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1.
PeerJ ; 12: e17457, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38854793

ABSTRACT

For many species, the relationship between space use and diet composition is complex, with individuals adopting varying space use strategies such as territoriality to facilitate resource acquisition. Coyotes (Canis latrans) exhibit two disparate types of space use; defending mutually exclusive territories (residents) or moving nomadically across landscapes (transients). Resident coyotes have increased access to familiar food resources, thus improved foraging opportunities to compensate for the energetic costs of defending territories. Conversely, transients do not defend territories and are able to redirect energetic costs of territorial defense towards extensive movements in search of mates and breeding opportunities. These differences in space use attributed to different behavioral strategies likely influence foraging and ultimately diet composition, but these relationships have not been well studied. We investigated diet composition of resident and transient coyotes in the southeastern United States by pairing individual space use patterns with analysis of stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope values to assess diet. During 2016-2017, we monitored 41 coyotes (26 residents, 15 transients) with GPS radio-collars along the Savannah River area in the southeastern United States. We observed a canopy effect on δ13C values and little anthropogenic food in coyote diets, suggesting 13C enrichment is likely more influenced by reduced canopy cover than consumption of human foods. We also observed other land cover effects, such as agricultural cover and road density, on δ15N values as well as reduced space used by coyotes, suggesting that cover types and localized, resident-like space use can influence the degree of carnivory in coyotes. Finally, diets and niche space did not differ between resident and transient coyotes despite differences observed in the proportional contribution of potential food sources to their diets. Although our stable isotope mixing models detected differences between the diets of resident and transient coyotes, both relied mostly on mammalian prey (52.8%, SD = 15.9 for residents, 42.0%, SD = 15.6 for transients). Resident coyotes consumed more game birds (21.3%, SD = 11.6 vs 13.7%, SD = 8.8) and less fruit (10.5%, SD = 6.9 vs 21.3%, SD = 10.7) and insects (7.2%, SD = 4.7 vs 14.3%, SD = 8.5) than did transients. Our findings indicate that coyote populations fall on a feeding continuum of omnivory to carnivory in which variability in feeding strategies is influenced by land cover characteristics and space use behaviors.


Subject(s)
Coyotes , Nitrogen Isotopes , Coyotes/physiology , Animals , Nitrogen Isotopes/analysis , Carbon Isotopes/analysis , Carnivory , Diet , Territoriality , Southeastern United States , Feeding Behavior/physiology
2.
World J Gastroenterol ; 30(20): 2629-2632, 2024 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38855158

ABSTRACT

This editorial delves into the research article by Zeng et al published in the latest issue of World Journal of Gastroenterology. The manuscript contributes significantly to addressing the global health issue of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by introducing and validating the Exercise and Diet Adherence Scale (EDAS). The article effectively conveys the importance of the study, highlighting the prevalence of NAFLD, the lack of approved drugs for its treatment, and the crucial role of lifestyle correction. The use of the Delphi method for scale deve-lopment and the subsequent evaluation of its reliability add scientific rigor to the methodology. The results demonstrate that the scale is correlated with key lifestyle indicators, which makes it a promising tool for assessing patient adherence to interventions. The identification of specific score thresholds for predicting adherence to daily calorie intake and exercise adds practical value to the scale. The differentiation among scores indicative of good, average, and poor adherence enhances its clinical applicability. In conclusion, the manuscript introduces EDAS, a valuable instrument that can contribute substantially to the field of NAFLD research and clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Patient Compliance , Humans , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diagnosis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Reproducibility of Results , Life Style , Delphi Technique , Diet , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data
3.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13682, 2024 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38871745

ABSTRACT

Feed cost represents a major economic determinant within cattle production, amounting to an estimated 75% of the total variable costs. Consequently, comprehensive approaches such as optimizing feed utilization through alternative feed sources, alongside the selection of feed-efficient animals, are of great significance. Here, we investigate the effect of two diets, traditional corn-grain fed and alternative by-product based, on 14 phenotypes related to feed, methane emission and production efficiency and on multi-tissue transcriptomics data from liver, muscle, and rumen wall, derived from 52 Nellore bulls, 26 on each diet. To this end, diets were contrasted at the level of phenotype, gene expression, and gene-phenotype network connectivity. As regards the phenotypic level, at a P value < 0.05, significant differences were found in favour of the alternative diet for average daily weight gain at finishing, dry matter intake at finishing, methane emission, carcass yield and subcutaneous fat thickness at the rib-eye muscle area. In terms of the transcriptional level of the 14,776 genes expressed across the examined tissues, we found 487, 484, and 499 genes differentially expressed due to diet in liver, muscle, and rumen, respectively (P value < 0.01). To explore differentially connected phenotypes across both diet-based networks, we focused on the phenotypes with the largest change in average number of connections within diets and tissues, namely methane emission and carcass yield, highlighting, in particular, gene expression changes involving SREBF2, and revealing the largest differential connectivity in rumen and muscle, respectively. Similarly, from examination of differentially connected genes across diets, the top-ranked most differentially connected regulators within each tissue were MEOX1, PTTG1, and BASP1 in liver, muscle, and rumen, respectively. Changes in gene co-expression patterns suggest activation or suppression of specific biological processes and pathways in response to dietary interventions, consequently impacting the phenotype. The identification of genes that respond differently to diets and their associated phenotypic effects serves as a crucial stepping stone for further investigations, aiming to build upon our discoveries. Ultimately, such advancements hold the promise of improving animal welfare, productivity, and sustainability in livestock farming.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed , Diet , Liver , Rumen , Animals , Cattle/genetics , Liver/metabolism , Rumen/metabolism , Animal Feed/analysis , Diet/veterinary , Transcriptome , Male , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Phenotype , Gene Regulatory Networks , Gene Expression Profiling
4.
J Vis Exp ; (207)2024 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829109

ABSTRACT

Maternal diet-induced obesity has been demonstrated to alter neurodevelopment in offspring, which may lead to reduced cognitive capacity, hyperactivity, and impairments in social behavior. Patients with the clinically heterogeneous genetic disorder Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) may present with similar deficits, but it is currently unclear whether environmental factors such as maternal diet influence the development of these phenotypes, and if so, the mechanism by which such an effect would occur. To enable evaluation of how maternal obesogenic diet exposure affects systemic factors relevant to neurodevelopment in NF1, we have developed a method to simultaneously collect non-hemolyzed serum and whole or regionally micro-dissected brains from fetal offspring of murine dams fed a control diet versus a high-fat, high-sucrose diet. Brains were processed for cryosectioning or flash frozen to use for subsequent RNA or protein isolation; the quality of the collected tissue was verified by immunostaining. The quality of the serum was verified by analyzing macronutrient profiles. Using this technique, we have identified that maternal obesogenic diet increases fetal serum cholesterol similarly between WT and Nf1-heterozygous pups.


Subject(s)
Brain , Neurofibromatosis 1 , Animals , Neurofibromatosis 1/blood , Mice , Female , Pregnancy , Brain/metabolism , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Diet/adverse effects , Fetus/metabolism , Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology
5.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13077, 2024 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844827

ABSTRACT

Conflicts between rural people and the Endangered Black-and-chestnut Eagle (Spizaetus isidori) are a prominent conservation concern in the northern Andes, as at least 60 eagles were poached between 2000 and 2022 in response to poultry predation. Here, we conducted direct observations to analyze the Black-and-chestnut Eagle diet and evaluated how forest cover affects the feeding habits of the species during nestling-rearing periods in 16 nests located in different human-transformed Andean landscapes of Ecuador and Colombia. We analyzed 853 prey items (46 species) delivered to nestlings. We used Generalized Linear Models to test whether the percent forest cover calculated within varying buffer distances around each nest and linear distances from the nest to the nearest settlement and pasture areas were predictors of diet diversity and biomass contribution of prey. Forest cover was not a factor that affected the consumption of poultry; however, the eagle regularly preyed on chickens (Gallus gallus) (i.e., domestic Galliformes) which were consumed by 15 of the 16 eagle pairs, with biomass contributions (14.57% ± 10.55) representing 0.6-37% of the total prey consumed. The Black-and-chestnut Eagle is an adaptable generalist able to switch from mammalian carnivores to guans (i.e., wild Galliformes) in human-dominated landscapes, and eagles nesting in sites with low forest cover had a less diverse diet than those in areas with more intact forests. Management actions for the conservation of this avian top predator require studies on the eagle's diet in areas where human persecution is suspected or documented, but also maintaining forest cover for the wild prey of the species, development of socio-economic and psychological assessments on the drivers behind human-eagle conflicts, and the strengthening of technical capacities of rural communities, such as appropriate poultry management.


Subject(s)
Diet , Eagles , Endangered Species , Predatory Behavior , Animals , Predatory Behavior/physiology , Eagles/physiology , Humans , Ecuador , Colombia , Animals, Wild , Forests , Conservation of Natural Resources , Chickens/physiology , Feeding Behavior
6.
BMC Cancer ; 24(1): 694, 2024 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844890

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) can be classified as one of the most common malignancies worldwide. There is scarcity of the published data on the risk factors for HCC in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries specifically Kuwait. Therefore, this case-control study sought to examine the risk factors associated with HCC in Kuwait. METHODS: Fifty-three histopathologically confirmed HCC cases were recruited from the Kuwait Cancer Control Center Registry. One hundred ninety-six controls (1:4 ratio) were selected from medical and/ or surgical outpatient's clinics at all six public hospitals of Kuwait. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data both from cases and controls through face-to-face interviews. A multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to the case-control data. Adjusted odds ratios (ORadj) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using the parameters' estimates of the final model and used for interpretation of the model. RESULTS: The HCC cases compared with the controls were 41.6 times more likely to have had the history of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (ORadj = 41.6; 95% CI: 8.9-193.5; p < 0.001). The cases compared with the controls were more likely to have reported the history of heavy alcohol drinking (ORadj = 14.2; 95% CI: 1.2-173.4; p = 0.038). Furthermore, compared with the controls, the HCC cases tended to frequently consume milk and/or milk substitutes (≥ 3 glass/ week) (ORadj = 7.2; 95% CI: 1.2-43.4). Conversely however, there was a significant protective effect if the participants reportedly have had regularly used olive oil in their routine diet as a source of fat (ORadj = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.04-0.80) or regularly used non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (ORadj = 0.20; 95% CI: 0.05-0.71). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that heavy alcohol consumption, NAFLD history, and excessive consumption of milk/ milk substitutes were associated with a significantly increased HCC risk. Conversely however, regular use of olive oil in the diet as a source of fat or regular use of NSAIDs had a significantly protective effect against HCC risk. Adapting healthy dietary habits and preventing/ treating NAFLD may minimize the HCC risk. Future research with a larger sample size may contemplate validating the results of this study and unraveling additional risk factors contributing to HCC risk. The resultant data may help design and implement evidence-based educational programs for the prevention of HCC in this and other similar settings.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Diet , Life Style , Liver Neoplasms , Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/etiology , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Female , Male , Case-Control Studies , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Kuwait/epidemiology , Aged , Comorbidity , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/epidemiology
7.
Arch Dermatol Res ; 316(6): 328, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824251

ABSTRACT

Observational studies have revealed associations between various dietary factors and skin conditions. However, the causal relationship between diet and skin condition is still unknown. Data on 17 dietary factors were obtained from the UK Biobank. Data on four skin conditions were derived from the UK Biobank and another large-scale GWAS study. Genetic predictions suggested that the intake of oily fish was associated with a lower risk of skin aging (OR: 0.962, P = 0.036) and skin pigmentation (OR: 0.973, P = 0.033); Tea intake was associated with a lower risk of skin pigmentation (OR: 0.972, P = 0.024); Salad/raw vegetables intake was associated with a lower risk of keratinocyte skin cancer (OR: 0.952, P = 0.007). Coffee intake was associated with increased risk of skin aging (OR: 1.040, P = 0.028); Pork intake was associated with increased risk of skin aging (OR: 1.134, P = 0.020); Beef intake was associated with increased risk of cutaneous melanoma (OR: 1.013, P = 0.016); Champagne plus white wine intake was associated with increased risk of cutaneous melanoma (OR: 1.033, P = 0.004); Bread intake was associated with increased risk of keratinocyte skin cancer (OR: 1.026, P = 0.013). Our study results indicate causal relationships between genetically predicted intake of oily fish, tea, salad/raw vegetables, coffee, pork, beef, champagne plus white wine, and bread and skin conditions.


Subject(s)
Diet , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Skin Neoplasms , Humans , Diet/adverse effects , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Skin Neoplasms/genetics , Skin Neoplasms/epidemiology , Skin Neoplasms/etiology , Skin Aging/genetics , Skin Pigmentation/genetics , Coffee/adverse effects , Genome-Wide Association Study , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Tea/adverse effects , Risk Factors
8.
Nutr Diabetes ; 14(1): 36, 2024 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38824142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Blood homocysteine (Hcy) level has become a sensitive indicator in predicting the development of cardiovascular disease. Studies have shown an association between individual mineral intake and blood Hcy levels. The effect of mixed minerals' intake on blood Hcy levels is unknown. METHODS: Data were obtained from the baseline survey data of the Shanghai Suburban Adult Cohort and Biobank(SSACB) in 2016. A total of 38273 participants aged 20-74 years met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to calculate the intake of 10 minerals (calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, iron, zinc, selenium, phosphorus, copper and manganese). Measuring the concentration of Hcy in the morning fasting blood sample. Traditional regression models were used to assess the relationship between individual minerals' intake and blood Hcy levels. Three machine learning models (WQS, Qg-comp, and BKMR) were used to the relationship between mixed minerals' intake and blood Hcy levels, distinguishing the individual effects of each mineral and determining their respective weights in the joint effect. RESULTS: Traditional regression model showed that higher intake of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, and manganese was associated with lower blood Hcy levels. Both Qg-comp and BKMR results consistently indicate that higher intake of mixed minerals is associated with lower blood Hcy levels. Calcium exhibits the highest weight in the joint effect in the WQS model. In Qg-comp, iron has the highest positive weight, while manganese has the highest negative weight. The BKMR results of the subsample after 10,000 iterations showed that except for sodium, all nine minerals had the high weights in the joint effect on the effect of blood Hcy levels. CONCLUSION: Overall, higher mixed mineral's intake was associated with lower blood Hcy levels, and each mineral contributed differently to the joint effect. Future studies are available to further explore the mechanisms underlying this association, and the potential impact of mixed minerals' intake on other health indicators needs to be further investigated. These efforts will help provide additional insights to deepen our understanding of mixed minerals and their potential role in health maintenance.


Subject(s)
Homocysteine , Machine Learning , Minerals , Humans , Middle Aged , Adult , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Male , Minerals/blood , Minerals/administration & dosage , Homocysteine/blood , Aged , Young Adult , China , Diet
9.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304679, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848345

ABSTRACT

California yellowtail (CYT), Seriola dorsalis, is a promising candidate for aquaculture due to its rapid growth and high-quality flesh, particularly in markets like Japan, Australia, China, and the United States. Soy protein has shown success as a replacement for marine protein sources in CYT diets, reducing fishmeal levels, though concerns about potential intestinal inflammation persist with the inclusion of solvent-extracted soybean meal. To address this, processing strategies like fractionation, enzymatic treatment, heat treatment, and microbial fermentation have been employed to mitigate the negative impacts of soybean meal on fish nutrition and immune systems. This study focuses on optimizing soybean meal inclusion levels by incorporating advanced soy variants into CYT diets. The eight-week feeding trial, conducted in a recirculation system, featured six diets with sequential inclusion levels (0, 50, 100%) of high protein low oligosaccharide soybean meal (Bright Day, Benson Hill, St Louis, MO) and enzyme-treated soybean meal (HP 300, Hamlet Protein Inc., Findlay, OH), replacing solvent-extracted soybean. The study compares these formulations against a soy-free animal protein-based diet. At the end of the trial, fish were sampled for growth performance, body proximate composition, intestinal morphology, and immune response from gut samples. Results showed consistent FCR (P = 0.775), weight gain (P = 0.242), and high survival rate (99.4 ± 0.5%) among dietary treatments (P>0.05). Histological evaluations revealed no gut inflammation and gene expression analysis demonstrated no significant variations in immune, physiological, and digestive markers apn (P = 0.687), mga (P = 0.397), gpx1 (P = 0.279), atpase (P = 0.590), il1ß (P = 0.659). The study concludes that incorporating advanced soybean meal products, replacing up to 20% of fishmeal does not negatively affect CYT's growth and intestinal health. This suggests that all three soy sources, contributing 35% of total protein (15.4 g 100 g-1 diet), can be included in practical diets without compromising CYT's intestinal integrity or growth. These findings have positive implications for the commercial production of CYT and future research on the incorporation of plant-based proteins in aquaculture diets.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed , Body Composition , Glycine max , Intestines , Animals , Animal Feed/analysis , Intestines/drug effects , Intestines/immunology , Body Composition/drug effects , Diet/veterinary , Perciformes/growth & development , Perciformes/immunology , Perciformes/genetics , Aquaculture/methods , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
10.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1515, 2024 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38840236

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global population is increasingly aging, imposing a substantial burden on social and healthcare systems as aging is associated with gradual muscle wasting and functional decline. Consumption of protein-rich foods, such as livestock-based meat, providing high-quality proteins can prevent muscle wasting and related functional decline in older adults. However, there is a lack of data on the older adults' perceptions about meat consumption, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE: To explore the perceptions about dietary meat consumption among older adults in Gasabo district, Kigali, Rwanda. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive qualitative study, using focus group discussions. A total of eight FGDs, lasting between 55 and 80 min, were conducted with gender-mixed groups, including 31 men and 33 women aged ≥ 55 years old. Eight older adults participated in each FGD session, and all discussions were conducted in the local language (Kinyarwanda) using a pre-designed interview guide. The discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim and translated into English. The transcript was inductively analyzed using thematic analytical process. RESULTS: Three themes were identified from the data, predominantly related to motives and barriers of meat consumption. The motives of meat consumption included improved quality and taste of the diet, improving own health, and having a social function. Barriers of meat consumption were perceived to be related to health risks, sustainability concerns (depletion of resources), and religious beliefs. Lastly, it was widely perceived that meat was unavailable and economically inaccessible, thus meat consumption was perceived to be associated with improved wealth. CONCLUSION: The findings revealed a low and declining meat consumption among older adults due to poverty. Improving financial capacity or strategic public health work to improve protein consumption in the elderly is necessary to meet nutritional needs and facilitate healthy aging.


Subject(s)
Focus Groups , Meat , Qualitative Research , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Rwanda , Aged, 80 and over , Diet/psychology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
11.
Lancet Planet Health ; 8(6): e410-e422, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849183

ABSTRACT

Global food systems contribute 30% of global greenhouse gas emissions, threatening the global temperature targets of the Paris Agreement. Diets in high-income countries exceed the recommendations for animal-based foods, whereas consumption of fruits and vegetables is below recommendations. Shifting to a more plant-based diet can reduce up to 30% of greenhouse gas emissions from diet and also reduce risk of chronic disease. Interventions addressing sustainable dietary behaviour, defined by a shift in dietary patterns and food-waste practices, could therefore improve population and planetary health, but knowledge of the interventions that are likely to be most effective in changing sustainable dietary behaviour is so far limited. This systematic review aimed to investigate, classify, and assess the effectiveness of interventions that promote environmentally sustainable diets in high-income countries. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature for randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental trials published from inception until June 16, 2022, evaluating the effectiveness of any intervention promoting environmentally sustainable dietary behaviour. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they included adults and children from high-income countries (as defined by the World Bank classification) and used individual-level behaviour change interventions. Online choice experiments and studies reporting results on only change in fruit and vegetable consumption were excluded. Interventions were classified using the nine intervention functions of the behaviour change wheel. Data were extracted on number of participants, intervention characteristics, diet change (eg, meat consumption and fruit and vegetable intake), food waste, greenhouse gas emissions, and health outcomes. 13 studies were identified and included in the systematic review. Articles were from six different countries (ie, Canada, the USA, Germany, the UK, the Netherlands, Italy). Six of the nine intervention functions of the behaviour change wheel were used. Interventions using education had the most robust evidence base, whereas interventions using persuasion had the strongest effect on reducing meat consumption. Overall, interventions using education in combination with other factors were most successful. Five studies had high risk of bias, five had some concerns of bias, and three had low risk of bias. This systematic review provides insight into the effectiveness of behavioural interventions to meet health and climate change goals through promotion of environmentally sustainable diets. Evidence supports the use of multicomponent interventions through education, persuasion, and environmental restructuring to provide opportunity for change. Little high-quality research was available, and more robustly designed intervention studies are needed to inform future guidelines and policies.


Subject(s)
Diet , Humans , Health Promotion/methods , Feeding Behavior , Conservation of Natural Resources
12.
Lancet Planet Health ; 8(6): e391-e401, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849181

ABSTRACT

Different approaches have been used for translation of the EAT-Lancet reference diet into dietary scores that can be used to assess health and environmental impact. Our aim was to compare the different EAT-Lancet diet scores, and to estimate their associations with all-cause mortality, stroke incidence, and greenhouse gas emissions. We did a systematic review (PROSPERO, CRD42021286597) to identify different scores representing adherence to the EAT-Lancet reference diet. We then qualitatively compared the diet adherence scores, including their ability to group individuals according the EAT-Lancet reference diet recommendations, and quantitatively assessed the associations of the diet scores with health and environmental outcome data in three diverse cohorts: the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort (DCH; n=52 452), the Swedish Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort (MDC; n=20 973), and the Mexican Teachers' Cohort (MTC; n=30 151). The DCH and MTC used food frequency questionnaires and the MDC used a modified diet history method to assess dietary intake, which we used to compute EAT-Lancet diet scores and evaluate the associations of scores with hazard of all-cause mortality and stroke. In the MDC, dietary greenhouse gas emission values were summarised for every participant, which we used to predict greenhouse gas emissions associated with varying diet adherence scores on each scoring system. In our review, seven diet scores were identified (Knuppel et al, 2019; Trijsburg et al, 2020; Cacau et al, 2021; Hanley-Cook et al, 2021; Kesse-Guyot et al, 2021; Stubbendorff et al, 2022; and Colizzi et al, 2023). Two of the seven scores (Stubbendorff and Colizzi) were among the most consistent in grouping participants according to the EAT-Lancet reference diet recommendations across cohorts, and higher scores (greater diet adherence) were associated with decreased risk of mortality (in the DCH and MDC), decreased risk of incident stroke (in the DCH and MDC for the Stubbendorff score; and in the DCH for the Colizzi score), and decreased predicted greenhouse gas emissions in the MDC. We conclude that the seven different scores representing the EAT-Lancet reference diet had differences in construction, interpretation, and relation to disease and climate-related outcomes. Two scores generally performed well in our evaluation. Future studies should carefully consider which diet score to use and preferably use multiple scores to assess the robustness of estimations, given that public health and environmental policy rely on these estimates.


Subject(s)
Diet , Greenhouse Gases , Stroke , Humans , Greenhouse Gases/analysis , Greenhouse Gases/adverse effects , Stroke/mortality , Stroke/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Denmark/epidemiology , Sweden/epidemiology , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Female , Mortality , Middle Aged
13.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 13048, 2024 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844482

ABSTRACT

Evidence linking maternal diet during pregnancy to allergic or respiratory diseases in children remains sparse, and outcomes were mainly studied separately. We aim to investigate these associations by considering clusters of allergic and respiratory multimorbidity among 9679 mother-child pairs from the Elfe birth cohort. Maternal diet quality was evaluated using a food-based score (Diet Quality score), a nutrient-based score (PANDiet score) and food group intakes. Adjusted multinomial logistic regressions on allergic and respiratory multimorbidity clusters up to 5.5 years were performed. Child allergic and respiratory diseases were described through five clusters: "asymptomatic" (43%, reference), "early wheeze without asthma" (34%), "asthma only" (7%), "allergies without asthma" (7%), "multi-allergic" (9%). A higher PANDiet score and an increased legume consumption were associated with a reduced risk of belonging to the "early wheeze without asthma" cluster. A U-shaped relationship was observed between maternal fish consumption and the "allergies without asthma" cluster. To conclude, adequate nutrient intake during pregnancy was weakly associated with a lower risk of "early wheeze without asthma" in children. No association was found with food groups, considered jointly or separately, except for legumes and fish, suggesting that maternal adherence to nutritional guidelines might be beneficial for allergic and respiratory diseases prevention.


Subject(s)
Diet , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Child, Preschool , Male , Diet/adverse effects , Infant , Adult , Multimorbidity , Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Birth Cohort , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/etiology , Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Respiratory Sounds , Child , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology
14.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1339859, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38827626

ABSTRACT

Poor diet is the leading cause of mortality in the U.S. due to the direct relationship with diet-related chronic diseases, disproportionally affects underserved communities, and exacerbates health disparities. Evidence-based policy solutions are greatly needed to foster an equitable and climate-smart food system that improves health, nutrition and reduces chronic disease healthcare costs. To directly address epidemic levels of U.S. diet-related chronic diseases and nutritional health disparities, we conducted a policy analysis, prioritized policy options and implementation strategies, and issued final recommendations for bipartisan consideration in the 2023-24 Farm Bill Reauthorization. Actional recommendations include: sugar-sweetened beverage taxation, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) fruit and vegetable subsidy expansion, replacement of ultra-processed foods (UPF) with sustainable, diverse, climate-smart agriculture and food purchasing options, and implementing "food is medicine."


Subject(s)
Nutrition Policy , Humans , United States , Chronic Disease/prevention & control , Diet , Food Assistance
15.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(7): 890-896, 2024 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829943

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced when the microbiota in the large intestine cause fermentation of dietary carbohydrates and fibers. These fatty acids constitute the primary energy source of colon mucosa cells and have a protective effect in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aimed to compare the SCFA levels in the stools of patients with IBD and healthy controls. METHOD: Healthy controls and patients with IBD aged 18 and over were included in the study. Stool samples from all patients and healthy controls were collected, and stool acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid levels were measured using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurement method. RESULTS: In this study, 64 participants were divided into two groups: 34 were in IBD (Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis) and 30 were in healthy control group. When fecal SCFA concentrations of IBD and healthy control groups were compared, a statistically significant difference was observed between them. When the fecal SCFA concentrations of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients in the IBD group were compared, however, no statistically significant difference was observed between them. Furthermore, when the participants' diet type (carbohydrate-based, vegetable-protein-based and mixed diet) and the number of meals were compared with fecal SCFA concentrations, no statistically significant difference was observed between them. CONCLUSION: In general, fecal SCFA levels in patients with IBD were lower than those in healthy controls. Moreover, diet type and the number of meals had no effect on stool SCFA levels in patients with IBD and healthy individuals.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Feces , Humans , Feces/chemistry , Feces/microbiology , Male , Female , Adult , Fatty Acids, Volatile/analysis , Fatty Acids, Volatile/metabolism , Colitis, Ulcerative/metabolism , Colitis, Ulcerative/microbiology , Middle Aged , Case-Control Studies , Crohn Disease/metabolism , Young Adult , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Diet , Propionates/metabolism , Propionates/analysis , Acetic Acid/analysis , Acetic Acid/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Butyric Acid/analysis , Butyric Acid/metabolism
16.
Anim Sci J ; 95(1): e13964, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38831612

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the effects of supplementation with Antrodia cinnamomea mycelium by-product (ACBP) on growth performance and immune response in weaning piglets. Total available content and antioxidant capacity of ACBP were determined. Ninety-six black pigs were randomly distributed to 24 pens. Study compared four groups which were supplemented with ACBP at 0%, 2.5%, 5%, or 10% for 6 weeks after weaning at 4 weeks. Results showed that ACBP on total phenolic, total flavonoid, and total triterpenoids contents were 13.68 mg GAE/g DW, 1.67 µg QE/g DW, and 15.6 mg/g, respectively. Weaning piglets fed 2.5% ACBP showed a significant decreased body weight gain compared with those supplemented with 5% ACBP, 10% ACBP, and control groups. Results showed that all ACBP groups increased the villi height of jejunum significantly. Incidence of diarrhea in 11 weeks with supplementation with 5% and 10% ACBP diets were lower than in control group. The 10% ACBP group showed significantly lower expression of immune response genes (IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) than the 2.5% and 5% ACBP groups. Based on results, dietary supplementation with 10% ACBP did not significantly affect body weight but could decrease piglet diarrhea condition and expression of IL-1ß and IL-6 genes.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed , Antioxidants , Diet , Dietary Supplements , Mycelium , Weaning , Weight Gain , Animals , Swine/growth & development , Swine/immunology , Weight Gain/drug effects , Diet/veterinary , Antioxidants/metabolism , Diarrhea/veterinary , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Triterpenes/administration & dosage , Gene Expression/drug effects , Cytokines/metabolism , Jejunum/metabolism , Phenols/analysis , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Swine Diseases/microbiology , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Swine Diseases/immunology , Polyporales/chemistry
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 12778, 2024 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38834684

ABSTRACT

Working forests comprise a large proportion of forested landscapes in the southeastern United States and are important to the conservation of bats, which rely on forests for roosting and foraging. While relationships between bat ecology and forest management are well studied during summer, winter bat ecology remains understudied. Hence, we aimed to identify the diet composition of overwintering bats, compare the composition of prey consumed by bat species, and determine the potential role of forest bats as pest controllers in working forest landscapes of the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain. During January to March 2021-2022, we captured 264 bats of eight species. We used DNA metabarcoding to obtain diet composition from 126 individuals of seven bat species identifying 22 orders and 174 families of arthropod prey. Although Coleoptera, Diptera, and Lepidoptera were the most consumed orders, we found that bats had a generalist diet but with significant differences among some species. We also documented the consumption of multiple insect pests (e.g., Rhyacionia frustrana) and disease vectors (e.g., Culex spp). Our results provide important information regarding the winter diet of bats in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain and their potential role in controlling economically relevant pest species and disease vectors.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Diet , Forests , Seasons , Animals , Chiroptera/physiology , Southeastern United States , Predatory Behavior/physiology
19.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 22(1): 63, 2024 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The epidemiologic evidence on the association between acid load potential of diet and the risk of diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is scarce. We aim to explore the possible relationship between dietary acid load (DAL), markers of ovarian reserve and DOR risk in a case-control study. METHODS: 370 women (120 women with DOR and 250 women with normal ovarian reserve as controls), matched by age and BMI, were recruited. Dietary intake was obtained using a validated 80-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The DAL scores including the potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) were calculated based on nutrients intake. NEAP and PRAL scores were categorized by quartiles based on the distribution of controls. Antral follicle count (AFC), serum antimullerian hormone (AMH) and anthropometric indices were measured. Logistic regression models were used to estimate multivariable odds ratio (OR) of DOR across quartiles of NEAP and PRAL scores. RESULTS: Following increase in PRAL and NEAP scores, serum AMH significantly decreased in women with DOR. Also, AFC count had a significant decrease following increase in PRAL score (P = 0.045). After adjustment for multiple confounding variables, participants in the top quartile of PRAL had increased OR for DOR (OR: 1.26; 95%CI: 1.08-1.42, P = 0.254). CONCLUSION: Diets with high acid-forming potential may negatively affect ovarian reserve in women with DOR. Also, high DAL may increase the risk of DOR. The association between DAL and markers of ovarian reserve should be explored in prospective studies and clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Diet , Ovarian Reserve , Humans , Female , Case-Control Studies , Ovarian Reserve/physiology , Adult , Diet/adverse effects , Acids/metabolism , Acids/adverse effects , Anti-Mullerian Hormone/blood , Risk Factors , Ovarian Follicle , Young Adult
20.
Nutr J ; 23(1): 58, 2024 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38835025

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Eating habits formed during adolescence greatly influence the maintenance of health in adulthood. With the recent development of social media and easy access to the Internet, adolescents watch plenty of food videos, particularly Mukbang and Cookbnag(eating show)content. This media genre's impact on food choices has been covered in several studies; however, studies on unhealthy eating habits directly related to adolescents' exposure to eating shows are insufficient. METHODS: For this study, we used data from the 18th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey conducted in 2022 and finalized 50,451 participants. The extent of exposure to eating show media over the course of a week, as well as the consumption of fast food, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and high caffeinated beverages within that week were measured through self-reporting questionnaires. We classified the participants into two groups based on their frequency of watching eating shows. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between eating show and unhealthy food consumption. RESULTS: For both males and females, eating show exposure was strongly associated with the consumption of fast food (male: OR:1.37, 95% CI:1.26-1.49; female: OR:1.46, 95% CI:1.36-1.57), SSB (male: OR:1.42, 95% CI:1.26-1.60; female: OR:1.51, 95% CI:1.35-1.70), and high caffeinated beverage (male: OR:1.30, 95% CI:1.23-1.37; female: OR:1.24, 95% CI:1.18-1.31). It was observed that both sexes were more likely to frequently eat unhealthy food than students who did not watch eating shows. CONCLUSION: Among Korean adolescents, students exposed to eating shows, which primarily aim to entertain, were more likely to consume fast food, SSBs, and high caffeinated beverages. Therefore, this study's findings suggest that eating show could influence adolescents' food choices, highlighting the need for interest in emerging cultures and corresponding health policies.


Subject(s)
Fast Foods , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Republic of Korea , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Fast Foods/statistics & numerical data , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , Food Preferences/psychology , Television/statistics & numerical data , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Diet/methods
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