at onset of FM and psychiatric comorbidities. In the concurrent comorbidity pattern (CCP), MDE and/or PD co-occurred with the onset of FM. In the sequential pattern (SP), the patients first developed PD, then MDE, and finally FM. FM patients with SP are overweight and younger than those with a CCP (FM concurrent with MDE and PD) and reported more childhood adversities, mainly sexual abuse. AAO of psychiatric comorbidities significantly differed between the two patterns. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of different temporal comorbidity patterns may suggest prevention/early treatment interventions, especially in patients with childhood adversities and early-onset PD.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major , Fibromyalgia , Panic Disorder , Comorbidity , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Fibromyalgia/diagnosis , Fibromyalgia/epidemiology , Fibromyalgia/psychology , Humans , Panic Disorder/diagnosis , Panic Disorder/epidemiology
10.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 100: 37-40, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700627

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Limited studies have focused on non-motor symptoms (NMS) in patients with Writer's cramp (WC). The current study aimed to examine the frequency of NMS and their association with health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in patients with WC. METHODS: A total of 80 patients with WC and 69 healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. Motor symptoms was assessed by Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia rating scale and NMS was evaluated through several specific scales, including Hamilton depression rating scale-24 items (HDRS-24), Hamilton anxiety rating scale, Epworth sleepiness scale, Pittsburgh sleep quality index, fatigue severity scale (FSS), numerical rating scale for pain, and Montreal cognitive assessment. The HR-QoL was assessed using 36-item short form health survey (SF-36), which can be divided into physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS). Multiple linear regression was used to analysis the association between each NMS and HR-QoL. RESULTS: The patients presented more symptoms of depression, anxiety, poor quality of sleep, excessive daytime sleepiness, and fatigue than the HCs. The most frequent NMS in patients with WC was anxiety (51.25%) and depression (46.25%) symptoms. We found that motor symptoms had no association with HR-QoL. Higher scores of HDRS-24 were associated with lower scores of SF-36 in PCS and MCS. Meantime, higher scores of FSS were significantly associated with lower scores of SF-36 in MCS. CONCLUSION: The NMS was prevalent in patients with WC, with frequent anxiety and depression symptoms. Depression symptoms and fatigue had a strongly negative impact on HR-QoL and deserve attention in clinic practice.


Subject(s)
Dystonia , Dystonic Disorders , Anxiety/etiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Dystonic Disorders/psychology , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , Quality of Life/psychology
11.
Drugs Aging ; 39(6): 417-439, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35705848

ABSTRACT

Depression is one of the most frequent and burdensome non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), across all stages. Even when its severity is mild, PD depression has a great impact on quality of life for these patients and their caregivers. Accordingly, accurate diagnosis, supported by validated scales, identification of risk factors, and recognition of motor and non-motor symptoms comorbid to depression are critical to understanding the neurobiology of depression, which in turn determines the effectiveness of dopaminergic drugs, antidepressants and non-pharmacological interventions. Recent advances using in vivo functional and structural imaging demonstrate that PD depression is underpinned by dysfunction of limbic networks and monoaminergic systems, depending on the stage of PD and its associated symptoms, including apathy, anxiety, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), cognitive impairment and dementia. In particular, the evolution of serotonergic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic dysfunction and abnormalities of limbic circuits across time, involving the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices, amygdala, thalamus and ventral striatum, help to delineate the variable expression of depression in patients with prodromal, early and advanced PD. Evidence is accumulating to support the use of dual serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (desipramine, nortriptyline, venlafaxine) in patients with PD and moderate to severe depression, while selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and cognitive behavioral therapy may also be considered. In all patients, recent findings advocate that optimization of dopamine replacement therapy and evaluation of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus to improve motor symptoms represents an important first step, in addition to physical activity. Overall, this review indicates that increasing understanding of neurobiological changes help to implement a roadmap of tailored interventions for patients with PD and depression, depending on the stage and comorbid symptoms underlying PD subtypes and their prognosis.


Subject(s)
Apathy , Parkinson Disease , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Apathy/physiology , Depression/complications , Depression/therapy , Humans , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Quality of Life
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 419, 2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35733107

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pain and depression often occur simultaneously, but the mechanism of this condition is still unclear. METHODS: The aim of this study was to examine the alterations of monoamine neurotransmitters, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hormones, and inflammation cytokines in hyperalgesia and depression comorbidities. The reserpine-induced "Sprague Dawley" (SD) rat models were used, and the concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and their metabolic products 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), Homovanillic acid (HVA), 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in raphe nucleus region were tested by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Serum levels of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Cortisol (CORT), and inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4, IL-10 were assessed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Repeated reserpine injection induced hyperalgesia and depressive behaviors with decreased sucrose preference and horizontal movement distance, and increased immobility time in forced swimming test. The concentrations of 5-HT and NE in raphe nucleus, and ACTH and CORT in serum were elevated in the model group. And the model group showed increases in serum IL-1ß and IL-6, and decrease in serum IL-10. CONCLUSION: More research in these areas is needed to understand the pathogenesis of the disease, so as to find more and better therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
Cytokines , Hyperalgesia , Neurotransmitter Agents , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Animals , Comorbidity , Depression/chemically induced , Depression/complications , Depression/drug therapy , Hydrocortisone , Hyperalgesia/chemically induced , Hyperalgesia/complications , Inflammation , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Norepinephrine , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reserpine , Serotonin/metabolism
13.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1662022 05 12.
Article in Dutch | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35736386

ABSTRACT

Psychological treatment of depression can be made more accessible with internet-based interventions. A large number of trials has shown that on average these interventions are more effective when some kind of personal support by a clinician is given compared to unguided interventions. In order to examine whether there are subgroups of patients for whom unguided interventions are as effective as guided interventions, we conducted an 'individual patient data' network meta-analysis in which the primary data of 36 randomised trials with 8107 patients were integrated into one dataset. We found that several patient characteristics predict the outcome. Unguided interventions were as effective as guided interventions in mild depression. These data also make it possible to predict which patient with which characteristics benefits from guided and unguided interventions. We consider this as an important step towards personalised treatment of depression.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , Internet-Based Intervention , Depression/therapy , Depressive Disorder/therapy , Humans , Internet , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
14.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 20(1): 100, 2022 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessing change and comparing groups requires high quality and invariant scales. However, there is limited evidence of simultaneous longitudinal and gender measurement invariance for depression scales. This evidence is even more scant with long-established panel studies from low and middle-income countries. METHODS: In this paper, we used three waves (years 2002, 2005, and 2009) of a nationally representative panel study to examine the psychometric properties of the modified Calderon Depression Scale (CAL-DM)-a one-item exclusion of a depression scale designed for a population residing in a middle-income country (i.e., Mexico). Our analytical sample included 16,868 participants: 7,696 men and 9,172 women. Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), we first examined overall fit in each wave, and then we tested time, gender, and time-gender measurement invariance across three waves. We also estimated and compared depression score means by gender and time. Finally, we examined the association between depression scores and self-rated health. RESULTS: Our analyses indicated the CAL-DM is a robust scale, suitable for time, gender, and time by gender comparisons. Mean comparisons exemplified how the scale can be used as a latent variable or a summative score. Women have higher depression scores than men and the gap is narrowing from 3.4 in 2002 to 2.5 in 2009. CONCLUSIONS: The CAL-DM is a reliable instrument to measure depression in the Mexican general population that can be used for epidemiological research. Our results will contribute to a burgeoning line of research that examines the social determinants of depression, and the risk factors associated with different individuals' depression trajectories over the life course.


Subject(s)
Depression , Quality of Life , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Humans , Male , Psychometrics/methods , Reproducibility of Results
15.
J Nutr Sci ; 11: e44, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35754983

ABSTRACT

The present study examines the association of diet with depressive symptoms among stroke survivors from a community cohort of older adults. Depression is common after stroke. A healthy diet has previously been associated with fewer depressive symptoms in older individuals, but it is unknown if this effect is also seen in stroke survivors. Eighty-six participants from the Memory and Aging Project with a history of stroke at their study baseline enrolment, complete dietary data and two or more assessments for depression were included in this observational prospective cohort analysis. Depressive symptoms were assessed annually with a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Diet was assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Diet scores were based on analysis of participants' reported intakes of 144 food items. A generalised estimating equation (GEE) model was applied to examine the association of diet score with depressive symptoms. The study participants had a mean age of 82 ± 7⋅17 years and 14⋅42 ± 2⋅61 years of education, and 82⋅56 % were female. Western diet score was positively associated with depressive symptoms over time (diet score tertile 3 v. tertile 1: ß = 0⋅22, se = 0⋅09, P = 0⋅02; P for trend = 0⋅022). Interaction with sex suggested a stronger effect in females. A Western diet was associated with more post-stroke depressive symptoms, suggesting nutrition is important not only for reducing cerebrovascular risk, but for protecting post-stoke mental health as well.


Subject(s)
Depression , Diet, Western , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Depression/complications , Diet Surveys , Female , Food , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies
16.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604528, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35755952

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate if change in physical activity during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic predicted severity of anxiety and depression symptoms 6 months later in physically active adults. Methods: A total of 855 respondents (32.6% women) completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at two time points and reported change in physical activity habits in the first 3 months of the COVID-19 lockdown in Norway. Results: Women had higher prevalence rates than men for both anxiety and depression symptoms in the Unchanged, Increased and Decreased physical activity (PA) subgroups. Women and men who reported Increased PA at baseline were associated with increased risk for anxiety symptoms at time 2. Increased PA was associated with higher risk for depression at time 2 for women, but not for men. Conclusion: The results indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with deterioration in mental health also for physically active adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Exercise/psychology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics
17.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604710, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35755953

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Evidence on social stimuli associated with mental health is based mostly on self-reported health measures. We aimed to examine prospective associations between social connectedness and clinical diagnosis of depression and of anxiety. Methods: Longitudinal observational data merged with health insurance data comprising medical information on diagnosis of depression and anxiety were used. 1,209 randomly sampled employees of a US employer provided data for the analysis. Robust Poisson regression models were used. Multiple imputation was conducted to handle missing data on covariates. Results: Better social connectedness was associated with lower risks of subsequently diagnosed depression and anxiety, over a one-year follow-up period. Reports of feeling lonely were associated with increased risks of depression and anxiety. Association between community-related social connectedness and subsequent diagnosis of depression, but not of anxiety, was found. The associations were independent of demographics, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and work characteristics. They were also robust to unmeasured confounding, missing data patterns, and prior health conditions. Conclusion: Social connectedness may be an important factor for reducing risks of depression and anxiety. Loneliness should be perceived as a risk factor for depression and anxiety.


Subject(s)
Loneliness , Mental Health , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Insurance, Health , Loneliness/psychology , Longitudinal Studies
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 821881, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35757622

ABSTRACT

Robbery is one of the most common urban crimes, but little is known about its relationship with mental disorders in young adults. This study aimed to assess the relationship between robbery victimization and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and comorbidity between MDD and GAD at 30 years of age. A birth cohort study has followed all children born in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil, since 1982. At ages 23 and 30 years, participants were interviewed and asked about lifetime and recent experiences of robbery. Covariates were measured in interviews between birth and age 30 years. MDD and GAD were measured using the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for associations between robbery and mental disorders were calculated using Poisson regression with robust standard error. Of 3,701 cohort members interviewed at age 30 years, 42% reported robbery victimization during their lifetime. Victimization across three periods (lifetime, past 10 years, past 12 months) was associated with increased occurrence of MDD, GAD, as well as the MDD and GAD comorbidity. The strongest associations were found to robbery occurring in the previous 12 months with the MDD and GAD comorbidity, both for burglary at home (aPR 2.52; 95% CI 1.52-4.22) or community family victimization (aPR 2.10; 95% CI 1.34-3.27). These findings highlight the importance of community violence for mental health in young adulthood, and the need for public policies to prevent violence as well as support services for victims to mitigate its adverse health consequences.


Subject(s)
Crime Victims , Depressive Disorder, Major , Adult , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Cohort Studies , Crime Victims/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Humans , Young Adult
19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 853056, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35757624

ABSTRACT

Background: Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent in people with cancer. Medical therapies are usually prescribed to alleviate anxiety and depression, but they are associated with a variety of adverse effects. Recently, aromatherapy showed potential as a complementary medicine to improve psychological health and wellbeing. However, its effectiveness on relieving anxiety and depression has not been established. Objective: This study explored the beneficial effects of aromatherapy on psychological symptoms such as anxiety and depression in people with cancer. Methods: We searched international databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, Ebscohost, ProQuest and Scopus from inception to 31 May 2021. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. The systematic review and meta-analysis were performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. Quantitative analysis was performed on the studies that met our inclusion criteria, and Meta-analysis was performed on the studies with available data by RevMan software. Results: The quality of the literatures were assessed carefully by two researchers, a total of 17 studies were included in the systematic review and 10 articles were conducted in meta-analysis. The aromatherapy was effective in relieving anxiety (SMD = -0.49, p < 0.05) in people with cancer. Subgroup analysis suggested that most effective methods were aromatic massage (SMD = -0.70, p < 0.005), aromatherapy with lavender essential oils (SMD = -1.12, p < 0.01), short-time interventions (duration < 4weeks) (SMD = -0.87, p < 0.05) and studies in Asia (SMD = -0.83, p < 0.05). Regarding depression and psychological wellbeing, there were no difference between aromatherapy and control groups. Conclusion: In cancer patients, the aromatherapy was effective for relieving anxiety. However, there was no beneficial effect on depression and psychological wellbeing. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO, identifier: CRD42021272465.


Subject(s)
Aromatherapy , Neoplasms , Anxiety/therapy , Anxiety Disorders , Depression/therapy , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/therapy
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 848909, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35757655

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with depressed mental disorders may experience a lack of interest or pleasure, a poor mood, feelings of guilt or unworthiness, sleep and appetite disturbances, and easy fatigability. Based on the degree of the condition, depression is classed as mild, moderate, or severe. Maternal depression is the most common psychiatric condition during pregnancy, and its harmful effects have serious ramifications for both the mother and the fetus. Almost one in every four women will experience depression at some point in her life, the majority of which will occur during her childbearing years. Studies reports showed that antenatal depression is a common maternal problem in Ethiopia and as reported antenatal depression ranges in Ethiopia from 19.04 to 29.92%. Objective: To assess the prevalence of maternal depression and associated factors among antenatal care attendants at Wolayta Sodo Teaching and Referral hospital, Southern Ethiopia. Methods: Health facility based cross-sectional study was conducted at Wolayta Sodo Teaching and Referral Hospital from May 01 to 30, 2018. Data were collected from through face to face interview at exit from antenatal care unit using structured questionnaire and checklist adopted from patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Data were collected from 309 antenatal attendant mothers using systematic random sampling from each either mother. Binary and multivariable logistic regression model was employed to identify factors associated with maternal depression at P-value <0.05 level of significant. Result: Depression among pregnant mother was found to be 27.2% (95% Cl: 22, 32%). Women's level of education; being elementary school (AOR = 6.35 95%CL (2.32, 17.38), completing high school and above (AOR = 3.35, 95%CL 1.33, 8.47) were associated with maternal depression whereas having good husband support was protective for maternal depression (AOR = 0.4, 95%CL: 0.19, 0.83) and also not using substance during pregnancy period was protective for maternal depression (AOR = 0.39, 95%CI, 0.19, 0.77). Conclusion: The frequency of mother depression in this community was greater than in previous Ethiopian studies reported. Maternal depression was linked to a woman's level of education, husband support, and substance usage. This suggested that health care providers regarding pregnant women should emphasize the importance of husband support, substance usage and women level of education.


Subject(s)
Depression , Pregnant Women , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Prenatal Care
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