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1.
Dev Psychobiol ; 63(7): e22195, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674245

ABSTRACT

The objective of the current study was to complete a systematic review of the relationship between prenatal maternal stress due to potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and child temperament. Eligible studies through June 2020 were identified utilizing a search strategy in PubMed and PsycInfo. Included studies examined associations between prenatal maternal stress due to PTE and child temperament. Two independent coders extracted study characteristics and three coders assessed study quality. Of the 1969 identified studies, 20 met full inclusion criteria. Studies were classified on two dimensions: (1) disaster-related stress and (2) intimate partner violence during pregnancy. For disaster-related prenatal maternal stress, 75% (nine out of 12) of published reports found associations with increased child negative affectivity, 50% (five out of 10) also noted associations with lower effortful control/regulation, and 38% (three out of eight) found associations with lower positive affectivity. When considering prenatal intimate partner violence stress, 80% (four out of five) of published reports found associations with higher child negative affectivity, 67% (four out of six) found associations with lower effortful control/regulation, and 33% (one out of three) found associations with lower positive affectivity. Prenatal maternal stress due to PTEs may impact the offspring's temperament, especially negative affectivity. Mitigating the effects of maternal stress in pregnancy is needed in order to prevent adverse outcomes on the infant's socioemotional development.


Subject(s)
Disaster Victims , Disasters , Intimate Partner Violence , Mothers , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects , Temperament , Attitude , Child , Child Development , Disaster Victims/psychology , Female , Humans , Infant , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Mothers/psychology , Personality Development , Pregnancy/psychology , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/psychology , Psychological Distress , Psychology, Child
2.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1948253, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394857

ABSTRACT

Background: The Skills for Life Adjustment and Resilience (SOLAR) programme is a brief, scalable, psychosocial skill-building programme designed to reduce distress and adjustment difficulties following disaster. Objectives: We tested the feasibility, acceptability, efficacy and safety of a culturally adapted version of SOLAR in two remote, cyclone-affected communities in the Pacific Island nation of Tuvalu. Method: This pilot adopted a quasi-experimental, control design involving 99 participants. SOLAR was administered to the treatment group (n = 49) by local, non-specialist facilitators (i.e. 'Coaches') in a massed, group format across 5 consecutive days. The control group (n = 50) had access to Usual Care (UC). We compared group differences (post-intervention vs. post-control) with psychological distress being the primary outcome. We also examined whether changes were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Results: Large, statistically significant group differences in psychological distress were observed after controlling for baseline scores in favour of the SOLAR group. Mean group outcomes were consistently lower at 6-month follow-up than at baseline. SOLAR was found to be acceptable and safe, and programme feedback from participants and Coaches was overwhelmingly positive. Conclusions: Findings contribute to emerging evidence that SOLAR is a flexible, culturally adaptable and scalable intervention that can support individual recovery and adjustment in the aftermath of disaster. RCTs to strengthen evidence of SOLAR's efficacy are warranted.


Antecedentes: El programa de Destrezas para la Adaptación a la Vida y Resiliencia (SOLAR en sus siglas en inglés) es un programa breve, escalable y de desarrollo de destrezas psicosociales diseñado para reducir el malestar y las dificultades de adaptación después de un desastre.Objetivos: Probamos la viabilidad, aceptabilidad, eficacia y seguridad de una versión de SOLAR culturalmente adaptada en dos comunidades remotas afectadas por ciclones en la nación Insular de Tuvalu en el Pacífico.Método: Este piloto adoptó un diseño de control cuasiexperimental, involucrando n = 99 participantes. Se administró SOLAR al grupo de tratamiento (n = 49) por facilitadores locales no especialistas (es decir 'Entrenadores') en un formato de grupo masivo durante cinco días consecutivos. El grupo control (n = 50) tuvo acceso a la Atención Habitual (AH). Comparamos las diferencias entre los grupos (post-intervención versus post-control) siendo el resultado primario el malestar psicológico. Examinamos también si los cambios se mantuvieron a los 6 meses de seguimiento.Resultados: Se observaron diferencias grandes estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos en el malestar psicológico después de controlar los puntajes basales a favor del grupo SOLAR. Los resultados promedio del grupo fueron consistentemente más bajos a los 6 meses de seguimiento que al inicio. Se encontró que SOLAR era aceptable y seguro, y la retroalimentación del programa por los participantes y entrenadores fue extremadamente positiva.Conclusiones: Los hallazgos contribuyen a la evidencia emergente que SOLAR es una intervención flexible, culturalmente adaptable y escalable que puede apoyar la recuperación individual y la adaptación después de un desastre. Se justifica la realización de ECAs para fortalecer la evidencia de la eficacia de SOLAR.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Culturally Competent Care , Disaster Victims/psychology , Psychosocial Intervention , Resilience, Psychological , Wounds and Injuries/psychology , Adult , Cyclonic Storms , Female , Humans , Male , Micronesia , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Psychological Distress , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 21(1): e94-e102, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777429

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Environmental hazards are part of the Earth's natural cycle and are ongoing within human history. When vulnerable situations meet environmental hazards, disasters occur where human and natural costs could be enormous. This study aimed to explore the experiences of the victims of coastal erosion during the monsoon season. METHODS: Seven victims of catastrophic coastal erosion in the Kollam District of Kerala, India, were interviewed from December 2013 to February 2014. The study followed Edmond Husserl's descriptive phenomenological method. RESULT: These interviews constituted the primary data source. Three main themes with eleven subthemes emerged from these data. The main themes were impact, consequences and recovery. The subthemes were living in constant fear, escaping from the catastrophe; cataclysmic sea waves and their tumultuous behaviour, instant damage and destruction, the epoch of losses; agony and suffering; homelessness-helplessness-sleeplessness mixed with fear; government aid only in dreams; haunting memories; never-ending daily needs; first home and native land; and the desire to go back to the site of the disaster. CONCLUSION: From the derived themes, a phenomenon associated with coastal erosion evolved. The phenomenon is termed "Catastrophic coastal erosion: A cycle of impact, consequences, and recovery."


Subject(s)
Disaster Victims/psychology , Floods , Quality of Life/psychology , Soil Erosion , Adult , Aged , Ecological and Environmental Phenomena , Fear , Female , Humans , India , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Natural Disasters , Qualitative Research , Resilience, Psychological , Tsunamis
4.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 68(4): 221-229, 2021 Apr 23.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504727

ABSTRACT

Objectives To obtain suggestions for improving disaster-prevention literacy, this study elucidated the daily information-gathering behavior of residents living in areas affected by two Japanese natural disasters (the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011 and the Kanto-Tohoku Heavy Rainfall Disaster in September 2015) and examined factors affecting life backgrounds and disaster experiences.Methods In June 2017, we administered a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire to 1,065 households in areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Kanto-Tohoku Heavy Rainfall. One person in each household responded to the questionnaire. Of 362 respondents (response rate 34.0%), 336 with definite attributes were analyzed. After ascertaining their daily information-gathering behavior, we applied binary logistic regression analysis, incorporating-as dependent variables-three variables previously used in times of disaster.Results Of the respondents, 179 were men (53.3%); the average age (standard deviation) was 65.5 (10.6) years. Information-gathering modes used by more than half the subjects were "television," "newspaper," "conversation/word of mouth," "radio," and "community magazine" in descending order of use. Examination of the factors of the three variables revealed the following. (1) Four variables were significantly and positively correlated with "conversation/word of mouth": "woman" (1.82 odds ratio [OR]; 1.05-3.15 95% confidence interval [CI]); "I have" a co-resident family member (OR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.06-5.72); "I can expect" mutual aid from community residents (OR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.27-4.21); and "I feel more" fear of typhoons and heavy rains now than before (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.04-3.18). (2) "Radio" has two variables with significant and positive correlations: "I have" a co-resident family member (OR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.35-7.67) and "I was affected" by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Kanto-Tohoku Heavy Rainfall Disaster (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.01.2.97). (3) Two variables are significantly correlated with "Internet service": "Age" has a negative correlation (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.88-0.94); "I can expect" mutual aid from community residents has a positive correlation (OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.19-5.93).Conclusion Damage and fear instilled by natural disasters influence subsequent information-gathering behavior. Disaster prevention literacy in ordinary times can be improved because of the correlation between awareness of mutual aid in local communities and information-gathering behavior.


Subject(s)
Disaster Planning , Disaster Victims/psychology , Earthquakes , Floods , Information Literacy , Information Seeking Behavior , Rain , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
6.
Australas Psychiatry ; 28(6): 636-638, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683892

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: If the narrative of "coronavirus" has an underlying theme, it may perhaps for some be one of survival, whilst for others, the theme might be suffering. The recurring motif of survival has continued throughout history, yet for the first time the sum of all fears has amounted to a run on the bare essentials. This paper seeks to offer an alternative formulation of "panic buying," with references to literature, philosophy, and contemporary neurobiology. CONCLUSION: The bare essentials disappeared perhaps as part of some self-fulfilling prophecy: the supermarkets became bare because others inadvertently lead us to believe they would become bare. The contagion model of emotional propagation provides a psychological model of how "panic buying" by an individual might lead to the replication of panic in an observer. The Polyvagal Theory further informs us of how the threat posed by the pandemic primes our limbic system to perceive danger, and explains how witnessing others engaging in fight-flight responses might evoke a fearful affect in an observer. In the end, it is perhaps through Nietzsche's study of classical tragedy that we may find some meaning to the pandemic, allowing our collective lived experience to serve as a template for growth.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Disaster Victims/psychology , Fear , Neurobiology , Panic , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Survival/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Emotional Adjustment , Humans , Pandemics , Psychological Theory , Psychology, Social , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 625, 2020 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Women, with more vulnerabilities and less access to resources, are often seen as victims of natural disasters. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the experiences of rural women with damages resulting from an earthquake in Iran. METHODS: In this research, a qualitative approach, as well as the conventional content analysis was employed. The study population consisted of rural women residing in the earthquake-stricken areas of Sarpol-e Zahab and Salas-e Babajani counties in Kermanshah Province, Iran. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. Moreover, sampling was purposeful, theoretical saturation was achieved by conducting 22 interviews, and the data analysis process was performed according to the steps proposed by Graneheim and Lundman. For the strength and transferability of the research, Lincoln and Guba's Evaluative Criteria were used. RESULTS: There were seven categories regarding the experiences of rural women after the earthquakes including neglecting the health needs; tension in the family and marital relations; gender inequality in the provision of assistance; feeling insecure; ignoring the ruling culture of the region; concealing needs for fear of stigmatization, and incoherent mourning as well as two categories regarding their reactions to and interaction with the earthquake consequences including positive and negative interactions. CONCLUSIONS: Paying more attention to the needs of rural women, taking the culture governing the village into account at the time of service delivery, and helping them with positive adaptations are some indispensable measures that should be taken.


Subject(s)
Disaster Victims/psychology , Disasters , Earthquakes , Rural Population , Adult , Culture , Female , Gender Identity , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Iran , Marriage/psychology , Qualitative Research , Relief Work/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
8.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229958, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Social support plays an important role in adolescents' mental health and well-being, and even more so for disaster survivors. To measure the level of social support, one needs an appropriate tool to produce valid and reliable results; therefore, we aimed to measure the invariance across gender groups, and analyze the construct validity and reliability of the Indonesian version of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), a social support measurement tool which was theoretically constructed and has been well validated in many countries with various cultures and backgrounds. METHODS: A school-based assessment was conducted in junior and senior high schools in a post-disaster setting in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia. We analyzed 299 adolescent survivors of a volcanic eruption, aged 12~18 years who completed a 12-item Indonesian version of the MSPSS. RESULTS: The factorial validity confirmed the three-factor structure of the scale (Family, Friends, and Significant Others) which met all of the criteria of parameter indices and provided evidence of high internal consistency reliability. The three-level measurement of invariance, which consisted of configural, metric, and scalar invariance, also performed very well across gender groups with our data and corresponded to the recommended parameters. Our composite reliability values were all fine (>0.7) and indicated that the items in the same construct were strongly correlated and reliable. CONCLUSIONS: The Indonesian version of the MSPSS was shown to be a valid, reliable, theoretically constructed, and applicable instrument for adolescent disaster survivors.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Disaster Victims/psychology , Psychometrics , Survivors/psychology , Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Male , Social Support
9.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(7): 765-773, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212778

ABSTRACT

Displacement from one's home after a natural disaster results not only in physical separation from significant others but also in profound disruptions of psychological and social resources such as community support and sense of belonging. Frequent displacement can exacerbate health and mental health problems brought by the disaster, especially among lower-income families in resource-scarce regions. OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the association among frequency of displacement after the disaster, health status, and psychological adjustments among survivors four years after the 2013 Super Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines. METHOD: The study surveyed 345 typhoon survivors using randomized cluster samples in 13 towns in Eastern Philippines and assessed their physical and mental health status. RESULT: Path analysis revealed that, after controlling for age, gender, and traumatic exposure severity, frequency of displacement was a significant predictor for subjective health ratings and stress but not for posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, and anxiety. CONCLUSION: These findings underscore the detrimental impact of long-term displacement on health outcomes following a disaster, especially in countries where public health resources are largely unavailable. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Cyclonic Storms , Depression/epidemiology , Disaster Victims/statistics & numerical data , Health Status , Housing/statistics & numerical data , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/psychology , Disaster Victims/psychology , Emotional Adjustment , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Philippines/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Survivors/psychology
10.
Health (London) ; 24(5): 589-605, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755050

ABSTRACT

This article looks at chronic crisis on an empirical example of radiation embodiment by survivors of a nuclear disaster. Developing further the work of Henrik Vigh, this article argues that chronic crisis is conflictual in nature, where some individuals fully embrace it, while others reject it. A total of 16 in-depth interviews were conducted with survivors of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster from Belarus who were below 18 years in 1986 and born in or after 1986. It is shown that survivors do not consider themselves affected, when they argue against social stigma imposed by others and when development discourse in relation to post-communist health care is used as a background against which nuclear victimhood can be argued. It is also demonstrated that survivors do consider themselves affected, when they embrace disaster temporality and victimhood and argue against narrow scientific definitions of victimhood which downplay a variety of health conditions attributed to the disaster. This article concludes that chronic crisis may not always be transformative, but reproduce the existing inequalities. It contributes to the anthropology of disaster and the anthropology of suffering by bringing together scholarship in feminist theory of disability and critical perspectives on development.


Subject(s)
Chernobyl Nuclear Accident , Disaster Victims/psychology , Radiation Exposure/adverse effects , Survivors/psychology , Adult , Child , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Republic of Belarus , Travel
11.
Span. j. psychol ; 23: e36.1-e36.14, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-200131

ABSTRACT

Acute stress disorder (ASD) refers to the symptoms associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) within the first four weeks following the traumatic event. Recent theoretical models suggest that early detection of ASD provides an opportunity to implement early interventions to prevent the development of PTSD or ameliorate its symptomatology. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the efficacy of an ASD treatment for earthquake victims, which would serve as an early intervention for PTSD. A single-case (n = 1) quasi-experimental design was used, with pre and post-assessments, as well as one, three and six-month follow-ups, with direct treatment replications. Fourteen participants completed the treatment and the follow-up measurements. The results obtained using a single-case analysis showed significant clinical improvement and clinically significant change when employing a clinical significance analysis and the reliable index of change. Statistical analyses of the dataset displayed statistically significant differences between the pre and post-assessments and the follow-up measures, as well as large effect sizes in all clinical measures. These results suggest that the treatment was an efficacious early intervention for PTSD during the months following the traumatic event, although some relevant study limitations are discussed in the text


No disponible


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Disaster Victims/psychology , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/psychology , Crisis Intervention/methods , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Mexico/epidemiology , Earthquakes/statistics & numerical data , Evaluation of Results of Therapeutic Interventions , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
12.
Psychiatriki ; 30(3): 193-203, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685451

ABSTRACT

Electromagnetic radiation influences in many ways humans and animals, while earthquakes are known to be related with electromagnetic phenomena. We recently showed that large earthquakes reduced admissions of psychiatric patients, whereas small earthquakes were associated with increased number of admissions. Our aim was to examine the effect of seismic-related electromagnetic activity on two chronic and severe psychiatric disorders varying in terms of etiology and treatment, i.e. bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Retrospective data concerning monthly admission rates of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder in the Psychiatric Unit of the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece between 2008 and 2010 were analyzed in relation to the number of earthquakes with small (≥2) or larger magnitude in the Crete region in Greece. Results showed a marked reduction of acute admissions during a storm of large earthquakes, which was greater in patients with bipolar disorder (91.2%) than schizophrenia patients (52.4%). In addition there was a significant increase of admissions during a period of frequent small earthquakes, primarily among patients with bipolar disorder. The results suggest that electrostatic fields that accompany large earthquakes may have a protective effect on psychiatric disorders, particularly on bipolar disorder. These findings are consistent with the ameliorating effect of electromagnetic fields used in Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in patients with bipolar disorder. Future studies focusing on the underlying mechanisms may lead to more specific treatments of psychiatric disorders.


Subject(s)
Bipolar Disorder/epidemiology , Disaster Victims/psychology , Earthquakes/statistics & numerical data , Schizophrenia/epidemiology , Electromagnetic Fields , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies
13.
Disasters ; 43(3): 555-574, 2019 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206228

ABSTRACT

This paper reviews the role of news with respect to the mental health of a population exposed to a disaster. It is based on the five essential elements of psychosocial care presented by Stevan E. Hobfoll et al. (2007) that can be introduced after a potentially traumatic event: promoting a sense of safety, calming, self and collective efficacy, connectedness, and hope. This study developed a method to relate these elements to television coverage and applied it to the stories (n=1,169) aired by the main networks in Chile in the 72 hours after an 8.8 magnitude earthquake struck on 27 February 2010. Of the five elements, promoting a sense of safety occurred most often (82.72 per cent), whereas the others were barely present (less than 10 per cent). The study argues that these elements can increase the possibility of framing the news, given that the audience watching can also be affected by a disaster.


Subject(s)
Disaster Victims/psychology , Disasters , Earthquakes , Mass Media , Mental Health , Chile , Humans
14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212766

ABSTRACT

This study investigates the attitudes and behavioural intentions of community crisis response and tourism community participation in tourist destinations after the occurrence of a disaster. Further, we built a conceptual model of perceived community participation benefit, community attachment, community resilience, and crisis response and community participation intention and measured it using 556 samples surveyed after the Wenchuan earthquake, China. The results indicated that benefit perception, community attachment, and community resilience have a positive effect on crisis response and community participation. The study further reveals that the local tourism community gradually transforms the negative aspects of terrible disasters into development opportunities. Our case study particularly focuses on the initiative shown by and positive participation of the tourist community in the aforementioned transformation. The study proposes the Attachment, Benefit, and Capability framework of tourist community participation based on the crisis response perspective and expands the boundaries of tourist community participation research. The study has theoretical and practical significance, puts forward relevant countermeasures, and has significant implications.


Subject(s)
Community Participation/psychology , Community Participation/statistics & numerical data , Disaster Victims/psychology , Disasters , Earthquakes , Travel/psychology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
16.
J Trauma Stress ; 32(2): 186-195, 2019 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932228

ABSTRACT

Although working with trauma survivors can be a source of both deleterious and positive transformations in mental health professionals, little is known about the experience of clinicians in shared traumatic contexts, particularly in the Global South, where most humanitarian crises occur. In collective disasters or armed conflicts, the personal and professional experiences of mental health staff inform each other, situating the clinical space at the intersection between singular and collective spheres. Drawing on an intersubjective and socioecological perspective, this qualitative study explored the ways in which working in a shared traumatic context affected mental health and psychosocial staff in postearthquake Haiti. We interviewed 22 local mental health workers in the capital, Port-au-Prince, 2.5 years after the 2010 disaster. We coded and thematically analyzed interviews using an iterative process, based on grounded theory principles. Thematic analysis uncovered four dynamic poles in clinicians' narratives: balancing duty and desire to help, experiencing fragility and strength, negotiating separation and connection, and sharing hurt and hope. Our findings suggest clinicians considered their work mainly as a source of strength in the face of adversity, whereas experiences of trauma and growth transmissions were mutual and intimately intertwined. We discuss the complexities of clinical work in shared traumatic settings as well as the dynamic interplay between professionals' experiences of suffering and growth. We conclude with recommendations on ways to involve local mental health clinicians in postdisaster contexts while addressing the special needs that they may have to process their own trauma.


Spanish Abstracts by Asociación Chilena de Estrés Traumático (ACET) ¿Regalos Hirientes? trauma y transmisión del crecimiento entre clínicos locales en Haití Post-Terremoto TRAUMA Y TRANSMISIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO EN HAITÍ Aunque trabajar con sobrevivientes a trauma puede ser una fuente de transformaciones deletéreas y positivas en los profesionales de salud mental, se conoce poco acerca de la experiencia de clínicos en contextos traumáticos compartidos, particularmente en el Sur Global, donde ocurre la mayoría de las crisis humanitarias. En desastres colectivos o conflictos armados, las experiencias personales y profesionales del personal de salud mental se influyen mutuamente situando el espacio clínico en la intersección entre las esferas colectiva e individual. Utilizando una perspectiva intersubjetiva y socioecológica, este estudio cualitativo exploró las formas en que el trabajar en un contexto compartido traumático afectó al personal de salud mental y psicosocial (MHPSS, por su sigla en inglés) en Haití post-terremoto. Entrevistamos a 22 trabajadores de salud mental locales en la capital, Puerto Príncipe, 2.5 años después del desastre de 2010. Codificamos y analizamos temáticamente las entrevistas usando un proceso iterativo, basado en teoría fundamentada. Los análisis temáticos descubrieron cuatro polos dinámicos en las narrativas de los clínicos: equilibrando deber y deseo de ayudar, experimentando fragilidad y fuerza, negociando separación y conexión, y compartiendo daño y esperanza. Nuestros hallazgos sugieren que los clínicos consideraban su trabajo principalmente como una fuente de fuerza ante la adversidad, mientras que las experencias de trauma y transmisión de crecimiento fueron mutuos e intimamente entrelazados. Discutimos las complejidades del trabajo clínico en escenarios traumáticos compartidos así como también la interacción dinámica entre las experiencias de sufrimiento y crecimiento de los profesionales. Concluimos con recomendaciones en formas para involucrar a los clínicos de salud mental locales en contextos post-desastre mientras se abordan las necesidades especiales que puedan tener para procesar su propio trauma.


Subject(s)
Earthquakes , Health Personnel/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Adult , Disaster Victims/psychology , Female , Haiti , Humans , Male , Mental Health Services , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research
17.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 13(4): 745-752, 2019 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859933

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The current study compares the measures of sleep quality and intensity of insomnia based on the clustering analysis of variables including dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep, experiential avoidance, personality traits of neuroticism, and complications with emotion regulation among the individuals struck by an earthquake in Kermanshah Province. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional study that was carried out among earthquake victims of Kermanshah Province (western Iran) in 2017. Data were gathered starting 10 days after the earthquake and lasted for 2 weeks; of 1,200 standard questionnaires distributed, 1,001 responses were received, and the analysis was performed using 999 participants. The data analysis was carried out using a cluster analysis (K-mean method). RESULTS: Two clusters were identified, and there is a significant difference between these two clusters in regard to all of the variables. The cluster with higher mean values for the selected variables shows a higher intensity of insomnia and a lower sleep quality. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the current results, it can be concluded that variables of dysfunctional attitudes and beliefs about sleep, experiential avoidance, the personality traits of neuroticism, and complications with emotion regulation are able to identify the clusters where there is a significant difference in regard to sleep quality and the intensity of insomnia. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:745-752).


Subject(s)
Disaster Victims/psychology , Earthquakes/statistics & numerical data , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/classification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cluster Analysis , Cognition , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disaster Victims/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Personality , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
J Korean Med Sci ; 34(4): e29, 2019 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686951

ABSTRACT

To substantiate psychological symptoms following humidifier disinfectant (HD) disasters, counseling records of 26 victims and 92 family members of victims (45 were bereaved) were analyzed retrospectively. Among the victims, 34.6% had Clinical Global Impression-Severity scores of over 4, which meant they were moderately ill. While anxiety/fear and depression with respiratory symptoms were frequently observed in victims and family members, chronic psychological distress such as alcohol/smoking abuse and insomnia was relatively high in bereaved family members. In conclusion, it is important to provide mental health support for victims and their families, focusing on the characteristic symptoms of each group as well as monetary compensation.


Subject(s)
Disaster Victims/psychology , Disinfectants/adverse effects , Family/psychology , Lung Injury/etiology , Stress, Psychological , Adult , Female , Humans , Humidifiers , Lung Injury/psychology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
20.
Nurs Forum ; 54(2): 157-164, 2019 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536416

ABSTRACT

Natural disasters impact people of every age in the communities where they occur, with older adults being a vulnerable subset of the population. Most disaster shelter volunteer nurses are experienced in addressing common health needs of older adult clients such as diabetes, hypertension, and pulmonary disease. These nurses also have the requisite training to respond to more acute medical events, including the symptoms of a heart attack or stroke. They provide care and comfort to those suffering from the distress, anxiety, and fear caused by disasters. However, they may be less adept at triaging and caring for older adults with mental health conditions such as delirium, depression, or dementia. The trauma associated with a disaster and relocation will challenge cognitive abilities in those with dementia, may exacerbate existing depression, or lead to the onset of delirium, which is a medical emergency. Older adults experiencing these conditions are at risk for harm and deterioration with serious short and long-term consequences. Since disaster shelter volunteer health care staff may not be well-versed in distinguishing between dementia, depression, or delirium, behavior observation, and safety considerations are critical determinants of whether it is possible to support the older adult in the shelter environment or it is necessary to transition to a higher level of care.


Subject(s)
Delirium , Dementia , Depression , Disaster Victims/psychology , Emergency Shelter/organization & administration , Relief Work/standards , Aged , Delirium/diagnosis , Delirium/nursing , Delirium/psychology , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/nursing , Dementia/psychology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/nursing , Depression/psychology , Disaster Planning/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Male , Natural Disasters , Relief Work/organization & administration , Risk Factors , Vulnerable Populations/psychology
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